Latest News on Poor Farmers : Dec 2020

Global Retail Chains and Poor Farmers: Evidence from Madagascar

Global retail companies (“supermarkets”) have an increasing influence on developing countries, through foreign investments and/or through the imposition of their private standards. The impact on developing countries and poverty is often assessed as negative. In this paper we show the opposite, based on an analysis of primary data collected to measure the impact of supermarkets on small contract farmers in Madagascar, one of the poorest countries in the world. Almost 10,000 farmers in the Highlands of Madagascar produce vegetables for supermarkets in Europe. In this global supply chain, small farmers’ micro-contracts are combined with intensive farm assistance and supervision programs to fulfill complex quality requirements and phyto-sanitary standards of supermarkets. Small farmers that participate in these contracts have higher welfare, more income stability and shorter lean periods. We also find significant effects on improved technology adoption, better resource management and spillovers on the productivity of the staple crop rice. The small but emerging modern retail sector in Madagascar does not (yet) deliver these benefits as they do not (yet) request the same high standards for their supplies. [1]

Agroecology: the science of natural resource management for poor farmers in marginal environments

Throughout the developing world, resource-poor farmers (about 1.4 billion people) located in risk-prone, marginal environments, remain untouched by modern agricultural technology. A new approach to natural resource management must be developed so that new management systems can be tailored and adapted in a site-specific way to highly variable and diverse farm conditions typical of resource-poor farmers. Agroecology provides the scientific basis to address the production by a biodiverse agroecosystem able to sponsor its own functioning. The latest advances in agroecological research are reviewed in order to better define elements of a research agenda in natural resource management that is compatible with the needs and aspirations of peasants. Obviously, a relevant research agenda setting should involve the full participation of farmers with other institutions serving a facilitating role. The implementation of the agenda will also imply major institutional and policy changes. [2]

Agricultural research for resource-poor farmers part II: A parsimonious paradigm

Part I of this paper13 described the Transfer-of-Technology (TOT) model of normal agricultural research and its misfit with the needs of Resource-Poor Farmers (RPFs). Farming Systems Research (FSR) was seen as an adaptation of TOT which retained power and initiative in the hands of scientists. The Farmer-First-and-Last (FFL) approach proposed in this second part of the paper would transfer power and initiative to farmers, especially RPFs. The authors argue that FFL fits the diverse and complex conditions and needs of RPFs better than does TOT, and makes more sparing and cost-effective use of scarce scientists. A parsimonious form of FFL avoids multi-disciplinary teams and much data gathering and analysis by trusting farmers’ knowledge and self-interest, and encouraging and enabling them to identify priorities for research.

Parsimony and replicability come from relying on farmers’ knowledge and abilities and on scientists as facilitators and learners. Widespread adoption of parsimonious FFL entails a turn around in behaviour and attitudes by scientists. Tested methods are needed for training scientists in reversals of attitudes and demeanour; for identifying and working with suitable RPF families; for farmer groups and panels; and for farmer innovator workshops. The International Agricultural Research Centres have some disadvantages in developing and practising parsimonious FFL. The main initiative will probably have to come from courageous and original national scientists and imaginative non-government organisations. Those who break the bounds of normal professionalism by developing parsimonious FFL can expect to be at a cutting edge of agricultural research methodology. [3]

Determinants of Poverty among Groundnut Farming Households in Jigawa State, Nigeria

This research was undertaken to investigate the determinants of poverty among groundnut farming households in Jigawa State. Primary data were obtained through the use of well-structured questionnaire from a sample size of 227 groundnut farming households. The data were analyzed using Foster-Greer-Thorbecke’s (FGT) Weighted Poverty Index and Tobit regression model. The results of the (FGT) Weighted Poverty Index showed that the poverty headcount, poverty gap and poverty severity of poor groundnut farming households were 42%, 46% and 77% respectively using an estimated poverty line of 46,320.53. The factors that significantly influenced the poverty intensity of groundnut farming households in the study area were found to be age of household head which was negative and significant at 10%, marital status of household head was negative and significant at 1%, education was negative and significant at 5% and membership of cooperative was negative and significant at 5% These factors significantly decreased poverty which was in line with apriori expectations while that of farming experience and extension contact were positive and significant at 1% and 5% respectively. Government should improve in the educational opportunities of the farmers which will lead to increased income, there is also need for regular sensitization and increased mobilization of groundnut farming households to join farmers’ cooperative group especially for those who do not belong to any group. [4]

