This chapter evaluates different approaches and potential solutions for the seemingly intractable stagnation or decline of a country or region. It focuses on economic development in a resource-based economy that may have structural problems due to a lack of diversification. Infrastructure, strategic debt, and innovation are evaluated, with a goal of developing a balanced approach that strategically leverages existing infrastructure for a diversified economy and sustainable growth for resource-based economies. It includes expanding financing opportunities in these countries with a combination of infrastructure policies and energy technologies and capturing the opportunities using supply chain technologies. The goals are to avoid both “debt traps” and “Dutch Disease” by leveraging existing infrastructure within a plan that incorporates supply chain management the prudent use of available financing and strategic partnership, such as China’s Belt and Road Initiative and Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030. Finally, the chapter contains an analysis of Argentina’s economic problems explains how a current plan to build infrastructure and to develop innovative technology could provide a foundation for renewed economic growth and human capital development.