Some Heavy Metals Speciation and Bioavailability in Agricultural Soils Used for Cultivating Various Vegetables

Vegetables grown in polluted soils with unregulated agrochemical applications may contain heavy metals. Because farmers used too many agrochemicals, this could happen in vegetables grown in Bedugul’s agricultural soils. To consider metals transfer to vegetables, a speciation and bioavailability approach had to be studied. The purpose of this research was to determine the speciation and bioavailability of certain heavy metals in agricultural soils in Bedugul, Bali. used to cultivate a wide range of vegetables The sample was subjected to wet digestion and sequential extraction procedures prior to metal detection by AAS. According to the findings, the average amounts of Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Zn in the soils were 38.531, 132.126, 7.689, 15.952, and 147.275 mg/kg, respectively. The highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were found in lettuce-growing soil, Cd and Cr in tomato-growing soil, and Cu in potato-growing soil. Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr speciation were found to be primarily associated with the Fe-Mn oxides fraction, whereas Zn was found to be primarily associated with the EFLE (easily, freely, leachable, and exchangeable) fractions. Cr was the most bioavailable. Cu had the lowest concentration of the metals tested in the soils.

Author(s) Details

Dr. I. Made Siaka
Chemistry Department, Maths and Sciences Faculty, Bukit Campus, Jimbaran-Bali, Indonesia.

Emmy Sahara
Chemistry Department, Maths and Sciences Faculty, Bukit Campus, Jimbaran-Bali, Indonesia.

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Plant Bio-chemicals against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner): A Study in Tomato

The mechanism of host plant resistance in tomato varieties was evaluated and compared to the attack of the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner), in the Solan district, known as the “Tomato Bowl of Himachal Pradesh.” Understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance allows us to predict which pests will be affected by induced responses. Induced response elicitors can be sprayed on crop plants to strengthen the natural defense system against herbivore damage. Three self pollinating indeterminate varieties developed by selection (Solan Lalima, Solan Vajar, and Palam Pink) and four hybrids (Naveen 2000+, Heem Sohna, and Palam Pink) were used in the experiment. Researchers extracted various macro and micronutrients from the foliage of these varieties, as well as estimating the chemical composition of tomato fruits, such as total phenols, titrable acidity, reducing sugars, and total sugars, to compare for different levels of resistance to Helicoverpa armigera. Fruit infestation was found to be inversely related to phenol and sugar content in tomato fruits, as measured by correlation coefficient values (r= -0.895) and (r= -0.650), respectively, indicating that less susceptible varieties were high in phenols and sugars, protecting them from pest attack. Nitrogen (r= 0.660), potassium (r=0.679), magnesium (r=0.698), and iron (r= 0.547) are all related. Phosphorus (r= -0.857) and zinc (r= -0.801) content were found to be positively correlated with percent fruit infestation, whereas manganese (r=0.546) content was found to be negatively correlated with percent fruit infestation. This resistance can be used to create crop cultivars that rapidly produce the inducible response in the face of a mild infestation, and it can be used as an important component of integrated pest management alongside other techniques such as biological, cultural, and chemical control.

Author (s) Details

Priyanka Thakur
Department of Entomology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni – 173230, HP, India.

R. S. Rana
Department of Entomology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni – 173230, HP, India.

K. C. Sharma
Department of Entomology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni – 173230, HP, India.

Nalini Challa
Department of Entomology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni – 173230, HP, India.

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Appropriateness of Sugarcane Out-grower Support Programs: Towards Improving the Yields in Lowveld of Zimbabwe

Background: Sugar demand has fallen precipitously in recent years due to a variety of factors. The impact of the Land Redistribution Program (LRP) on agriculture, price controls, inflationary economic conditions, and aggressive international foreign policies have resulted in years of economic upheaval affecting sugarcane production. The infrastructure, which had advanced to become one of the most sophisticated irrigation systems in the world, is in danger of collapsing. Approximately 872 out-grower farmers, primarily beneficiaries of the Fast Track Land Reform and Redistribution Program, have acquired large tracts of land in the hope of establishing a sugar industry, but the sector’s players face numerous challenges. Objectives: To find solutions to sugar production problems by investigating and evaluating the appropriateness of out-grower support for this purpose. Methods: Out-growers, Land Reform program beneficiaries, and targeted sugar producers were found to be the best source of information on how to revitalize sugar production in Zimbabwe. Probability The out-growers were chosen using a random sampling technique. A list of all the outgrowers was created, and every eighth name was chosen using the Kth term until a sample of 100 was reached. Data was collected from participants using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire contained five-point Likert scale close-ended questions, which were then tested for internal validity and reliability using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient analysis. For relative statistical comparisons between estimates, GraphPad InStat Software (version 5, GraphPad Software, San Diego, California, USA) was used, with P values of 0.05 considered statistically significant. The population age groups of out-grower farmers were mixed, with the majority of them falling between 46 and 55 years old and having 10 to 19 years of experience in the sugarcane farming business. The majority of out-growers were educated to the Ordinary (O) level. Out-growers performing at the ordinary level and above were found to be adhering to standard sugarcane procedures. Despite the fact that the farmers lacked sufficient business management skills, a relatively high proportion of respondents followed standard sugarcane growing procedures. There was a significant difference in output between farmers who had formal sugarcane growing training and those who did not.
Conclusion: The overall business environment for out-grower farmers was hostile, with short loan repayment periods, lower yields per hectare, and low profit margins. Sugarcane out-growers were unwilling to form syndicates to purchase inputs or repair infrastructure. Farmers Instead of limiting out-growers to inputs supplied by the miller, they should be allowed to identify a supplier of inputs and have the financier or miller pay the supplier. When properly managed, the proposal has the potential to reduce debt burdens by allowing growers to actively manage costs. Recommendation: Out-growers should be provided with funding and training to enable them to use resources effectively and generate incomes to support agricultural activities without relying on input support from commercial plantation owners. Out-growers should be encouraged to form partnerships so that they can benefit from lower production costs.

