Environmental contaminants are having a major impact on receiving ecosystems including air, soil and surface water. Wastes resulting from human activities mostly end up in surface water through deposition and indirectly through runoff. Indiscriminate application of pesticides and the remains of empty cans are often improperly discharged. This possess a threat to the aquatic system especially amongst communities close to surface water resources. In Nigeria, the use of 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (an organophosphate insecticide) for the control of insects in household settings, agricultural field practice and in storage facilities abounds. 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate has different trade names depending on the region. This study reviewed the toxicity associated with 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate. The study found that the toxicants induces behavioural and morphological alteration, histopathological, haematological, biochemical, enzymatic, electrolytes and developmental defects and death depending on the concentration and exposure duration. The study also found that insecticides containing 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate is toxic to fish even at low concentrations (0.2 – 2 ppm). Hence, there is the need to exercise caution in the use and disposal of empty cans of 2, 2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate close to surface water.