Clinical Effects of Mixed Infection of Trypanosomes and Ancylostoma caninum in Dogs and Treatment with Diminazene and Mebendazole (Nigeria)
Trypanosomos is is one of the major diseases ravaging animals in Nigeria especially within Nsukka area in Enugu State. All species of trypanosomes, with the exception of some strains of T. vivax which produce a hyper acute and acute infection, are characterized by high parasitaemia, pyrexia, severe anaemia and haemorrhages on the mucosal and serosal surfaces. The socio-economic importance of trypanosomosis and ancylostomosis in both humans and animal necessitated the investigation of the clinical signs of single and conjunct infection of both parasites in dogs. Sixteen dogs grouped into 4 of 4 members each were used in the study. GROUP I was uninfected dogs (control), GROUP II was infected with Ancylostoma caninum GROUP III was infected with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei), GROUP IV was mixed infections of Trypanosoma brucei and Ancylostoma caninum (T. brucei/A. caninum). Post acclimatization, Ancylostoma caninum infection was done on GPII and GPIV. Two weeks later Trypanosoma brucei infections was done on GPIII and superimposed on GPIV. Three weeks post trypanosome infection; GPIII and GPIV were treated with 7 mg/kg diminazene aceturate (Veribin®, CEVA Sante Animale- La Ballasteiére 33501 Libourne Cedex, France) x intramuscularly x once. Mebendazole (Vermin®, Janssen-Cilag Ltd 50 -100 Holmers Farm Way, High Wycombe, Bucks, HP12 4EG UK) at 100 mg x per os twice daily for 3 days was used only on GPII and GPIV and a repeat treatment given 2 weeks later. Prepatent period of T. brucei infection was 5.00±1.30 days in single infection and 3.00±1.40 days in conjunct infection of T. brucei and A. caninum. Persistent parasitaemia resulted in repeated treatment with diminazene aceturate at 7 mg/kg and mebendazole at 100 mg twice daily for 3 days. The predominant signs revealed include; fluctuation in weight, lethargy, vomition, enlargement of popliteal lymphnodes, pyrexia, oedema of lower jaw and ocular discharges, enlarged abdomen, anaemia, cornea opacity and slight emaciation. The clinical signs were most severe in GPIV compared to GPIII. The egg per gram of faeces (EPG) in GPII was significantly higher than the mixed infection (GPIV). Treatment only slightly improved clinical manifestations. In conclusion, most signs shown were consistent with trypanosomosis in dogs except abdominal enlargement which is a complication of A. caninum. Clinical signs therefore could serve as a diagnostic tool in the treatment of both conditions in dogs. The severity of the disease conditions was more in the conjunct group compared to the single infection. Treatment of the diseases with diminazene aceturate and mebendazole caused slight improvement in the clinical condition due to the resistant strain of T. brucei used in the study.
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