Hepatorenal Protective Effects of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Juice against Nicotine Induced Toxicity in Guinea Pigs
Background: Pomegranate juice possess a marked antioxidant capacity with a high content in tannins, phenols and flavonoids which can directly or indirectly reduce oxidative damage by preventing the excessive generation of free radicals.
Objectives: The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the harmful effects of nicotine induced hepatorenal toxicity in Guinea pigs.
Materials and Methods: In this study, twenty four adult male Guinea pigs were used for this study and divided into four groups. The first group was control group, the 2nd group was administered the pomegranate juice orally, the 3rd was the experimental and received intraperitoneal injection of nicotine (6 mg/kg body weight /day), the 4th one co-administered intraperitoneal injection of nicotine (6 mg/kg body weight /day) and pomegranate juice orally for 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained for assessment of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and γ- glutamyltransferase activities, total proteins, albumin, and globulin concentrations, albumin concentration/globulin concentration (A/G) ratio, urea, uric acid, creatinine, sodium ions, and potassium ions concentrations.
Results: In nicotine treated animals, the serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and γ- glutamyl transferase activities, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and potassium ions concentrations were significantly (p<0.05), increased as compared to the control group. On the other hand, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, sodium ions concentrations, and A/G ratio of nicotine treated Guinea pigs were significantly (p<0.05) decreased as compared to the control Guinea pigs. Co-administration of pomegranate juice significantly improved all biochemical parameters.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that, nicotine had adverse effects on liver and kidney functions parameters in the blood serum. Pomegranate juice administration showed a remarkable amelioration of these abnormalities in nicotine treated male Guinea pigs. It is recommended that the heavy smokers should be advised to take pomegranate juice as a rich source of antioxidant to prevent the hepatorenal toxicity of nicotine. Further studies are necessary to elucidate exact mechanism of hepatorenal protection and potential usefulness of pomegranate juice as a protective agent against nicotine induced hepatorenal toxicity in clinical trials.
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