Heterogeneity, Measurement Error and Misallocation: Evidence from African Agriculture
Standard measures of productivity show huge dispersion across farms in Africa. Crop yields and input intensities seem to vary greatly, apparently in conflict with a model of economical allocation across farms. during this paper, we tend to gift a theoretical framework for distinctive between measuring error, unobserved heterogeneousness, and potential misallocation. exploitation made panel information from farms in United Republic of Tanzania and African nation, we tend to estimate our model employing a versatile specification during which we allow many sorts of measuring error and heterogeneousness. we discover that measuring error and heterogeneousness along account for an oversized fraction – the maximum amount as ninety p.c — of the dispersion in measured productivity. In distinction to some previous estimates, we propose that the potential for potency gains through reallocation of land across farms and farmers could also be comparatively modest.
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Promoting “4 Per Thousand” and “Adapting African Agriculture” by south-south cooperation: Conservation agriculture and sustainable intensification
The “4 per Thousand” and “Adapting African Agriculture” are daring and innovative initiatives adopted at COP21 in Paris and COP22 in city, severally. These initiatives are soil-centric and supported adoption of soil-restorative and improved agricultural practices. the target of this text is to debate the deserves and challenges of South–South Cooperation (SSC) in promoting the adoption of best management practices (BMPs) like conservation agriculture (CA) and property intensification (SI). Basic principles of CA are: retention of crop residue mulch, incorporation of canopy crops and complicated rotations, integrated nutrient management and elimination of soil disturbance. The strategy of SI is to provide a lot of from less by enhancing the eco-efficiency, reducing waste, and restoring soil health. Whereas CA has been with success adopted in Brazil, Argentina, Chile and alternative regions of South America, its potential of harnessing agronomical and ecologic advantages has not been completed in geographic area, South Asia, et al. within the international South. The strategy of SSC is pertinent due to the 10 basic principles or tenets: lack of hierarchy, equal participation altogether decision-making processes together with transparency, trust, mutual respect, and responsibility. However, many issues are raised relating to problems like land grab, and access to resources etc. supported the scientific ideas of SI, manufacturing a lot of from less, even a triangular cooperation (TAC) or South-South-North (SSNC) cooperation is developed to realize adaptation and mitigation of global climate change, advance food security, improve degraded soils and restore soil health through soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, and advance property Development Goals (SDGs) of the U.N. A widespread adoption of CA and SI through SSC, TAC or SSNC will advance SDGs together with #1 (end poverty), #2 (eliminate hunger), #6 (clean water), #13 (climate action), and #15 (life on land). Of the worldwide cropland space underneath CA calculable at ∼180 million area unit (Mha) in 2015–16, surface area underneath CA is merely a pair of.7 Mha in Afric
and 13.2 Mha in Asia. SSC, TAC and SSNC will ride the present and on-going initiatives by national and international 
Conservation agriculture and climate resilience
Agricultural productivity growth is significant for economic and food security outcomes that are vulnerable by temperature change. In response, governments and development agencies are encouraging the adoption of ‘climate-smart’ agricultural technologies, like conservation agriculture (CA). However, there’s very little rigorous proof that demonstrates the impact of CA on production or climate resilience, and what proof exists is hampered selectively bias. mistreatment panel knowledge from African country, we have a tendency to take a look at however CA performs throughout extreme rain events – each shortfalls and surpluses. we have a tendency to management for the endogenous adoption call and notice that use of CA in years of average rain leads to no yield gains, and in some cases yield loses. However, CA is effective in mitigating the negative impacts of deviations in rain. we have a tendency to conclude that the lower yields throughout traditional rain seasons is also a proximate think about low uptake of CA. Policy ought to focus promotion of CA on these climate resilience edges.
The potential of indigenous agricultural food production under climate change in Hawaiʻi
The value of land-use methods that increase food production whereas preserving diverseness is well known. several autochthonic agroecosystems are productive, adjustive and ecologically scrupulous, however are mostly unmarked by designing in terms of their potential to satisfy current and future food wants. we tend to developed spacial distribution models of autochthonic agroecosystems in Hawai‘i to spot their potential past distribution, productive and carrying capacities, and future potential beneath current land-use and mild-to-severe future climate situations. Our results recommend that Hawaiʻi’s ancient agroecosystems might have had production levels cherish consumption these days. Carrying capability estimates support hypotheses of enormous pre-colonial Hawaiian populations (>800,000). Urban development has reduced (−13%) ancient agroecosystems however seventy one stay agriculturally zoned. Projected effects of 3 future climate situations vary from no modification in potential production to decreases of nineteenth within the driest and warmest end-of-century situation. This study highlights the food-producing potential of autochthonic agriculture even beneath land-use and climate changes, and therefore the price of their restoration into the longer term.
Influence of Kenyan Youth’s Perception towards Agriculture and Necessary Interventions; a Review
Approximately sixty four of fired persons in Republic of Kenya are youth, most of that board rural areas and lacks formal education and line or skilled skills. In spite of this, youth participation in agriculture has been comparatively low within the country. this could be partially attributed to, among different factors, thepoor perception of the youth on agriculture. Agriculture that is largely a rural-oriented sector remains the backbone of the Kenya’s economy contributory over thirtieth of value. the arena provides over eightieth of employment opportunities within the country however remains unattractive to the youth. this means that the majority of the Kenyan youth don’t seem to be absolutely engaged in productive economic activities that place their dependency index quite high. If the perception of youth towards agriculture isn’t modified, they’re going to stay an enormous burden to the society and to their families particularly. There are varied activities on the agriculture worth chain that the youths will interact in to make sure their self-direction and make employment so reducing youth-related social issues and rising national economic process and self-sufficiency. The paper seeks to research and discuss the influence of Kenyan youth’s perception towards agriculture and needed interventions. This data are going to be helpful in developing policies that may create agriculture enticing to the youth. 
 Gollin, D. and Udry, C., 2019. Heterogeneity, Measurement Error and Misallocation: Evidence from African Agriculture. NBER Working Paper, (w25440). (Web Link)
 Lal, R., 2019. Promoting “4 per thousand” and “adapting African agriculture” by south-south cooperation: conservation agriculture and sustainable intensification. Soil and Tillage Research, 188, pp.27-34. (Web Link)
 Michler, J.D., Baylis, K., Arends-Kuenning, M. and Mazvimavi, K., 2019. Conservation agriculture and climate resilience. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 93, pp.148-169. (Web Link)
 The potential of indigenous agricultural food production under climate change in Hawaiʻi
Natalie Kurashima, Lucas Fortini & Tamara Ticktin
Nature Sustainabilityvolume 2, pages191–199 (2019) (Web Link)
 Njeru, L. K., Gichimu, B. M., Lopokoiyit, M. C. and Mwangi, J. G. (2015) “Influence of Kenyan Youth’s Perception towards Agriculture and Necessary Interventions; a Review”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 5(1), pp. 40-45. doi: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/15178. (Web Link)