Crude oil is one of the most important types of fossil fuel in the world. It is an economically important commodity that is massively used in different fields of industrial activities. The poor quality of crude oil is related to high sulfur content, which translates to lower profit margins and negatively impacts air quality standards. Polyaromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) that exist in crude oil require an efficient reduction method to achieve a significant desulfurization level. Recently, biodesulfurization (BDS) is gaining greater attention attributed to its environmentally benign bioprocess; the possible benefits of BDS include lower capital and processing costs. Studies have reported that BDS is urgently needed for the desulfurization of recalcitrant organic sulfur than relative to a traditional approach, hydrodesulfurization (HDS). The establishment of commercial-scale bio-refining technology relies upon achieving major advancement in BDS, which concerning less expensive and sufficient production of highly active and stable biocatalysts. These bacteria can be adapted to intense conditions encountered in petroleum refineries. In this paper, a review on BDS processes for removing recalcitrant thoiphenic components from sour crude oil is conducted, covering the aim of most studies concerning desulfurizing bacteria, which enables deep desulfurization of organosulfur compounds by 4S pathway, maintaining the caloric value of the fuel.
Bushra Esmail Alkhalili
Petroleum Research, Material Directory, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
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