News Update on Pepper Production Research: May – 2019

News Update on Pepper Production Research: May – 2019

News Update on Pepper Production Research: May – 2019

Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on bell pepper production and green peach aphid infestations in New York

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) area unit legendary in numerous cropping systems to extend plant growth and vigor, yet as induce resistance to pathogens and pests. a poster soil modification containing a mix of 2 species of B PGPR (Bacillus subtilis and B amyloliquefaciens) was evaluated for impact on germination and initial growth of bell pepper plants, efficaciousness against the inexperienced peach plant louse, Myzus persicae Sulzer, and yield sweetening. Studies within the greenhouse disclosed that pepper germination rate and dry weight of seedlings mature with or while not B spp. didn’t disagree considerably. within the field, the PGPR didn’t considerably cut back plant louse populations compared to regulate plants, whereas imidacloprid was extremely effective. a rise in yield compared with management plants was discovered within the 2003 season, however not the subsequent 2 seasons. plant louse pressure was high in 2003, and plants mature within the presence of B spp. exhibited substantial tolerance to aphids. That is, there have been considerably higher populations of the inexperienced peach plant louse on each management and PGPR-treated plants compared with imidacloprid-treated plants. However, fruit yield within the B spp. treatment was considerably bigger than yield within the management treatment and almost like yield in insecticide-treated plots. B PGPR can be helpful in an exceedingly M. persicae management program for pepper plants mature in locations with systematically high plant louse pressure. [1]

Pythium spp. Associated with Bell Pepper Production in Florida

Ten species of fungus and a gaggle of isolates that made threadlike sporangia however didn’t form sexual structures (Pythium ‘group F’) were recovered from the basis systems of recent market bell pepper plants big on polyethylene-mulched production systems in FL. Pathogenicity tests exploitation pasteurised field soil inoculated with plagued wheat seed incontestible that P. aphanidermatum, P. myriotylum, P. helicoides, and P. splendens will cause vital plant disease and reductions in root growth of pepper. P. aphanidermatum and P. myriotylum caused the foremost severe plant disease, the best reductions in plant weight, and forty two and sixty two plant mortality, severally. In pathogenicity tests with tomato plants, these four species made similar plant weight losses and malady ratings to those discovered in pepper, however very little or no plant mortality. Low incidences of root tip mortification in pepper plants were discovered with P. arrhenomanes, P. catenulatum, P. graminicola, and P. irregulare, however none of those species caused losses in root weight and solely P. irregulare reduced shoot weight. P. periplocum, P. spinosum, and fungus sp. F settled root tissue of pepper however caused no vital plant disease and didn’t adversely have an effect on growth. Similar trends were discovered with tomato, except that P. arrhenomanes caused restricted root tip mortification while not moving plant growth and P. catenulatum, P. graminicola, P. irregulare, P. spinosum, and fungus sp. F settled a minimum of a number of the plants however didn’t cause root malady. a big interaction between temperature and P. aphanidermatum or P. myriotylum was discovered on pepper transplants. the best reductions in growth occurred at 28°C, whereas plant mortality solely occurred at 34°C. [2]

Organic Pepper Production Systems Using Compost and Cover Crops

In a national survey and thru broad focus teams, organic farmers known gadfly management and soil fertility as their most important vegetable analysis desires. In response, a long- term experiment was established to match pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) growth, productivity, insect populations, harvest cullage and postharvest weight loss below typical and organic management. Treatments from the primary three years (1998 to 2000) consisted of combos of 2 artificial chemical and 3 compost-based certified organic soil amendments. additionally to the compost treatments, effects of a canopy crop of tare (Vicia villosa Roth) and rye (Secale cereale L.) were evaluated within the organic system from 1999 onward. Pepper growth, harvest weight and marketable fruit numbers were similar in typical and organic production systems from 1998 to 2000 once 112 kilo ha−1 N was applied through artificial chemical or compost. Zone-tillage or incorporation of canopy crops before planting resulted in pepper weights such as compost treatments in 1999, however in zone-tilled plots in 2000, pepper growth was considerably reduced. Corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)] larval populations were similar in each systems, with helpful insect populations larger within the organic system in 1999 solely. the amount of culled peppers thanks to insect or sickness harm was similar in typical and organic systems in 1998 and 1999, however larger within the artificial chemical plots in 2000. Postharvest weight loss was similar within the compost (112 kilo ha−1 N) and artificial chemical treatments in 1999 and 2000 once 3 to 9 weeks in 10°C storage. [3]