Farmers’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Cocoa Disease and Pest Control Programme (CODAPEC) in Ghana and Its Effects on Poverty Reduction

The study examined the contribution of the Cocoa Disease and Pest Control Programme (CODAPEC), which is a cocoa production-enhancing government policy, to reducing poverty and raising the living standards of cocoa farmers in Ghana. One hundred and fifty (150) cocoa farmers were randomly selected from five communities in the Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai district of the Western Region of Ghana and interviewed using structured questionnaires. Just over half of the farmers (53%) perceived the CODAPEC programme as being effective in controlling pests and diseases, whilst 56.6% felt that their yields and hence livelihoods had improved. In some cases pesticides or fungicides were applied later in the season than recommended and this had a detrimental effect on yields. To determine the level of poverty amongst farmers, annual household consumption expenditure was used as a proxy indicator. The study found that 4.7% of cocoa farmers were extremely poor having a total annual household consumption expenditure of less than GH¢ 623.10 ($310.00) while 8.0% were poor with less than GH¢ 801.62 ($398.81). An amount of money ranging from GH¢ 20.00 ($9.95) to GH¢ 89.04 ($44.29) per annum was needed to lift the 4.7% of cocoa farmers out of extreme poverty, which could be achieved through modest increases in productivity. The study highlighted how agricultural intervention programmes, such as CODAPEC, have the potential to contribute to improved farmer livelihoods. [5]

Reference

[1] Minten, B., Randrianarison, L. and Swinnen, J.F., 2009. Global retail chains and poor farmers: Evidence from Madagascar. World development, 37(11), pp.1728-1741.

[2] Altieri, M.A., 2002. Agroecology: the science of natural resource management for poor farmers in marginal environments. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 93(1-3), pp.1-24.

[3] Chambers, R. and Jiggins, J., 1987. Agricultural research for resource-poor farmers Part II: A parsimonious paradigm. Agricultural Administration and Extension, 27(2), pp.109-128.

[4] KP, D. and GZ, R. (2014) “Determinants of Poverty among Groundnut Farming Households in Jigawa State, Nigeria”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 4(3), pp. 224-230. doi: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/13539.

[5] Kumi, E. and Daymond, A. (2015) “Farmers’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Cocoa Disease and Pest Control Programme (CODAPEC) in Ghana and Its Effects on Poverty Reduction”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 7(5), pp. 257-274. doi: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/16388.

Latest News on Poverty Alleviation : May 2020

Poverty Alleviation and Tropical Forests—What Scope for Synergies?
This paper explores the “state-of-the-art” of the two-way causal links between poverty alleviation and natural tropical forests. Microimpacts of rising poverty can increase or slow forest loss. At the macrolevel, poverty also has an ambiguous effect, but it is probable that higher income stimulates forest loss by raising demand for agricultural land. The second question is what potential forest-led development has to alleviate a country’s poverty, in terms of producer benefits, consumer benefits and economy-wide employment. Natural forests widely serve as “safety nets” for the rural poor, but it proves difficult to raise producer benefits significantly. Urban consumer benefits from forest, an important target for pro-poor agricultural innovation, are limited and seldom favor the poor. Absorption of (poor) unskilled labor is low in forestry, which tends to be capital-intensive. Natural forests may thus lack comparative advantage for poverty alleviation. There are few “win–win” synergies between natural forests and national poverty reduction, which may help to explain why the loss of tropical forests is ongoing. This may have important implications for our understanding of “sustainable forest development” and for the design of both conservation and poverty-alleviation strategies. [1]

