Effect of Feeding Practices, Dam Age and Grade on Kenya Alpine Dairy Goat Milk Production in Nyeri Region

Exotic dairy goats have been popular in Kenyan breeding programmes for smallholder production systems, although data on milk output is lacking. Crossbreeding of indigenous goats with exotic dairy types has primarily been used to improve dairy goats, resulting in crossbred populations with varied proportions of exotic genes. A study was conducted to determine the milk yield of dairy goats reared in Nyeri County’s high potential and semi-arid zones. This featured 190 smallholder farmers in Nyeri County who raised Alpine dairy goats and were registered with the Dairy Goat Association of Kenya (DGAK), resulting in a 100% sample of the population under study. The dairy goats’ age, grade, and feeding techniques were all assessed. The appendix grade in Kieni East produced the most milk (2.69 litres per day), while the foundation grade in Mukurweini produced the least (0.98 litres per day). Higher milk production was related to effective feeding methods in Kieni East, a semi-arid location, where 43 percent of farmers employed concentrates during milking and 48 percent supplemented the feed with minerals. In Mukurweini’s high-potential area, none of the farmers took mineral supplements, and only 13% used concentrates during milking. The dam’s age was considered for pedigree grade, and it had a considerable impact on average milk production. The pedigree grade in Kieni East and Mukurweini produced the most at the age of 5.0 to 5.9 years, with 2.84 and 2.96 litres per day, respectively. Poor feeding methods, dam age, and dam grade all had a significant (p0.05) impact on Alpine dairy goat milk output, according to the findings.

Author(s) Details

Mburu Monica
Institute of Food Bioresource Technology, Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Kenya.

Mugendi Beatrice
Institute of Food Bioresource Technology, Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Kenya.

Makhoka Anselimo
Department of Food Science and Technology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya.

Muhoho Simon
Department of Food Science and Technology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya.

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Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Potential of Various Cooking Oils: A Recent Study

The study was based on a comparison of physical and physicochemical features, as well as antioxidant potential, of various cooking oils in order to raise consumer awareness. The nutritional and edible quality of cooking oil is influenced by its chemical and physicochemical composition. The physical, physicochemical, and antioxidant qualities of cooking oils extracted from sunflower, corn, canola, soybean, and rapeseed available for consumers as different commercial brands were acquired from the local market and analysed. On the basis of physical qualities such as aroma, specific gravity (P=.65), and refractive index (P=0.84), all of the selected oils were found to be statistically similar. Except for one brand of each of the sunflower, corn, and canola oils, all of the chosen oils contained vitamin A. The physicochemical parameters and antioxidant capacity of the selected oils and their blends were significantly different (P=.000). Because of their lower acid, peroxide, and saponification values and stronger antioxidant potential in terms of free radical scavenging capability, corn and rapeseed oils were found to be the top quality oils. The findings of the study would be useful to both consumers and researchers in determining which cooking oils are of the highest quality on the market. Due to satisfactory physical, physicochemical, and antioxidant qualities, rapeseed oil and corn oil B1 were found to be the best among the evaluated oils.

Author(s) Details

Haq Nawaz
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Muhammad Aslam Shad
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Saira Hassan
Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Muhibullah Shah
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Haseeba Shahzad
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Raheela Jabeen
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Women University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Aqsa Nawaz
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Zakia Riaz
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Sumaira Jamal
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

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Effect of β-Cyclodextrin on Cholesterol Reduction in Egg and Duck Liver Pâté

Because of its affinity for non-polar molecules like cholesterol, the use of -cyclodextrin (-CD) to lower cholesterol is becoming more common in food research. The goal of this study was to see if -CD could remove cholesterol from natural egg, powdered egg, and duck liver pâté, as well as what effect it had on particular fatty acids. A concentration of 5% -CD was shown to be enough for removing 80.04 4.96–82.12 5.36 percent cholesterol from yolks and powdered eggs, as well as 80.21 5.28 percent cholesterol from duck liver pâté. Centrifugation was used to separate the -CD complexed to cholesterol. Individual fatty acid compositions did not differ significantly (p 0.05) between controls and products treated with 5%-CD. This research can be used to design low-cholesterol functional diets for hypercholesterolemia patients.

Author(s) Details

Leocadio Alonso
Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (CSIC), 33300 Asturias, Spain.

María V. Calvo
Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación (CSIC-UAM), 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Javier Fontecha
Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación (CSIC-UAM), 28049 Madrid, Spain.

