Clinical Effects of Mixed Infection of Trypanosomes and Ancylostoma caninum in Dogs and Treatment with Diminazene and Mebendazole (Nigeria)

Trypanosomos is is one of the major diseases ravaging animals in Nigeria especially within Nsukka area in Enugu State. All species of trypanosomes, with the exception of some strains of T. vivax which produce a hyper acute and acute infection, are characterized by high parasitaemia, pyrexia, severe anaemia and haemorrhages on the mucosal and serosal surfaces. The socio-economic importance of trypanosomosis and ancylostomosis in both humans and animal necessitated the investigation of the clinical signs of single and conjunct infection of both parasites in dogs. Sixteen dogs grouped into 4 of 4 members each were used in the study. GROUP I was uninfected dogs (control), GROUP II was infected  with Ancylostoma  caninum GROUP  III  was  infected  with Trypanosoma  brucei (T.  brucei), GROUP  IV  was  mixed  infections  of Trypanosoma  brucei  and  Ancylostoma  caninum (T.  brucei/A. caninum). Post  acclimatization, Ancylostoma  caninum infection  was  done  on  GPII  and  GPIV.  Two weeks  later Trypanosoma brucei infections was  done  on  GPIII  and superimposed  on  GPIV. Three weeks post trypanosome infection; GPIII and GPIV were treated with 7 mg/kg diminazene aceturate (Veribin®, CEVA Sante Animale- La Ballasteiére 33501 Libourne Cedex, France) x intramuscularly x once. Mebendazole (Vermin®, Janssen-Cilag Ltd 50 -100 Holmers Farm Way, High Wycombe, Bucks, HP12 4EG UK)  at 100 mg x per  os twice daily for 3 days was used only on GPII and GPIV and a repeat treatment given 2 weeks later. Prepatent period of T.  brucei infection was 5.00±1.30 days in single  infection  and  3.00±1.40  days  in  conjunct  infection  of T.  brucei and A.  caninum. Persistent parasitaemia resulted in repeated treatment with diminazene aceturate at 7 mg/kg and mebendazole at  100  mg  twice  daily  for  3  days. The  predominant  signs  revealed  include;  fluctuation  in  weight, lethargy,  vomition,  enlargement  of  popliteal lymphnodes,  pyrexia,  oedema  of  lower  jaw  and  ocular discharges,  enlarged  abdomen,  anaemia,  cornea  opacity  and  slight  emaciation.  The  clinical  signs were  most  severe  in  GPIV  compared  to  GPIII.  The  egg  per  gram  of  faeces  (EPG)  in  GPII  was significantly  higher  than  the  mixed  infection  (GPIV).  Treatment  only  slightly  improved  clinical manifestations. In  conclusion,  most  signs  shown  were  consistent  with  trypanosomosis  in  dogs  except  abdominal enlargement  which  is  a  complication  of A.  caninum.  Clinical  signs  therefore  could  serve  as  a diagnostic tool in the treatment of both conditions in dogs. The severity of the disease conditions was more  in  the  conjunct group  compared  to  the  single  infection.  Treatment  of  the  diseases  with diminazene aceturate and mebendazole caused slight improvement in the clinical condition due to the resistant strain of T. brucei used in the study.

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