Agricultural Productivity Growth and Poverty Alleviation

How important is agricultural growth to poverty reduction? This article first sets out the theoretical reasons for expecting agricultural growth to reduce poverty. Several plausible and strong arguments apply ‐ including the creation of jobs on the land, linkages from farming to the rest of the rural economy, and a decline in the real cost of food for the whole economy ‐ but the degree of impact is in all cases qualified by particular circumstances. Hence, the article deploys a cross‐country estimation of the links between agricultural yield per unit area and measures of poverty. This produces strong confirmation of the hypothesised linkages. It is unlikely that there are many other development interventions capable of reducing the numbers in poverty so effectively. [2]

The composition of growth matters for poverty alleviation

This paper contributes to explain the cross-country heterogeneity of the poverty response to changes in economic growth. It does so by focusing on the structure of output growth itself. The paper presents a two-sector theoretical model that clarifies the mechanism through which the sectoral composition of growth and associated labor intensity can affect workers’ wages and, thus, poverty alleviation. Then, it presents cross-country empirical evidence that analyzes, first, the differential poverty-reducing impact of sectoral growth at various levels of disaggregation, and, second, the role of unskilled labor intensity in such differential impact. The paper finds evidence that not only the size of economic growth but also its composition matters for poverty alleviation, with the largest contributions from unskilled labor-intensive sectors (agriculture, construction, and manufacturing). The results are robust to the influence of outliers, endogeneity concerns, alternative explanations, and various poverty measures. [3]

Farmers’ Participation in Homestead Fish Production: Implications for Poverty Alleviation in Bayelsa and Delta States, Nigeria

The study examined participation of farmers in homestead fish production and its implications for poverty alleviation in Bayelsa and Delta States, Nigeria. Primary data were sourced from one hundred and ninety two (192) respondents, spread across eight local government areas in Bayelsa and Delta States. Data from respondents were analyzed using percentages and means. Multiple regression was used to analyze the hypotheses of the study. Results showed that most (64.6%) of the farmers were part-time fish farmers, majority of the farmers (34.4%) primary occupation was civil service jobs and the mean number of years of being fish farmers was 12 years, indicating that they are experienced in the business. [4]

Profitability Analysis of Timber Trade in Benue State, Nigeria: Implication for Poverty Alleviation

This study analyzed the profitability of timber trade and examined its effects on poverty in Benue State. Multistage sampling technique, purposive sampling at 30% sampling intensity and complete enumeration were applied to determine the study sample. Out of the 23 LGAs of the state, seven (7) LGAs were sampled. Thus, 160, 73 and 13 respondents from timber traders, chainsaw millers, and sawmillers adding up to 246 were randomly selected and interviewed to elicit data. [5]

Reference

[1] Wunder, S., 2001. Poverty alleviation and tropical forests—what scope for synergies?. World development, 29(11), pp.1817-1833.

[2]
Irz, X., Lin, L., Thirtle, C. and Wiggins, S., 2001. Agricultural productivity growth and poverty alleviation. Development policy review, 19(4), pp.449-466.

[3]  Loayza, N.V. and Raddatz, C., 2010. The composition of growth matters for poverty alleviation. Journal of development economics, 93(1), pp.137-151.

[4] Okwuokenye, G.F. and Ikoyo-Eweto, G.O., 2016. Farmers’ participation in homestead fish production: implications for poverty alleviation in Bayelsa and Delta States, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, pp.1-13.

[5]  Sambe, L. N., Tee, N. T. and Dagba, B. I. (2016) “Profitability Analysis of Timber Trade in Benue State, Nigeria: Implication for Poverty Alleviation”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 11(3), pp. 1-10. doi: 10.9734/AJAEES/2016/26123.