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Characterization and Sensory Aspects of “Peulh Type” Fresh Cheese

Calotropine, a vegetable coagulating enzyme derived from Calotropis procera, is a key ingredient in traditional Peulh cheese production. Peulh cheese has sparked a lot of attention among dairy industry players in West Africa. Fresh leaves of this vegetable were employed to coagulate raw milk for the creation of fresh cheese of the Peulh type, which was defined by physicochemical and sensory features, in this study. This typical cheese had a total dry extract of 32.49 percent, a pH of 6.28, a lactic acidity of 0.14 percent, a protein content of 28.30 percent, and a sweet whey with a pH of 5.90, according to the data. On a dry basis, the Peulh cheese producing yield is 55.45 percent. The sensory characteristics revealed that it has a hard texture, is elastic, is not sticky, has a lactic aroma and flavour, and lasts around 15 seconds in the mouth.

Author(s) Details

Ferial Aziza Benyahia-Krid
Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Technology, INATAA, University of Mentouri Brothers of Constantine, Ain El Bey Street, Constantine, 25 000, Algeria.

Ouarda Aissaoui-Zitoun
Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Technology, INATAA, University of Mentouri Brothers of Constantine, Ain El Bey Street, Constantine, 25 000, Algeria.

Halima Boughellout
Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Technology, INATAA, University of Mentouri Brothers of Constantine, Ain El Bey Street, Constantine, 25 000, Algeria.

Faiza Adoui
Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Technology, INATAA, University of Mentouri Brothers of Constantine, Ain El Bey Street, Constantine, 25 000, Algeria.

Amani Harkati
Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Technology, INATAA, University of Mentouri Brothers of Constantine, Ain El Bey Street, Constantine, 25 000, Algeria.

Cocou Rogatien Bakou
Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Technology, INATAA, University of Mentouri Brothers of Constantine, Ain El Bey Street, Constantine, 25 000, Algeria.

Denis Wodo
Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Technology, INATAA, University of Mentouri Brothers of Constantine, Ain El Bey Street, Constantine, 25 000, Algeria.

Mohammed Nassereddine Zidoune
Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Technology, INATAA, University of Mentouri Brothers of Constantine, Ain El Bey Street, Constantine, 25 000, Algeria.

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The Influence of Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum basilicum Extracts on the Antioxidant and Physicochemical Properties of Smoked Beef Stored at Room Temperature

The first paragraph is an introduction. The necessity to investigate natural alternatives with antioxidant potential in meat processing has arisen as a result of the persistent health hazards connected with artificial preservatives. The effect of Ocimum basilicum (OBE) and Gongronema latifolium (GLE) extracts on smoked beef during 9 days of room storage (25°C) was investigated in this study. Antioxidants, which have important attributes in food preservation, are divided into two classes in the food industry: synthetic antioxidants such as nitrite, and natural antioxidants such as plant extracts with antioxidant qualities.

Methodology: Beef samples were made from freshly cut rounds (2 kg each) that were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Nitrite, OBE, GLE, or OBE+GLE. Physicochemical (cooking loss, yield, and colour), sensory characteristics, pH, and lipid oxidation (TBARS) examinations were performed on prepared beef samples. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA with a significance level of 0.05.

Cooking yield and colour did not differ significantly from control samples, however control samples had higher values. Sensory aspects such as flavour, texture, tenderness, and juiciness showed a considerable potential in OBE and GLE inclusions, with panellists scoring the latter as the samples with the highest overall acceptance. During the storage time, all treatments showed a substantial trend in TBARS and pH values, with the highest and lowest values found in the control and OBE treatments, respectively.

Conclusion: GLE-treated beef outperformed the other extract-treated samples throughout the storage duration. Exploring its synergistic effects with other affordable, accessible, and rich bioactive sources will be crucial in the shelf life extension of meat, given the need for natural alternatives to chemical preservatives.

Author(s) Details

Anthony Pius Bassey
Animal Products and Processing Unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Olubunmi Olufemi Olusola
Animal Products and Processing Unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Ayobami Adeshola
Animal Products and Processing Unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Jumoke Folasade Ajibade
Animal Products and Processing Unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

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Investigation of Physico-chemical Properties and Evaluation of the Sensory Attributes of Kithul (Caryota urens) Treacle to Determine the Adulteration

