Newsletter on Microbiome Research: August-2018

Snake Fungal Disease Alters Skin Microbiome In Eastern Massasaugas

In the 1st study of its kind, researchers characterized the skin microbiome of a population of free-ranging snakes to start to know however the animals’ environmental microbic community might promote unwellness resistance further as however, it should be noncontinuous by infection.

The study, that was recently printed in Scientific Reports, a Nature analysis journal, centered on Japanese massasaugas in Illinois. This species of a vulnerable rattler is very vulnerable to the plant life microorganism Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, that causes snake plant life unwellness (SFD). SFD leads to disfiguring sores on snakeskin, encompasses a high death rate, and poses a big threat to snake populations in North America and Europe. The mechanism by that the microorganism causes unwellness is unknown. [1]

Quantitative Genetics of the Maize Leaf Microbiome

The degree to that the genotype of Associate in Nursing organism will have an effect on the composition of its associated microbic communities (“microbiome”) varies by organism and environs, and in several cases is unknown. we tend to analyze the metabolically active microorganism of maize leaves across three hundred numerous maize lines growing in a very common atmosphere. we tend to performed comprehensive heritability analysis for forty-nine community diversity metrics, 380 microorganism clades, and 9042 foreseen metagenomic functions. we discover that solely some microorganism clades (5) and variety metrics (2) are considerably transmissible, whereas a far larger variety of metabolic functions (200) ar. several of those associations seem to be driven by the Methylobacteria in every sample. [2]

Identification of gut microbiome signatures associated with longevity provides a promising modulation target for healthy aging

The world population is aging, that poses a big burden to the economy and health care system. As folks age, thus do their gut microbiomes. Age-related changes in gut microbiome are rumored, as well as diminished microorganism diversity and accumulated Proteobacteria. Recently, we characterized the gut microbiome of a group of long-living (≥ 90 years old) Chinese people. [3]

The Gut Microbiome in Adult and Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

The importance of gut microbiota in canal (GI) physiology was well represented, however, our ability to review gut microbic ecosystems in their entireness was restricted by culture-based ways before the sequencing revolution. the arrival of high-throughput sequencing opened new avenues, permitting America to review gut microbic communities as associate degree combination, freelance of our ability to culture individual microbes. Early studies centered on an association of changes in gut microbiota with completely different malady states that were necessary to spot a possible role for microbes and generate novel hypotheses. Over the past few years, the sphere has stirred on the far side associations to higher perceive the mechanistic implications of the microbiome within the pathophysiology of complicated diseases. This movement conjointly has resulted during a shift in our focus towards therapeutic ways that place confidence in higher understanding the mediators of gut microbiota-host noise. it’s not shocking the gut microbiome has been concerned in the pathologic process of practical canal disorders (FGIDs) given its role in modulating physiological processes admire immune development, GI motility and secretion, animal tissue barrier integrity, and brain-gut communication. [4]

Effects of Ampicillin on the Gut Microbiome of an Adult Male as Determined by 16S rRNA V4 Metagenomics Sequencing and Greengenes Bioinformatics Suite

Aims: to see the consequences of penicillin on the relative abundance of the gut microbiota exploitation Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) metagenomics platform and to predict metabolic functions with bioinformatics suite.

Methods: the topic World Health Organization has taken no antibiotics for the past six months provided an unclean sample on day zero (pre-antibiotics), day ten (antibiotics) to treat a bitter sore throat and once ninety days (post-antibiotics). DNA was extracted, metagenomics library ready and 16S rRNA V4 region was amplified exploitation custom bar-coded primers before sequencing with IlluminaMiseq program. Sequence reads were analyzed with IlluminaBasespace formula and greengenes bioinformatics suites. A metabolic useful prediction was accomplished exploitation of the biological process Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) formula. [5]

Reference

[1] Snake Fungal Disease Alters Skin Microbiome In Eastern Massasaugas

(web link)

[2] Quantitative Genetics of the Maize Leaf Microbiome

Wallace J, Kremling KA, Kovar LL, Buckler ES. Quantitative Genetics of the Maize Leaf Microbiome. Phytobiomes. 2018 Aug 24(ja). (web link)

[3] Identification of gut microbiome signatures associated with longevity provides a promising modulation target for healthy aging

Kong F, Deng F, Li Y, Zhao J. Identification of gut microbiome signatures associated with longevity provides a promising modulation target for healthy aging. Gut Microbes. 2018 Aug 24:1-6. (web link)

[4] The Gut Microbiome in Adult and Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

Shin A, Preidis GA, Shulman R, Kashyap P. The Gut Microbiome in Adult and Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2018 Aug 25. (web link)

[5] Effects of Ampicillin on the Gut Microbiome of an Adult Male as Determined by 16S rRNA V4 Metagenomics Sequencing and Greengenes Bioinformatics Suite

Kingsley Anukam1,2,3*

1Uzobiogene Genomics, London, ON, Canada.

2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Benin, Nigeria. (web link)