Foliar application of the leaf-colonizing yeast Pseudozyma churashimaensis elicits systemic defense of pepper against bacterial and viral pathogens

Yeast associates with several plant elements together with the phyllosphere, wherever it’s subject to harsh environmental conditions. Few studies have according on biological management of foliar pathogens by yeast. Here, we tend to recently isolated leaf-colonizing yeasts from leaves of field-grown pepper plants in a very major pepper production space of Republic of Korea. The yeast was isolated mistreatment semi-selective medium supplemented with rifampicin to inhibit microorganism growth and its sickness management capability against Xanthomonas axonopodis infection of pepper plants within the greenhouse was evaluated. Of 838 isolated yeasts, foliar spray of Pseudozyma churashimaensis strain RGJ1 at 108 cfu/mL given vital protection against X. axonopodis and unexpectedly against Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Pepper gentle mottle virus, and Broad bean wilt virus beneath field conditions. Direct antagonism between strain RGJ1 and X. axonopodis wasn’t detected from co-culture assays, suggesting that sickness is suppressed via evoked resistance. further molecular analysis of the evoked resistance marker genes pepper annuum Pathogenesis-Related (CaPR) four and CaPR5 indicated that strain RGJ1 elicited plant defense priming. To our data, this study is that the initial report of plant protection against microorganism and infectious agent pathogens mediate by a leaf-colonizing yeast and has potential for effective sickness management within the field. [4]

Assessment of Pepper Production and Socio Economics of Pepper Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

This study is targeted pepper production and socio-economics of pepper producers in Delta State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was accustomed choose fifty farmers out of the population of pepper farmers. Structured form was accustomed collect the relevant info. information collected were analysed with facilitate of descriptive statistics and margin of profit analysis. The results of the study unconcealed that a quarter mile of the pepper farmers fall among the age of 40-49 years and fifty four had no formal education. The menage size ranged from 6-10 persons, whereas regarding seventy two of pepper farmers don’t belong to any cooperative society. The pepper producers were largely little scale farmers, and five hundredth of them have a farming expertise of 6-10 years. The result gotten from the margin of profit analysis unconcealed a complete price per acre of ₦61,300 and therefore the returns per acre was ₦95,000. a median sampled farmer had a margin of profit of ₦33,700. the speed of returns one.6 shows that for every1.00 Nigerian monetary unit investment by pepper farmer a profit of ₦1.60 was complete. The study known some constraints of pepper producers to includes, lack of access to credit, value instability, cuss and diseases, lack of irrigation facilities among others. supported the finding, the study recommends that farmers ought to be inspired to make cooperative societies. More so, Delta authorities ought to assist pepper farmers with farm inputs and credit with low rate and organise coaching for pepper farmers on fashionable practices. [5]

Reference

[1] Herman, M.A.B., Nault, B.A. and Smart, C.D., 2008. Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on bell pepper production and green peach aphid infestations in New York. Crop Protection, 27(6), pp.996-1002. (Web Link)

[2] Chellemi, D.O., Mitchell, D.J., Kannwischer-Mitchell, M.E., Rayside, P.A. and Rosskopf, E.N., 2000. Pythium spp. associated with bell pepper production in Florida. Plant disease, 84(12), pp.1271-1274. (Web Link)

[3] Delate, K., Friedrich, H. and Lawson, V., 2003. Organic pepper production systems using compost and cover crops. Biological agriculture & horticulture, 21(2), pp.131-150. (Web Link)

[4] Foliar application of the leaf-colonizing yeast Pseudozyma churashimaensis elicits systemic defense of pepper against bacterial and viral pathogens

Gahyung Lee, Sang-Heon Lee, Kyung Mo Kim & Choong-Min Ryu

Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 39432 (2017) (Web Link)

[5] Dennis, A. and Kentus, T. (2018) “Assessment of Pepper Production and Socio Economics of Pepper Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 28(2), pp. 1-7. doi: 10.9734/AJAEES/2018/44598. (Web Link)

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