Generation and Analysis of Biogas from Some Animal and Vegetable Wastes

The world relies heavily on fossil fuels for both domestic and commercial energy needs but there is an environmental effect of these fossil fuels and as the energy consumption is becoming very significant as there is depletion of the fossil fuels. Research has to be in the development of alternative energy sources. The production of biogas plays an important role in reducing greenhouse gases emissions and facilitates a sustainable development of energy supply. The process of production only uses energy from renewable energy sources. Hence, no net carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere, making it an environmentally benign energy source. One of the alternative sources of energy is bio-energy. The common fuels obtainable from biomass are bio-ethanol and biogas. This study aims at the production of biogas from biologically degradable wastes by the co-digestion system and analysing the percentage composition of CH4 and CO2 in biogas produced. It involves using fruit (peels and seeds of orange, tomato, cucumber) and vegetable (efo shoko-leafy vegetable) wastes mixed with pig manure in an anaerobic digester. Thus giving an alternative energy source and making the environment cleaner by reducing the green energy gases and wastes. The gas content, therefore, is analysed. The composition of CO2 and CH4 content in biogas generated were CO2 28.1% and CH4 68.9%. Biogas-generating technology is a favourable dual-purpose technology at present: the biogas generated can be used to meet energy requirements while the organic residue is a useful fertiliser.

Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis of the fruit waste, vegetable waste and the pig waste were carried out. The proximate analyses were carried out for carbohydrates using Anthrone method, Total Lipids Using Bligh & Dyer Method; Crude Fibre, moisture content, total ash, and crude protein method as described by AOAC (1995); The high content of the methane obtained is a high indication that the waste materials used are a good source of biogas generation and can be used to provide a cleaner environment. Investigation shows that biogas can be successfully produced from co-digestion of manure with fruits and vegetable wastes without any chemical added to the system. The quality of methane composition in biogas and quantity of biogas produced depends on the composition of materials fed to the digester, fat and moisture content is important in methane yield. Through anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes, one can avoid the emission of harmful greenhouse gases and make a positive contribution to a cleaner environment. Production of biogas from fruit and vegetable waste and pig dung is a major step toward harnessing the least utilised renewable energy resource. From this work, methane gas has been produced. The CO2 generated in the mixture can be removed. The methane content is high, no additional energy was used as the microorganisms were used in an anaerobic condition, in the generation of the biogas.

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