Latest Research News on Melanoma: Jan – 2020

Latest Research News on Melanoma: Jan – 2020

Latest Research News on Melanoma: Jan – 2020

Influence of sun exposures during childhood and during adulthood on melanoma risk

Sun exposure in both childhood and adult life represents the most environmental risk determinant for cutaneous melanoma. However, little is understood about the joint effects of sun exposure during early and later life on melanoma risk. A case‐control study in Belgium, Germany and France conducted in 1991–1992 suggests that the melanoma risks attached to indicators associated with sun exposure appear to mix their effects in an additive way. We therefore constructed composite indices of sun exposure during childhood and through adulthood, assuming additive combinations of melanoma risk related to each indicator of sun exposure. Logistic regression modeling showed that the melanoma risk related to a given level of sun exposure during adulthood increased with higher sun exposure during childhood, but the rise in risk was above the straightforward addition of melanoma risk related to sun exposure during childhood or adulthood. [1]

Cutaneous melanoma

Episodic exposure of fair-skinned individuals to intense sunlight is assumed to be liable for the steadily increasing melanoma incidence worldwide over recent decades. Rarely, melanoma susceptibility is increased quite tenfold by heritable mutations within the cell cycle regulatory genes CDKN2A and CDK4. Effective treatment requires early diagnosis followed by surgical excision with adequately wide margins. Sentinel lymph gland biopsy provides accurate staging, but no published results are yet available from clinical trials designed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of early complete regional node dissection in those with metastatic disease during a sentinel node. [2]

Cutaneous melanoma.

Between the first 1960s and therefore the late 1980s, the incidence of melanoma increased at a rate of 3-7% per annum in populations of mainly European origin. Corresponding trends were observed in mortality. Higher rates of increase in incidence were observed during a few populations (eg 8.9% per annum in Hawaii whites). With the exception of Japan and possibly Puerto Rico, incidence rates of melanoma have remained stable within the few populations of mainly non-European origin that reliable incidence data were available. A comparison aged specific trends in incidence and mortality in populations of mainly European origin showed two general patterns: endless increase in incidence altogether age groups but moderately or cessation of the previous rising trend in mortality in younger people in additional recent time periods (eg Canada, continental USA, Denmark and therefore the UK) and up to date moderation or cessation of both incidence and mortality trends in younger people (eg New Zealand and, possibly, Hawaii whites). [3]

Metabolic heterogeneity confers differences in melanoma metastatic potential

Metastasis requires cancer cells to undergo metabolic changes that are poorly understood1,2,3. Here we show that metabolic differences among melanoma cells confer differences in metastatic potential as a results of differences within the function of the MCT1 transporter. in vivo isotope tracing analysis in patient-derived xenografts revealed differences in nutrient handling between efficiently and inefficiently metastasizing melanomas, with circulating lactate being a more prominent source of tumour lactate in efficient metastasizers. Efficient metastasizers had higher levels of MCT1, and inhibition of MCT1 reduced lactate uptake. [4]

Mucosal Melanoma of the Sino-nasal Tract – A Rare Case Report

Sino nasal melanoma may be a very aggressive and rare neoplasm of the top and neck region. but 2% of all mucosal melanomas originate from the sino-nasal region demanding a high index of suspicion to diagnose these tumours. The patients developing sino-nasal melanomas are usually in their sixties and seventies. These patients often present in a complicated stage thanks to its nature of rapid progression related to non-specific symptoms. this case report highlights a rare case of melanoma of the sinus , involving orbit during a 56 years old male patient. [5]

Reference

[1] Autier, P. and Doré for Epimel and Eortc Melanoma Cooperative Group, J.F., 1998. Influence of sun exposures during childhood and during adulthood on melanoma risk. International Journal of Cancer, 77(4), (Web Link)

[2] Thompson, J.F., Scolyer, R.A. and Kefford, R.F., 2005. Cutaneous melanoma. The Lancet, 365(9460), (Web Link)

[3] Armstrong, B.K. and Kricker, A., 1994. Cutaneous melanoma. Cancer surveys, 19, (Web Link)

[4] Metabolic heterogeneity confers differences in melanoma metastatic potential
Alpaslan Tasdogan, Brandon Faubert, Vijayashree Ramesh, Jessalyn M. Ubellacker, Bo Shen, Ashley Solmonson, Malea M. Murphy, Zhimin Gu, Wen Gu, Misty Martin, Stacy Y. Kasitinon, Travis Vandergriff, Thomas P. Mathews, Zhiyu Zhao, Dirk Schadendorf, Ralph J. DeBerardinis & Sean J. Morrison
Nature volume 577, (Web Link)

[5] Trivedi, V., Naseera, S., Ghosh, M., Chauhan, R., Muneer, A. and Mandal, K. (2017) “Mucosal Melanoma of the Sino-nasal Tract – A Rare Case Report”, Journal of Cancer and Tumor International, 5(2), (Web Link)

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