Advanced Study on Geographical Distribution and Incidence of Cassava Bacterial Blight (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in Two Agro-ecological Zones of Côte d’Ivoire

Advanced Study on Geographical Distribution and Incidence of Cassava Bacterial Blight (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in Two Agro-ecological Zones of Côte d’Ivoire

Context and objective: In Côte d’Ivoire, manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the second largest food crop after yam. It is cultivated for its starch-rich fleshy roots and for its mineral-rich leaves (calcium, phosphorus and iron). This crop, however, is subject to various biotic limitations, one of the most formidable of which is the bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. It’s Manihotis. No concrete research on this emerging disease has been performed in Côte d’Ivoire to reduce its effects on the yield of traditional and improved varieties of tuberous roots. The goal of this research is, on the one hand, to study the distribution of bacterial blight and, on the other hand, to evaluate the sensitivity of 8 varieties in two agro-ecological zones of Côte d’Ivoire through an epidemiological study.
Materials and Methods: Survey missions conducted in 2013 and 2014 helped to create a health map of the different cassava production zones, accompanied by an epidemiological analysis of the disease in two cassava production zones (Yamoussoukro and Ferkéssédougou) involving eight cassava varieties, of which four have been improved.
Results: The results showed that bacterial blight with an incidence ranging from 2.17-66.67 percent was observed in all agro-ecological zones . As for the epidemiological research, the two areas of study showed a contrast. In the dry season (December-March), the incidence of the disease was very mild, corresponding to the 7th to 10th months of this report. In addition, the rainy season led to the disease’s extension. The most susceptible to the disease were Diarrassouba and Yacé (traditional varieties), and Bocou 1 (improved variety).
Conclusion: the local Akama and Dankwa varieties were less tolerant of the disease than the better Bocou variety 1. During the rainy season, the most serious bacterial attack occurred and resulted in mortality among the most susceptible varieties. The data suggest an interest in the use of conventional varieties of Akama and Dankwa and improved varieties of Yavo, Bocou 2 and Bocou 3 in the high-pressure areas of cassava bacterial blight. Before it spreads to all cassava cultivation zones in Côte d’Ivoire, a war against this disease must be envisaged.

Author (s) Details

Affery Arthur Martin
Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Department of Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny of Cocody-Abidjan, 22 B.P. 582, 22 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Abo Kouabenan
Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Plant Biology, Department of Training and Research in Agriculture and Animal Resources, Institute National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny, B.P. 1313, Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire.

Tuo Seydou
Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Department of Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny of Cocody-Abidjan, 22 B.P. 582, 22 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Koné Daouda
Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Department of Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny of Cocody-Abidjan, 22 B.P. 582, 22 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

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