Characterization of Some Selected Egyptian Cultivars of Spices and Herbs Commonly Exported in Abroad

Characterization of Some Selected Egyptian Cultivars of Spices and Herbs Commonly Exported in Abroad

The present study highlighted some of the chemical, nutritional, microbiological and essential oil characteristics of traditional Egyptian cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and coriander (Coriandum sativum) spice seed cultivars and of whole basil herb (Ocimum basilicum) collected as ready for export from various Egyptian export centres. Cumin and coriander seed spices have already been prepared in dry seed form at the same place of procurement as typically practised in Egypt to prepare dry spices for export abroad. The humidity values observed for dry seeds of cumin (7.4 percent) and coriander (6.4 percent) as well as total acid-insoluble ash and ash (7.7 percent and 0.74 percent in cumin, but 5.3 percent and 0.55 percent in coriander, respectively) were lower than the Egyptian Specification Requirements (ES) and International Standards Organization (ISO) maximum limits for cumin and 0.55 percent Analysis of essential minerals in herbs and seed spices has shown that they are abundant in K, Ca, Na, Fe and Zn. The overall bacterial count was low in the cumin and coriander seeds as well as the whole fresh basil herb. For cumin and coriander seeds, the microbiological load was found to be lower in all tested seed spices and herbs than those suggested by the ES and ISO. Hydro-distilled essential oils (EOs) yields were the largest in cumin seeds (3,762 percent), whereas coriander and basil herbs both had lower numbers (0.285 percent and 0.686 percent , respectively). The content of EOs was found to be higher than the maximum limits for cumin (1.5 percent – 2.5 percent on a dry weight basis), but within the limits for cumin (0.1 percent – 0.5 percent on a dry weight basis) for cumin and coriander seed oils, as shown by the ES and ISO. The presence of 41, 35 and 47 compounds, respectively, was indicated by gas chromatography of extracted EOs from cumin and coriander seeds as well as basil herbs, where cuminaldehyde was the main component in cumin volatiles, but linalool was present in volatiles from both coriander seeds and basil herbs. The results showed that the major compounds in EOs in cumin seeds grown in Egypt are compatible with the findings of various investigators from different parts of the globe. In the EOs of the three tested Egyptian spices and herbs, volatile oil components were categorised into groups based on the relative region ( percent ). The percentage of main and other major components in EOs from cumin and coriander seed cultivars was within the ES and ISO ranges for both cumin seed oils (cuminaldehyde 15% to 46%) and coriander seed oils (linalool between 65 percent – 78 percent ). No Egyptian Specification Specifications have yet been developed for fresh basil herbs and Linalool-chemotype basil oil, but only for methylchavicol-chemotype basil oil.

Author (s) Details

Professor Dr. Ahmad H. El-Ghorab
College of Science, Chemistry Department, JOUF University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia and Department of Chemistry of Flavour and Aroma, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

Prof. Dr. Mustafa M. El-Gharabli
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Moshtohor, Egypt.

Shimaa A. Moawad
Department of Chemistry of Flavour and Aroma, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

Mahmoud Hassan
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Moshtohor, Egypt.

Hassan Nour-Eldin
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Moshtohor, Egypt.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/364

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