Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Enugu State, South-East Region of Nigeria

Development of antimicrobial resistance by bacteria is now a worldwide health issue, as infection is one of the leading causes of death in the world today. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobials susceptibility pattern of Methicilin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 3 different hospitals in South-East geopolitical region of Nigeria. The identification and confirmation of the S. aureus were done using selective and differential medium (Mannitol salt agar) for S. aureus and by coagulase/staphylase test using Oxoid® reagents kits (DR0595A). The method used for antibiotics susceptibility pattern of the characterised S. aureus isolates was discs diffusion method, as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), discs containing oxacillin (5 µg/disc), vancomycin (30 µg/disc), cephalexin (30 µg/disc), levofloxacin (5 µg/disc), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/disc), tetracycline (30 µg/disc), cotrimoxazole (25 µg/disc), gentamicin (30 µg/disc), clindamycin (2 µg/disc) and rifampicin (5 µg/disc). MRSA confirmation was done using Oxoid® DR0900 penicillin binding protein (pbp2’) latex agglutination test kits. The results showed that out of 218 characterized clinical isolates, 39 of it were confirmed MRSA with varying percentages of resistance to various antibiotics thus: oxacillin (62.07%), vancomycin (60.35%), cephalexin (55.18%), levofloxacin (56.90%), ciprofloxacin (65.52%), tetracycline (68.97%), cotrimoxazole (67.25%), gentamicin (62.07%), clindamycin (63.79%) and rifampicin (62.07%). The S. aureus are more sensitive to Levofloxacin and less sensitive to tetracycline, clindamycin and rimfapicin. Latex agglutination test confirmed 39 strains of the clinical isolates to be MRSA. The results shows open wound as a source with highest prevalence and sputum with lowest prevalence of the MRSA with no significant change (P > 0.05).

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