Investigating the Incidence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Bacteria in Salad Vegetables in Ondo City, Nigeria

Investigating the Incidence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Bacteria in Salad Vegetables in Ondo City, Nigeria

Concerns about the protection of food, the health of plants and animals, as well as traceability, are more important than food items that are delivered in full. Due to its diverse microbiome, vegetables are considered as the major reservoirs of opportunistic and emerging pathogens and are also highly influenced by biogeographic aspects of farming and food processing practices.

Objective: This study was conducted in Ondo City, Nigeria to establish the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) generating bacteria in salad vegetables. Design of study: experimental design of study with randomized sampling.

Location and Length of the Study: The study was performed at the Wesley University Department of Biological Sciences, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Cucumber, carrot, green pea, green beans, sweet corn and cabbage samples were analyzed using suitable agar medium. Biochemical studies have defined pure isolates, and confirmation has been made by using API 20 E and API 20 NE in compliance with standard procedures. Using the double disk synergy test, screening of ESBLs was carried out. Statistically analyzed data using statistical tools from MedCalc (version 17.2).

Results: Total viable bacterial counts (TVBCs) varied from 1.1 × 103 to 7.1 x 105 cfu/ml; total coliform counts (TCCs) varied from 1.2 x 102 to 3.9 x 103 cfu/ml; total faecal counts (TFCs) varied from 0 to 2.9 ×102 cfu/ml. Statistical variations were found in the mean sampled TVBCs (P < 0.05). There was no statistical significance for the mean TCCs of cabbage, carrot and cucumber; there was no statistical significance for green beans, green peas and sweet corn (P > 0.05). Bacillus cereus, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcesens and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were classified as one hundred and sixty (166) isolates obtained from samples. Of all bacterial species, at least one member, except for S. Saprophyticus, ESBL-produced.

Conclusion: This research revealed that salad vegetables may be a vector for the spread of bacteria generating extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, which translates into a public health hazard across the globe as salads are enjoyed and eaten by all types of people worldwide. Vendors and customers need to be informed about good sanitary practices during the cultivation, show and sale of vegetables, as well as the dangers associated with antibiotic misuse.

Author (s) Details

O. O. Bello
The Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria.

M. O. Oni
Department of Biological Sciences, Adeleke University, Osun State, Nigeria.

J. O. Bello
Department of Psychology, Ashworth College, Norcross, GA, USA.

T. K. Bello
Department of Biological Sciences, Southwestern University, Ogun State, Nigeria.

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