Three complementary approaches were used for the assessment of proteomic variations due to genetic transformation. These approaches were gel electrophoresis, Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and amino acids analysis. First we assessed proteomic variations applying gel electrophoresis analysis in two different transformed plants (GM-potato and GM-Tomato) along with their non-transformed counterparts. Further we pursued with our analysis using one of the tested GM-plants (transgenic tomato) and its non-transgenic counterpart applying Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and amino acids analysis.
The results indicated proteomic variations between both transgenic plants (GM-potato and GM-tomato) compared to their non-transgenic counterparts, where the protein patterns separation on the 1D SDS-PAGE were not similar in both cases. Results of the amino acid concentrations of the transformed tomato were also different compared to its non-transgenic counterpart. These detected differences are most likely due to transformation process.
Results also revealed that the efficiency of GC/MS approach to identify a mixture of unknown proteins was limited. GC/MS analysis was only able to identify few number of protein molecules. Therefore, more advanced and specific technologies like LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF-MS are recommended to be employed for the identification of unintended effects due to genetic transformation in plants.
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