Genotype and Deficit Irrigation Effects on Agronomic, Physiologic, Yield and Root Traits of Maize (Zea mays L.) | Chapter 01 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

Genotype and Deficit Irrigation Effects on Agronomic, Physiologic, Yield and Root Traits of Maize (Zea mays L.) | Chapter 01 | Advances in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Vol. 1

The objectives of the present study were: (i) to assess the effects of drought stress at flowering and grain filling and genotype on maize (Zea mays L.) agronomic, physiologic, yield and root traits of maize and (ii) to identify high-yielding drought tolerant genotypes with desirable traits for future use in plant breeding programs. Fifteen commercial hybrids and seven breeding populations were evaluated in the field for two seasons under water stress at flowering (WSF) and grain filling (WSG) compared to well watering (WW). A split plot design with three replications was used. Data analyzed across seasons revealed a significant reduction in grain yield/plant (28.69 and 20.26%), chlorophyll concentration index (30.18 and 44.07%) and 100-kernel weight (6.75 and 12.36%) due to water stress under WSF and WSG, respectively, a significant reduction in ears/plant (11.58%), kernels/row (14.23%), kernels/plant (24.85%), number of whorls occupied with brace roots (9.31%), number of brace roots (18.27%), number of crown roots (11.50%) and root dry weight (28.31%) due to water stress under WSF and in upper stem diameter (18.46%) under WSG, but a significant increase in days to silking (3.50%), anthesis-silking interval (21.17%), barren stalks (26.18%) and crown root length (9.90%) due to water stress under WSF. Moreover, WSG caused significant increases in number of brace roots (10.10%), number of crown roots (14.71%) and root dry weight (11.60%), but caused a significant reduction in branching density of crown roots (10.05%). The best genotypes in grain yield under drought at either flowering or grain filling were characterized by one or more desirable root architecture traits. The cultivars P-3444, Egaseed-77 and SC-128 were considered tolerant to drought at flowering and/or grain filling and would be recommended to future breeding programs to utilize their desirable root traits and grain yield productivity in improving maize drought tolerance.


Author(s) Details
 

Dr. Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

Prof. M. M. Shafik
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

O. A. Elsheikh
Desert Research Center, Matariya, Cairo, Egypt.

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