Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis
Breast cancer is characterized by a distinct metastatic pattern involving the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung and liver. Tumour cell migration and metastasis share many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is critically regulated by chemokines and their receptors. Here we report that the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 are highly expressed in human breast cancer cells, malignant breast tumours and metastases. Their respective ligands CXCL12/SDF-1α and CCL21/6Ckine exhibit peak levels of expression in organs representing the first destinations of breast cancer metastasis. In breast cancer cells, signalling through CXCR4 or CCR7 mediates actin polymerization and pseudopodia formation, and subsequently induces chemotactic and invasive responses. In vivo, neutralizing the interactions of CXCL12/CXCR4 significantly impairs metastasis of breast cancer cells to regional lymph nodes and lung. Malignant melanoma, which has a similar metastatic pattern as breast cancer but also a high incidence of skin metastases, shows high expression levels of CCR10 in addition to CXCR4 and CCR7. Our findings indicate that chemokines and their receptors have a critical role in determining the metastatic destination of tumour cells. 
Breast cancer metastasis: markers and models
Breast cancer starts as a local disease, but it can metastasize to the lymph nodes and distant organs. At primary diagnosis, prognostic markers are used to assess whether the transition to systemic disease is likely to have occurred. The prevailing model of metastasis reflects this view — it suggests that metastatic capacity is a late, acquired event in tumorigenesis. Others have proposed the idea that breast cancer is intrinsically a systemic disease. New molecular technologies, such as DNA microarrays, support the idea that metastatic capacity might be an inherent feature of breast tumours. These data have important implications for prognosis predicition and our understanding of metastasis. 
The pathogenesis of cancer metastasis
Metastases do not result from random survival of cells released from the primary tumour but from the selective growth of specialised subpopulations of highly metastatic cells endowed with specific properties that befit them to complete each step of the metastatic process. 
Small Cell Lung Carcinoma with Overt Cutaneous Metastasis; Unusual Case
Small cell lung carcinoma is a rapidly progressive neuroendocrine tumor having a poor prognosis. It is considered as a systemic disease, because it has diffuse involvement, distant organ metastasis, and regional lymphatic involvement at the time of initial diagnosis. While small cell lung carcinomahas a lot of metastasis to bone, liver, surrenal and other hemithorax in the onset of disease, cutaneous metastasis are rarely seen. Skin metastasis are encountered in lower than 0.5% of the patients with metastatic diseases. In this article, we aimed to present a case of small cell lung carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis which is rarely seen in the literature. 
Hepatic Metastasis in a Nigerian with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer- An Uncommon Presentation: Case Report
The papillary and follicular histological sub-types of thyroid cancer are referred to as differentiated thyroid cancers. When these tumors metastasize, they rarely do so to the liver. Hepatic metastasis is very uncommon in this group of cancers and has only been reported in a handful of cases. We present one such case in a Nigerian patient and note its unique presentation and with it, we highlight the need for careful attention to be paid to clinical and investigation findings when attempts are being made to arrive at a definitive diagnosis in cases of suspected primary liver cell cancers which are common in this part of the world. 
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 Yasar, Z., Tekelıoglu, V., Can, G., Yuce, Y., Ozyalvaclı, G. and Uyeturk, U. (2015) “Small Cell Lung Carcinoma with Overt Cutaneous Metastasis; Unusual Case”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 6(6), pp. 625-629. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/13754.
 Adeleye, O., Oluyemi, A., Habeeb, M., Adeyomoye, A. and AbdulKareem, F. (2015) “Hepatic Metastasis in a Nigerian with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer- An Uncommon Presentation: Case Report”, Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 2(4), pp. 206-209. doi: 10.9734/JCTI/2015/20790.