This entry has three main objectives. The first is to inform the reader about the major Buddhist moral teachings; the second is to offer some preliminary reflections in terms of ethical theory; and the third is to give a brief introduction to contemporary Buddhist activism. 
Mechanisms of Mindfulness: A Buddhist Psychological Model
Several models have explored the possible change mechanisms underlying mindfulness-based interventions from the perspectives of multiple disciplines, including cognitive science, affective neuroscience, clinical psychiatry, and psychology. Together, these models highlight the complexity of the change process underlying these interventions. However, no one model appears to be sufficiently comprehensive in describing the mechanistic details of this change process. 
Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience
The category “experience” has played a cardinal role in modern studies of buddhism. Few scholars seem to question the notion that Buddhist monastic practice, particularly meditation, is intended first and foremost to inculcate specific religious or “mystical” experiences in the minds of practitioners. Accordingly, a wide variety of Buddhist technical terms pertaining to the “stages on the path” are subject to a phenomenological hermeneutic—they are interpreted as if they designated discrete “states of consciousness” experienced by historical individuals in the course of their meditative practice. 
Nine Buddhist Consciousnesses and Four Psychological Forces: A Review
This article reviews the ancient Buddhist doctrine of consciousness and its concordance with the psychological heritage of modern science. Firstly, it introduces the nine consciousnesses of Buddhist philosophy, namely, five sensory consciousnesses, plus Mano, Manas, Alaya, and Amala consciousnesses. Secondly, it summarizes the development of the four psychological forces, i.e., Watson’s behaviorism, Freudian psychoanalysis, Jung’s unconscious, and Grof’s transpersonal psychology. 
Authentic Tibetan Tantric Buddhism and Its Controversial Terma Tradition: A Review
This short commentary reviews, on the one hand, the authentic formation and development of Tibetan Tantric Buddhism, an innovative branch that is featured by the transformation of negative emotions (NEs) to a valuable vehicle to reach the enlightenment of consciousness via achieving three different levels of kayas by experiencing three-stage practices; on the other hand, its problematic Terma tradition that claims to make use of six different ways in the transmissions of Buddhist teachings generation after generation. 
 Keown, D., 2013. Buddhist ethics. International Encyclopedia of Ethics, pp.1-12.
 Grabovac, A.D., Lau, M.A. and Willett, B.R., 2011. Mechanisms of mindfulness: A Buddhist psychological model. Mindfulness, 2(3), pp.154-166.
 Sharf, R., 1995. Buddhist modernism and the rhetoric of meditative experience. Numen, 42(3), pp.228-283.
 Z. G. Ma, J. (2016) “Nine Buddhist Consciousnesses and Four Psychological Forces: A Review”, Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 1(5), pp. 1-15. doi: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/29873.
 Z. G. Ma, J. (2016) “Authentic Tibetan Tantric Buddhism and Its Controversial Terma Tradition: A Review”, Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 1(5), pp. 1-8. doi: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/29736.