Groundwater Salinity

Saline groundwater occurs in the Karha River basin area. Groundwater is one of the major resource for the peoples of River area for domestic and agricultural purpose. The groundwater samples from study area were collected in the period of post-monsoon (POM) and pre-monsoon (PRM) seasons. The various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Electrical conductivity, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), HCO3-, Cl-, and SO42- were determined using standard procedures of APHA. The results of analysis were compared with the drinking water quality standards of Indian Standard Institute (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO). For suitability of groundwater for agricultural purposes, groundwater data was compared with standard parameter of FAO. The average annual values of the electrical conductivity of groundwater ranged from 504 to 8624 μS/cm in the study period. In Karha River basin area the salinity of groundwater was considerable. 24% samples were EC up to 750 μS/cm which is low salinity and suitable for all purposes such as drinking, domestic and agricultural.  In rest of the area 76% groundwater samples showed high to very salinity (EC > 2250 μS/cm). Higher saline water is not suitable for drinking, domestic and agricultural purpose. The soluble sodium percentage values ranged from 7.68 to 92.83%. 18% groundwater samples from the study area showed higher soluble sodium percentage (>60%), indicating, groundwater in the study area was doubtful to unsuitable for irrigation purpose.

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