Trichoderma-fortified compost extracts for the control of choanephora wet rot in okra production

The potential of water extracts produced from rice straw (RST) and empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) composts fortified with Trichoderma harzianum for the control of Choanephora wet rot of okra caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum was studied under field conditions. Disease severity was lowest in plants treated with Trichoderma-fortified RST extracts (9.56%) with a disease index of 1, mancozeb (Dithane M-45® (2 g l−1 of water), Trichoderma-fortified EFB compost extracts, extracts of RST and EFB, and an aqueous suspension of T. harzianum recorded disease severity values of 10.25%, 19.38%, 37.56%, 53.71% and 56.36%, with a disease index of 1, 1, 2, 3 and 3, respectively. There was a reduction of 85.04% in Choanephora wet rot severity on okra treated with Trichoderma-fortified RST extracts during 12 weeks of assessment in the field, which was comparable to the conventional fungicide Dithane M-45®, suggesting that application of extracts produced from well-matured compost fortified with biocontrol agents could be an alternative control strategy. [1]

Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production

Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH3 catalyst, temperature 65 °C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. [2]

Okra production with pine straw mulch

Conventional planted okra in Booneville, Arkansas and Lorman, Mississippi were mulched with loblolly pine straw (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine straw (P. palustris Mill.), respectively, at a rate of 11 t/ha or left bare. At Booneville, plant stand, season yields (18.6 t/ha), pod weight (16.3 g), plant dry weight (2.3 kg), or stem diameter (3.5 cm) were not affected by the loblolly pine mulch. However, mulch application increased pod number (1.22 vs. 1.06×106/ha) and plant height (1.5 vs. 1.6 m), while reducing weed competition (0.05 vs. 0.40 t/ha) and visible plant stress, during periods of soil moisture deficits. Soil temperatures at 5 and 15 cm depth were reduced by mulch until mid-August when plant canopies covered the rows. Seasonal moisture at 30 and 45 cm depths was similar between mulched and bare soils, based upon unreplicated neutron probe measurements. At Lorman, season okra yield (29.8 vs. 24.6 t/ha), number of pods per ha (1.24 vs. 1.07×106) and weed competition were reduced and soil pH lowered 0.56 units by longleaf pine straw mulch. Mulch reduced early season yield at both locations. [3]

Some Okra Production Decisions and Farmers’ Awareness of Meloidogyne species Infection in Two Agro-ecologies, Ghana

A survey was conducted among okra farmers in two agro-ecologies (forest guinea savanna transition and moist semi-deciduous forest) of Ghana between August and December 2014, to assess their production decisions and awareness of the Meloidogyne species infection menace in okra. There were 240 respondents and more males (58%) than females (42%). Thirty nine percent (39%) of the farmers had no formal education and 48% had basic education. Approximately 56% had been cultivating okra for up to 10 years. Sixty four percent (64%) did not treat their okra seeds before sowing. Eighty five percent (85%) cultivated okra on commercial scale level (>3 acres). About 65% practiced sole cropping. Whilst 45, 79, 15 and 47% of the farmers responded positively to the Meloidogyne species infection awareness in okra in the Atwima Nwabiagya, Wenchi, Atebubu Amantin and Kintampo North Districts respectively, none was aware of the infection in the Ejura Sekyedumasi and Offinso North Districts. All, 61, 88, 86, 95 and 72% of the farmers in the Ejura Sekyedumasi, Kintampo North, Atebubu Amantin, Wenchi, Offinso North and Atwima Nwabiagya Districts respectively did not manage the infection. This was first survey study in exploring farmers’ awareness on Meloidogyne species infection in okra. Future studies need to be improved to include the nature of management strategies adopted if any to increase yields and reduce synthetic nematicides usage. [4]

Soil Chemical Properties, Growth Parameters and Yield as Affected by Poultry Manure Tea for Okra Production

A study was conducted in the experimental farm of the Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria to determine the effect of poultry manure tea on soil chemical properties, the vegetative growth and yield of okra.

The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. The treatments consists of 2kg of poultry manure soaked in 50, 75, 100 liters of water and N.P.K 20-10-10 while okra was used as the test crop.

The results showed that the application of 2kg of poultry manure in 100liters of water increased the soil chemical properties significantly while the application of 2kg of poultry manure in 75 liters of water was observed to support more of the vegetative growth of okra as well as the yield of the okra plant. Although, N.P.K 20-10-10 inorganic fertilizer increased the parameters measured, poultry manure tea was significantly better. [5]


[1] Siddiqui, Y., Meon, S., Ismail, M.R. and Ali, A., 2008. Trichoderma-fortified compost extracts for the control of choanephora wet rot in okra production. Crop Protection, 27(3-5), pp.385-390.

[2] Anwar, F., Rashid, U., Ashraf, M. and Nadeem, M., 2010. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production. Applied Energy, 87(3), pp.779-785.

[3] Makus, D.J., Tiwari, S.C., Pearson, H.A., Haywood, J.D. and Tiarks, A.E., 1994. Okra production with pine straw mulch. Agroforestry systems, 27(2), pp.121-127.

[4] Danso, Y. and Kwoseh, C. (2016) “Some Okra Production Decisions and Farmers’ Awareness of Meloidogyne species Infection in Two Agro-ecologies, Ghana”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 11(5), pp. 1-6. doi: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24455.

[5] Ojo, A. O., Sokalu, A. O. and Faramade, A. K. (2014) “Soil Chemical Properties, Growth Parameters and Yield as Affected by Poultry Manure Tea for Okra Production”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 5(1), pp. 104-109. doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/9340.

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