Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Solvent Extracts and Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Seeds of Areca catechu L.

Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Solvent Extracts and Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Seeds of Areca catechu L.

The  present  study  was  carried  out  to  screen  phytochemicals  like  carbohydrates,  terpenoids,  resins, saponins,  tannins  and  alkaloids  in  the  seed  extract  of Areca  catechu by  standard  protocols  and antibacterial activities of seed extract as well as silver nanoparticles prepared from seed extracts. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated in the recent scientific developments throughoutthe  world,  due  to  their  potency  against  several  disease,  minor  side  effects  and  economic  viability. Several compounds widely distributed in plants which have been reported to exert multiple biological effect, including antioxidant, free radical scavenging abilities, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic. Nanoparticles  are  synthesized  using  plant  materials.  The  various  phytochemicals  present  within  the plant  result  in  effective  reduction  of  silver  salts  to  nanoparticles.  The  characterization  of  silver nanoparticles  was  studied  by  using  FTIR,  SEM  and  UV-  Visible  spectrophotometer.  Antibacterial activity  was  conducted  with  aqueous,  methanolic  and  AgNO3 seed  extracts  against  six  bacterial species  viz., Salmonella  typhi,  Klebsiella  pneumoniae,  Staphylococcus  aureus,  Escherichia  coli, Pseudomonas  aeruginosa and  Bacillus  subtilis by  agar  well  diffusion  method.  The  seed  extract showed  positive  results  for  carbohydrate,  proteins,  alkaloids,  glycosides,  terpenoids,  tannins  and saponins.  The  colour  of  the  solution  after  treating  with  AgNO3 was  changed  from  light  brown  to  dark brown  confirmed  the  reduction  of  silver  ion  in  presence  of  seed  extract  and  formation  of  silver nanoparticles.  Maximum  absorption  was  observed  at  400  nm  and  the  size  of  silver  nanoparticles produced  was  oval  in  shape  with  the  diameter  of  553-610  nm. Pseudomonas  aeruginosa  and Salmonella typhi were found to be the good organisms resistant against areca nut seed extracts while others  were  showed  intermediate  effects.  This  study  suggest  that A.  catechu  nut  extract  can  be  a potential  source  for  developing  antibacterial  agents  against  Gram  positive  bacteria  which  are commonly  found  on  human  oral  cavity  and  responsible  for  dental  caries.  This  present  study  also supports  the  use  of  natural  products  for  medication  as  antibacterial  agents  found  in  plant  extract, which  exhibits  antibacterial  activity  to  some  opportunistic  oral  bacteria,  we  have  some  reservations towards the side effects that need to be studied and evaluated more thoroughly. The results highlight the traditional use of “Areca nut” and some scientific validation of the claimed biological antimicrobial activity in vivo.

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