A Critical Review of Some Issues and Essential Elements in Constitutional Environmental Rights in an African Context with some Illustrations from South Africa and Swaziland

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Recent studies have shown that it is relatively new to the jurisprudence of constitutional environmental protections and requirements. The goal of this research was to review and synthesise literature with reference to South Africa and Swaziland on the underlying fundamental principles and patterns of constitutional environmental rights in Africa. Three recognised approaches to environmental rights
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In the Republic of South Africa, there are numerous legal instruments that provide guidelines and legislative procedures for processes and issues relevant to marine pollution. The aim of this analysis is to briefly review and synthesise the legislative structure literature. It also becomes unclear from a collection of documents looked at, which one is relevant
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Worldwide, informal settlements are a hot spot for disaster threats. They are distinguished by minimal basic service provision. Usually, informal settlements occupy land perceived to be unsuitable for residential or commercial use. Water is not properly supported as a vital life support resource. Typically, residents rely on contaminated water supplies from hand dug wells. A
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This study calculated and compared seasonal trace element levels (Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, and As), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and suspended particulate matter (PM10) in aerosol particles collected in four major cities (Calabar, Eket, Aba and Port Harcourt) in the Niger delta region between July-September 2005 and January-March
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This paper presents an evaluation of the groundwater quality of industrialised villages in Ranebennurtaluk, Haveri district, Karnataka, India. In order to measure the quality of groundwater for evaluating its fitness for domestic us e, five villages affected by industrialization were chosen for the present analysis. Groundwater is an important source of water for the survival
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The ideas devoted to the project of developing new sensors and new vibrators are created in this chapter and are important for the project to reduce the magnitude of an imminent catastrophic earthquake. A physical and mathematical model of a mercury earthquake precursor sensor prototype is suggested, and the signal obtained by the old sensor
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Erythroferrone (ERFE) is a hormone released in the bone marrow by erythroblasts in response to erythropoietin, which regulates the release of iron accumulation by its action on hepcidin, acting on hepatocytes to suppress hepcidin hormone expression. Erythroferrone is one of the possible therapeutic biomarkers for determining the activity of erythropoiesis in patients with blood disorders
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Context: Diarrhea takes the lives of more children than the combination of malaria, HIV and measles. Corrective steps are suggested for the prompt detection of signs of diarrhoea by caregivers and the timely initiation of oral rehydration therapy using oral rehydration solution (ORS) or sufficient home-accessible fluids. Diarrhea is the world’s second largest cause of
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Purpose: A set of characteristic retina complications that occur in patients with sickle cell haemoglobinopathy is sickle cell retinopathy (SCR). Based on optical coherence tomography results, to identify the type of vitreomacula interface disorders (VID) seen in eyes with proliferative sickle cell retinopathy and to assess their effect on visual acuity. Methods and Patients: It
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With contributions from many personalities, ophthalmology in Nigeria has grown over the decades. The emergence of good care has been influenced by many events and institutions, from the creation of the ECWA Eye Hospital in 1943 as one of the first indigenous dedicated Eye Hospitals, to the establishment of the National Eye Centre and the
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