Contribution of Three (3) Medicinal Plants of Senegalese Flora in the Management of Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease is a major public health problem in Africa and many other areas across the world. Many  drugs  that  are  available  for  treating  the  disease  are  insufficiently  effective,  toxic,  or  too expensive. Therefore, there is a pressing need for safe, effective, and inexpensive therapeutic agents from  indigenous  plants  used  in  traditional  medicines.  In  Senegal,  a  lot  of  plants  are  proposed  by traditional healers to manage the sickle cell disease, among them Combretum glutinosum, Leptadenia hastate and Maytenus senegalensis.  These plants were studied in this work. Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of part of these plants were evaluated on SS sickles type to determine their anti-sickling potential. Antiradical properties of methanolic extract of C glutinosum were evaluated using the  DPPH  radical  as  oxidant.  Total  phenolic  content  of  the  methanol  extract  was  determined. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of methanol revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, anthracenics and flavonoids. Results show a good antisickling effect of methanol extracts with a maximum antisickling revers of 72, 80 and 81% for respectively M senegalensis, L hastateand C glutinosumat 10 mg/mL in 120 min incubation while ethyl acetate extract at the same conditions has 62, 66 and 77% of sickling reverse. Arginine used as the positive reference has 67% sickling reverse activity at 120 min of incubation. The measured IC50 were 0.65 and 0.163 for respectively the methanol  extract  and  ascorbic  acid.  Antiradical  powers  0.155  and  0.62  respectively  for  methanol extract and ascorbic acid were calculated from the effective concentrations. The results of this study confirm the traditional use these three plants in the management of sickle cell disease.

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