Kithul treacle is a popular traditional sweetener in Sri Lanka, not only because of its delicious taste, but also because of its nutritional worth and health advantages. As a result, Kithul treacle has been tainted by the addition of table sugar, tarnishing its reputation as a low-GI sweetener. Its authenticity has been difficult due to the various types of adulteration and the lack of appropriate analytical procedures to detect adulterations. The goal of this study was to develop adequate analytical methods for detecting table sugar adulteration of Kithul treacle. Pure Kithul treacle was gathered from registered tappers under the Ministry of Export Agriculture in three geographical areas (Matale, Kandy, and Rathnapura), and samples were contaminated with table sugar syrup at various proportions (5 percent , 10 percent , 15 percent , 20 percent , and 25 percent ). For pure Kithul treacle, the samples were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, yielding mean values of pH 5.58, free acidity 0.33, Brix value 69.36, moisture content 23.52 percent, electrical conductivity 474.22, and reducing sugar 68.81. The findings demonstrate that all metrics differ considerably between pure and contaminated Kithul treacle, and that many of the commercial samples taken from local markets in the study area are of good quality and meet national and international standard limits. According to the Codex Standard, treacle should not include more than 0.5 percent acidity and no more than 30% moisture content. All of the samples that were tested met the above-mentioned two criteria. However, several Kithul treacle samples gathered from local marketplaces revealed higher levels of specific characteristics than recommended in physicochemical tests, indicating that certain sellers perform some level of adulteration.

Author(s) Details

J. A. A. C. Wijesinghe
Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura,Gonawila. NWP, KG 60170, Sri Lanka.

R. M. K. G. D. M. Rathnayake
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP), 60170, Sri Lanka.

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Nutritional Content of Vietnamese Edible Bird’s Nest from Selected Regions: A Recent Study

The edible bird’s nest is well-known as a health food and a traditional Chinese remedy. The saliva secretions of the swiftlets, genus Aerodramus, whose habitats include Southeast Asian countries, are used to make edible bird’s nest (EBN). The nutritional makeup of EBN is thought to vary depending on geographical origin, climatic conditions, climates, and dietary availability. The nutritional composition of edible bird’s nest from two different sources in Vietnam is reported in this study: house-farmed bird’s nest (Long An and Kien Giang Provinces) and cave bird’s nest (Khanh Hoa Province).

Methodology: Samples were taken from three separate locations in Vietnam. AOAC Official Method 2001.12 (2005), AOAC Official Method 986.25 (2012), and FAO (1986) were used to determine protein, fat, and carbohydrate levels, respectively. Meanwhile, Shimadzu gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID 2010) was used to analyse amino acids (EZ: faastTM USER’S MANUAL).

Protein (49.43 – 51.17 percent) was discovered to be the most abundant component in these edible bird’s nests, followed by carbohydrate (36.93 – 38.53 percent) and fat (36.93 – 38.53 percent) (0.01 – 0.04 percent ). The house-farmed bird’s nest had fifteen amino acids, seven of which were essential, whereas the cave bird’s nest had seventeen amino acids, eight of which were essential. The principal amino acids discovered in both house-farmed and cave bird’s nests were proline (3.68 – 4.69 percent), aspartic acid (3.58 – 4.52 percent), and serine (3.74 – 4.09 percent), with lysine being the lowest concentration (0.74 – 0.87 percent ). Only the cave bird’s nest contained methionine and 4-hydroxyproline.

Author(s) Details

Than Thi My Linh
Department of Applied Biochemistry, School of Biotechnology, International University-Vietnam National University, Quarter 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Hoang Le Son
Department of Applied Biochemistry, School of Biotechnology, International University-Vietnam National University, Quarter 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Huynh Mai Minh Ai
School of Food technology, Industry University of Ho Chi Minh City, 12 Nguyen Van Bao, Ward 4, Go Vap District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

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Strategic Means to Enhance the Yield of Some Selected Cheese Varieties

Cheese is a ripened, semi-ripened, or unripened dairy product made by coagulating milk with rennet enzyme or acid, then using a starter culture to create acid and flavour. Cheese making entails a number of phases during which some milk solids are certain to be lost at some point, which must be monitored and minimised. The cheese yield is very important to the cheese manufacturers since it affects the cheese manufacturing process and maximises profit. Several factors, both controllable and uncontrollable, influence cheese yield. The recovery of milk fat and casein in the product will be critical to increasing cheese yield. It is easier to improve the yield of soft cheese types than it is to boost the production of hard cheese kinds. Due to the low total solids in the milk at the start, reduced fat cheese production has a low output. As a result, putting a premium on cheese yield increase is critical. In addition to traditional techniques for increasing cheese yield, cheese factories use a variety of strategic methods, including cattle diet manipulation, genetic engineering, additives such as stabilisers and enzymes, high protein food additives such as ultrafiltered retentates and calcium salts, partial homogenization of milk, high pressure processing of milk, and cryogenic processing.