Latest Research on Technology Transfer: Feb – 2020

Technology transfer and public policy: a review of research and theory

My purpose is to review, synthesize and criticize the voluminous, multidisciplinary literature on technology transfer. to scale back the literature to manageable proportions, I focus chiefly (not exclusively) on recent literature on domestic technology transfer from universities and government laboratories. I begin by examining a group of fundamental conceptual issues, especially the ways during which the analytical ambiguities surrounding technology transfer concepts affect research and theory. My literature review follows and that i emphasize technology transfer’s impact and effectiveness. I employ a “Contingent Effectiveness Model of Technology Transfer” to arrange the literature. because the model’s name implies, it assumes that technology effectiveness can take a spread of forms. additionally to examining the more traditional effectiveness criteria- those rooted in market impacts- the model considers variety of other effectiveness criteria, including political effectiveness, capacity-building. [1]

Multinational Firms and Technology Transfer

We construct an oligopoly model during which a multinational firm features a superior technology compared to local firms. Workers employed by the multinational acquire knowledge of its superior technology. The multinational may pay a wage premium to stop local firms from hiring its workers and thus gaining access to their knowledge. during this setting, the host government has an incentive to draw in FDI thanks to technology transfer to local firms or the wage premium earned by employees of the multinational firm. However, when FDI is especially attractive to the multinational firm, the host government has an incentive to discourage FDI. [2]

Measurement and evaluation of technology transfer: review of technology transfer mechanisms and indicators

The locus of commercial innovation is shifting toward industrial networks, during which parallel development processes in individual interconnected actors frequently dominate. This development presents new challenges for the measurement and evaluation of technology transfer. during this paper, various technology transfer mechanisms and indicators are classified and discussed. Technology transfer mechanisms and indicators are found to be phase, interface and component dependent. it’s argued that process indicators should be further developed to enrich the image given by traditional input–output indicators of technology transfer. [3]

Technology transfer for adaptation

Technology alone won’t be ready to solve adaptation challenges, but it’s likely to play a crucial role. As a results of the role of technology in adaptation and therefore the importance of international collaboration for global climate change , technology transfer for adaptation may be a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of worldwide Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we discover there’s significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than could be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies instead of earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. [4]

Effectiveness of Agricultural Information and Communication Center in Technology Transfer to the Farmers in Bangladesh

Use of data and Communication Technologies (ICT) in information dissemination in agriculture sector is getting popular day by day especially in technology transfer to the farmers. While various sorts of ICT devices and centers teem in Bangladesh today. The recent innovation of agricultural information delivery developed by the govt initiative started with 20 Agricultural Information and Communication Center (AICC) and planned to extend the numbers to hide most of the Agro-Ecological Regions of the country. In connection to the present issue, this study was undertaken to work out the effectiveness of Agricultural Information and Communication Centers (AICC) in technology transfer to farmers. Besides, important factors were identified those could contribute to farmers’ understanding on effectiveness of AICC. The study was conducted in five sub-districts of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. 100 AICC users were interviewed employing a pre-tested questionnaire to gather the info . Both descriptive and inferential statistics were wont to analyze the collected data. quite one-third (37%) of the farmers perceived that effectiveness of AICC in technology transfer was high while 38% of the farmers perceived as “moderately effective” and 25% perceived as “low effective”. [5]

Reference

[1] Bozeman, B., 2000. Technology transfer and public policy: a review of research and theory. Research policy, (Web Link)

[2] Glass, A.J. and Saggi, K., 2002. Multinational firms and technology transfer. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 104(4), (Web Link)

[3] Autio, E. and Laamanen, T., 1995. Measurement and evaluation of technology transfer: review of technology transfer mechanisms and indicators. International Journal of Technology Management, 10(7-8), (Web Link)

[4] Technology transfer for adaptation
Bonizella Biagini, Laura Kuhl, Kelly Sims Gallagher & Claudia Ortiz
Nature Climate Change volume 4, (Web Link)

[5] Khan, M. S., Rahman, M. H. and Uddin, M. (2017) “Effectiveness of Agricultural Information and Communication Center in Technology Transfer to the Farmers in Bangladesh”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 18(4), (Web Link)

