Background: Cow urine has been extensively used as healing or additive agents in different parts of
Nepal, mainly to treat infections, cuts, burns, etc. Cow urine has been considered as revered and holy
water and used in many rituals and worshipping purposes. Along with therapeutic and rituals
ceremony cow urine is also used in cleansing and disinfecting the houses.
Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the in-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of
cow urine from different geographical region of Nepal.
Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of cow urines was carried out by using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as free radicals. The antibacterial activity of cow urines was tested by the agar
disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (grampositive).
Results: The urine sample from Muktinath (Subalpine region) showed the highest 44.8±0.21%
inhibition against DPPH free radicals. The urine samples from Jajarkot and Marpha (Temperate zone)
showed 39.70±0.43% and 37.30±0.15% inhibition against DPPH free radicals respectively. The urine
samples from Palpa and Shyangja (Subtropical region) showed 30.00±0.24 and 34.4±0.01 percent
inhibition of DPPH radicals. The samples from Butwal and Dhangadhi (Tropical region) showed the
least percentage inhibition of 23.9±0.08 and 21.12±0.1 respectively. Amongst the entire sample, the
subalpine region of cow urine (Muktinath 3710m) made known the highest inhibition zone such as
10.56±0.05mm against S. aureus and 7.46±0.15 against E. coli.
Conclusion: Our study has concluded that cow urines have the antibacterial and antioxidant activities
and vary in potency according to altitudinal and climatic differences. Hence cow urine from the
subalpine zone has better antibacterial and antioxidant activity than that of lower altitudinal climatic
Department of Pharmacy, Crimson College of Technology, Devinagar-13, Butwal, Nepal
Dirgha Raj Joshi
Department of Pharmacy, Crimson College of Technology, Devinagar-13, Butwal, Nepal and College of Pharmacy, Yonsei
University 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21983, Republic of Korea.
Paras Mani Giri
Department of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA.
Rabindra Kumar Rokaya
Department of Pharmacy, Karnali Academy of Health Sciences, Province no. 6, Jumla, Nepal.
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