Author(s) Details

A. H. Jana
Department of Dairy Processing and Operations, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand – 388 110, Gujarat, India.

Tejas B. Soni
AmulFed Dairy, Gandhinagar, India.

Hetal Soni
Havmor Ice Cream Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad, India.

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A Review on Trends of Food Supply and Nutrient Intake in the Republic of Korea over the Past 30 Years

The goal of this research was to look into food supply and consumption trends in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) over the last 30 years (1980 to 2010). Methods: We used time series data from Korea’s Food Balance Sheets and Statistics Korea’s National Health and Nutrition Survey. For patterns in food supply and demand, regression analysis was used, as well as a t-test for gender differences in nutrient intake.

Results: Per capita yearly supplies of cereals, rice, and starch roots have dropped, whereas meat, fish, and shellfish, eggs, milk, and fats and oils have grown (p 0.05). These changes have had an impact on nutritional intake: rice consumption has decreased to one-third of total energy intake, while lipid-based energy intake has climbed to 20% in the 2000s. The nutrient intake levels are mainly enough to fulfil the necessary consumption, however calcium intake is below the necessary level, and sodium intake is three times higher. These issues affect both men and women, with males consuming more calories and sodium than females (p 0.05).

Conclusion: As a result of these changes in food consumption and supply, both quantity-based food self-sufficiency and nutrient supply self-sufficiency have decreased. As a result, it is recommended that agricultural product supply be steady, and supply quality competitiveness be increased. Also required are methods and initiatives to promote rice consumption, such as encouraging a healthy diet through nutrition education and distributing healthful traditional Korean cuisine. On the consumer side, we should promote healthy diets through nutrition education and disseminate nutritious traditional Korean food to improve awareness of agricultural product consumption in Korea. We believe that by putting forth such efforts and promoting them, it will be feasible to improve food security, retain traditional eating patterns, and safeguard Korean people’s health.

Author(s) Details

Jong-Gyu Kim
Faculty of Food and Health Sciences, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Republic of Korea.

Joong-Soon Kim
Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Republic of Korea.

Jeong-Gyoo Kim
School of Games (Software), Hongik University, Sejong 30016, Republic of Korea.

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Development and Characterization of Cake Prepared With a Mixture of Mangalo Bean and Rice Flours

The goal of this research was to create a cake using a combination of mangalo bean and rice flours. We created and tested four distinct cake formulas with varied percentages of mangalo flour (MF) and rice flour (RF) (0 percent MF + 100 percent RC, 10% MF + 90 percent RF, 20% MF + 80 percent RF, 30% MF + 70 percent RF). Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory evaluations were carried out on a formulation containing 30% mangalo and 70% rice (p0.05). All of the parameters were within the suggested ranges. The cake’s low lipid level, high fibre, iron and zinc content, and gluten-free status are just a few of its advantages. Acceptance was 86 percent, and purchase intention was 52 percent, according to our poll. We may infer that combining mangalo bean and rice flours is nutritious, well-accepted, and has high technical potential. In addition, the formulation under study promotes family farming and the traditional Brazilian diet.

Author(s) Details

Ferlando Lima Santos
Health Sciences Center (CCS), Federal Universityof Recôncavo da Bahia (UFRB), Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil.

Merian Cunha Oliveira
Health Sciences Center (CCS), Federal Universityof Recôncavo da Bahia (UFRB), Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil.

Adriana Santos Nascimento
Health Sciences Center (CCS), Federal Universityof Recôncavo da Bahia (UFRB), Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil.

Karina Zanoti Fonseca
Health Sciences Center (CCS), Federal Universityof Recôncavo da Bahia (UFRB), Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil.

Bruna Aparecida de Souza Machado
National Service of Industrial Training (SENAI, CIMATEC), Salvador, Brazil.

Gustavo Modesto Amorim
Health Sciences Center (CCS), Federal Universityof Recôncavo da Bahia (UFRB), Santo Antônio deJesus, Bahia, Brazil.

Ana Carolina Chagas Portela
Health Sciences Center (CCS), Federal Universityof Recôncavo da Bahia (UFRB), Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil.

Ingrid Lessa Leal
National Service of Industrial Training (SENAI, CIMATEC), Salvador, Brazil.

Wagna Piler Carvalho dos Santos
Bahia Federal Instituteof Education, Science e Technology (IFBA), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

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