Latest Research on Farm Income: Feb – 2020

Farm Income Variability and the Supply of Off‐Farm Labor

If farmers are risk averse, greater farm income variability should increase off‐farm labor supply. This effect is confirmed for a sample of Kansas farmers. Off‐farm employment of farmers and their spouses is additionally found to be significantly influenced by farm experience, off‐farm work experience, farm size, leverage, efficiency, and farm‐specific education. additionally , farm operators and spouses who receive significant income support through government farm programs are less likely to figure off the farm. this might suggest that policy changes reducing farm income support payments may increase off‐farm employment of farmers and their spouses. [1]

Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria

While the poverty implications of off-farm income are analyzed in several developing countries, much less is understood about the impact of off-farm income on household food security and nutrition. Here, this research gap is addressed by using farm survey data from Nigeria. Econometric analyses are employed to look at the mechanisms through which off-farm income affects household calorie and micronutrient supply, dietary quality, and child anthropometry. we discover that off-farm income features a positive net effect on food security and nutrition. The prevalence of kid stunting, underweight, and wasting is lower in households with off-farm income than in households without. employing a structural model, we also show that off-farm income contributes to higher food production and farm income by easing capital constraints, thus improving household welfare in multiple ways. [2]

Stability of Farm Income and the Role of Nonfarm Income in U.S. Agriculture

This study measures the variability in real net farm income within the U.S. agricultural sector and per farm and determines if variability has diminished over 1933 to 1999. Second, the role of nonfarm income in reducing the variability in total farm household income is examined. Results indicate that the variability in real net farm income within the sector and at the farm level has not diminished which nonfarm income has helped to scale back the variability in total farm household income. [3]

Heat stress increases long-term human migration in rural Pakistan

Human migration due to climate events has recently received significant attention from the tutorial and policy communities 1,2. Quantitative evidence on the connection between individual, permanent migration and natural disasters is restricted 3,4,5,6,7,8,9. A 21-year longitudinal survey conducted in rural Pakistan (1991–2012) provides a singular opportunity to know the connection between weather and long-term migration. We link individual-level information from this survey to satellite-derived measures of climate variability and control for potential confounders employing a multivariate approach. we discover that flooding—a climate shock related to large relief efforts—has modest to insignificant impacts on migration. [4]

Farm and Non-farm Income Diversification in Selected Areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh

Rural income diversification by increasing income and reducing risk of vulnerability help the poor farmers to enhance their standard of living. The study assesses the occupational patterns, sources of income diversification and factors that affect farmer’s decision towards income diversification. The findings are going to be extended to the agricultural farmers to spot their potential socioeconomic indicators that affect their livelihood diversification decision. Two villages of Sunamganj district of Bangladesh was purposively selected for this study. The results of the analyses showed that the utmost farmers (25) were following the crop cultivation + fish catching + non-farm occupational pattern. The Simpson index of diversification (SID) showed that the low, medium and high levels of diversified farmers were about 23 percent, 43 percent, and 13 percent, respectively. [5]

Reference

[1] Mishra, A.K. and Goodwin, B.K., 1997. Farm income variability and the supply of off‐farm labor. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 79(3), (Web Link)

[2] Babatunde, R.O. and Qaim, M., 2010. Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria. Food policy, 35(4), (Web Link)

[3] Mishra, A.K. and Sandretto, C.L., 2002. Stability of farm income and the role of nonfarm income in US agriculture. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 24(1), (Web Link)

[4] Heat stress increases long-term human migration in rural Pakistan
V. Mueller, C. Gray & K. Kosec
Nature Climate Change volume 4, (Web Link)

[5] Sherf-Ul-Alam, M., Ahmed, J., Mannaf, M., Fatema, K. and Mozahid, M. (2017) “Farm and Non-farm Income Diversification in Selected Areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 21(2), (Web Link)

Latest Research News on Self-Help Groups: Jan – 2020

Internet therapy and self-help groups—the pros and cons.

Presents a review of self-help resources and on-line therapy in an attempt to clarify the various problems with concern, and to further understand how the web can ethically be wont to assist treatment of emotional and mental disorders. Protocols and methodologies for analyzing the worth of self-help and therapy on-line are evaluated for the unique ethical dilemmas facing researchers within the field. The psychology of text-based relationships and support groups on-line also are discussed. [1]

Experiential Knowledge: A New Concept for the Analysis of Self-Help Groups

Experiential knowledge (truth supported personal experience with a phenomenon) is introduced as a replacement analytical concept that characterizes self-help groups. The attributes of experiential and professional knowledge are compared. This new concept is beneficial in considering the theoretical and practical issues regarding the connection between self-help groups and professionals. [2]

Psychology and self-help groups: Predictions on a partnership.

Continued growth and increased legitimacy are anticipated for the American self-help group (SHG) phenomenon. Currently estimated at six and 1 / 4 million participants annually, self-help groups will assume a central role within the nation’s psychological state delivery system over subsequent 20 years . the primary a part of this text illuminates the self-help group phenomenon itself. Its scope, characteristics, supporting social climate, and associated research issues are reviewed. The second part may be a futuristic examination of its interface with the newly industrializing world of health care. Massive increases in psychological state services are predicted, especially via the SHG format. Theory development, research sophistication, changing SHG formats, an area publicly policy, and acceptance into graduate curricula also are expected, as are collaborative relationships with a spread of professional disciplines. Psychologists are urged to reinforce the relevance of the profession by taking an early leadership role in these developments. [3]

Effect of behavioral change intervention around new-born care practices among most marginalized women in self-help groups in rural India: analyses of three cross-sectional surveys between 2013 and 2016

Objective: To assess the consequences of new-born care intervention through self-help groups in improving new-born healthcare practices in rural India.

Methods: A quasi-experimental design was wont to evaluate behavioral change intervention integrated in >25,000 microfinance-based self-help groups in rural Bihar. Three rounds of cross-sectional surveys were conducted to know the impact of intervention on new-born healthcare practices by lecture women who delivered a baby within the last 6 months.

Results: Intervention groups showed greater improvement than control groups within the timely initiation of breastfeeding (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 6.3, 95% CI: 2.8, 14.3), exclusive breastfeeding on day 1 (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 1.9, 9.9), initiation of skin-to-skin care (AOR = 1.9, CI: 1.0, 3.8), and delayed bathing (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.4, 5.9) with greater effect of on home deliveries where clinical care is usually absent. [4]

Impact of Self-Help Groups on Empowerment Status of Rural Women in Udaipur District

The study was conducted within the Udaipur district of Rajasthan to understand the extent of empowerment of rural women through self-help groups. a complete of ten groups were selected from Badgaon panchayat samiti. A sample of 130 respondents (100 SHG members and 30 non members) was selected for the study. Questionnaire method was used for collecting the info. The four parameters which are considered to be the size of determining the extent of data are socio-psychological, economic, legal and political issues. The results revealed that medium empowerment status was found altogether four components i.e. socio-psychological, economic, legal and political with mean scores 2.71, 2.60, 2.49 and 2.60. Whereas not one member had medium empowerment in socio-psychological and legal component with mean per cent score 2.56 and 2.34. [5]

Reference

[1] King, S.A. and Moreggi, D., 1998. Internet therapy and self-help groups—the pros and cons. (Web Link)

[2] Borkman, T., 1976. Experiential knowledge: A new concept for the analysis of self-help groups. Social service review, 50(3), (Web Link)

[3] Jacobs, M.K. and Goodman, G., 1989. Psychology and self-help groups: Predictions on a partnership. American Psychologist, 44(3), (Web Link)

[4] Effect of behavioral change intervention around new-born care practices among most marginalized women in self-help groups in rural India: analyses of three cross-sectional surveys between 2013 and 2016
Niranjan Saggurti, Akash Porwal, Yamini Atmavilas, Monika Walia, Rajshree Das & Laili Irani
Journal of Perinatology volume 39, (Web Link)

[5] Kumawat, P. and Bansal, V. (2018) “Impact of Self-Help Groups on Empowerment Status of Rural Women in Udaipur District”, Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 22(1), (Web Link)

Latest Research News on Rice Farmers: Jan – 2020

Profit efficiency among Bangladeshi rice farmers

Production inefficiency is typically analyzed by its three components—technical, allocative, and scale efficiency. during this study, we offer an immediate measure of production efficiency of the Bangladeshi rice farmers employing a stochastic profit frontier and inefficiency effects model. The data, which are for 1996, include seven conventional inputs and a number of other other background factors affecting production of recent or high yielding varieties (HYVs) of rice spread across 21 villages in three agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh. The results show that there are high levels of inefficiency in modern rice cultivation. The mean level of profit efficiency is 77% suggesting that an estimated 23% of the profit is lost thanks to a mixture of technical, allocative and scale inefficiency in modern rice production. The efficiency differences are explained largely by infrastructure, soil fertility, experience, extension services, tenancy and share of non-agricultural income. [1]

Genetic conservation: a role for rice farmers

The genetic resources of rice are well utilized in efforts to unravel today’s food problems. Rice land races, collected over several decades, became ‘parents’ of the high-yielding, pest-resistant and well-adapted varieties which resulted in unprecedented increases in rice yields. the value of rice to many consumers is now approximately half what it had been in 1960 due to these gains in productivity. [2]

Better Technology, Better Plots, or Better Farmers? Identifying Changes in Productivity and Risk among Malagasy Rice Farmers

We introduce a way for correctly attributing observed productivity and risk changes among new production methods, farmers, and plots by controlling for farmer and plot heterogeneity. Results from Madagascar show that the new system of rice intensification (SRI) is indeed a superior technology. Although about half the observed productivity gains appear thanks to farmer characteristics instead of SRI itself, the technology generates the estimated average output gains of quite 84%. The increased estimated yield risk related to SRI would nonetheless make it unattractive to several farmers within the quality range of relative risk aversion. [3]

Probabilistic assessment of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Viet Nam

Chlorpyrifos is that the commonest organophosphate compound registered for agricultural use in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to guage chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam, employing a probabilistic approach. Urine samples on a 24-h basis were collected from farmers before and post application of pesticide. Samples were analysed for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), the main urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, using an enzymatic pre-treatment for extraction and HPLC-MS/MS. Absorbed daily doses (ADD) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were subsequently estimated from the urinary TCP levels. The baseline and post-application exposure levels were evaluated at the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile representing low, medium and high-exposure groups within the population. [4]

An Assessment of the Adoption of Improved Rice Processing Technologies: A Case of Rice Farmers in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

Aim: to determine the adoption of improved rice processing technologies among rice farmers within the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria.

Study Design: Survey research.

Place and Duration of Study: Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria, between June and August, 2016.

Methodology: an easy sampling technique was wont to select 240 rice farmers from four of the six agricultural zones as delineated by the FCT Agricultural Development Project (FCT-ADP) for the study. Descriptive statistics, sigma scoring method and binary logistic model were wont to analyse primary data obtained through questionnaire administration. [5]

Reference

[1] Rahman, S., 2003. Profit efficiency among Bangladeshi rice farmers. Food policy, (Web Link)

[2] Bellon, M.R., Pham, J.L. and Jackson, M.T., 2000. Genetic conservation: a role for rice farmers. In Plant genetic conservation (pp. 263-289). Springer, Dordrecht. (Web Link)

[3] Barrett, C.B., Moser, C.M., McHugh, O.V. and Barison, J., 2004. Better technology, better plots, or better farmers? Identifying changes in productivity and risk among Malagasy rice farmers. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 86(4), (Web Link)

[4] Probabilistic assessment of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Viet Nam
Dung Tri Phung, Des Connell, Greg Miller & Cordia Chu
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology volume 22, (Web Link)

[5] O. Adejoh, S., Madugu, N. and M. Shaibu, U. (2017) “An Assessment of the Adoption of Improved Rice Processing Technologies: A Case of Rice Farmers in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria”, Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, 5(4), (Web Link)