Author (s) Details

Professor Dr. Mavondo Greanious Alfred
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Shirichena Kudakwashe
Faculty of Commerce, Graduate School of Business, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Moyo Obadiah
Office of the Honourable Minister, Ministry of Health and Child Care, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Chikuse Francis Farai
Pathcare Namibia, 155 Nelson Mandela, Eros Windhoek, Namibia.

Mkwanazi Blessing Nkazimulo
Department of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Gwatiringa Calletta
Department of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

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Assessing the Supression on Weeds by Cover Plants in Amazonas, Brazil

Citrus plant productivity has not reached its full potential due to the action of several factors that have a direct impact on agricultural profitability.  Weed interference is one of the most important of these factors because it reduces crop productivity.  The crop’s sustainability is jeopardized by technological limitations and poor orchard management.  Some field studies have been motivated by compaction and erosion to evaluate weed management alternatives in the crop interrow, such as the use of cover plants to minimize losses and more rationally exploit natural resources.  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various cover crops on weed suppression in orchard. The study was carried out in a commercial orange production area in Rio Preto da Eva, AM, Brazil. A randomized block design with six treatments and four replications was used in the experiment. The treatments were control, millet, jack bean, forage turnip, brachiaria, millet + jack bean, and millet + jack bean. Weed density, soil cover percentage, total weed dry matter, total cover plant dry matter, and growth indices were all assessed (leaf area index, leaf area ratio, and specific leaf area). Except for forage turnip, cover plants produced a lot of dry matter and were good at suppressing weed growth. The was presented by Brachiaria and Jack Bean.

Author (s) Details

Leandro Amorim Damasceno
Federal Instituto of Amazonas, Eurinepé, AM, Brazil.

José Eduardo Borges Carvalho
Embrapa Fruticultura e Mandioca, Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil.

Francisco Alisson Xavier
Embrapa Fruticultura e Mandioca, Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil.

Ansselmo Ferreira dos Santos
Federal Instituto of Mato Grosso, Juína, MT, Brazil.

Gerlândio Suassuna Gonçalves
Federal University of Amazonas, Itacoatiara, AM, Brazil.

Alan Ferreira Leite de Lima
Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

Wildson Benedito Mendes Brito
Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

Cláudio Luiz Leone Azevedo
Embrapa Fruticultura e Mandioca, Cruz das Almas, BA, Brazil.

José Ferreira da Silva
Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil.

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Contributions of Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority in Transfer of Agrochemical Technologies to Rice Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

The study looked into the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority’s role in transferring agrochemical technologies to rice farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. This study determined the types of recommended agro-chemicals used in the study area, as well as the reasons why some respondents did not use recommended agro-chemicals. Data was collected using a structured interview schedule from 178 rice farmers who were chosen at random from a list of registered rice farmers with the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority in Kwara state. The information was analyzed using Means, percentages, frequency counts, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation are examples of statistical tools. The recommended agrochemicals transferred to rice farmers were systemic (glyphosate, delsate, forceup), selective (2.4D amine and Orizo plus), non-systemic (paraquate, paraforce, Grammmzone), pre-emergence (Atrazine powder, Atrazine Liquid, Bentazone), fungicides (Blasticdine and Karate), and post-harvest (Blasticdine and Karate) (Lambacynolathin). Farmers avoided using agrochemicals due to a lack of availability, adaptation issues, the dangers associated with agrochemical use, and high prices. The weighted mean of the agricultural show was the highest. It received a weighted mean score (WMS) of 1.22 and was ranked first (1st) as a major source of information by LNRBDA. Under LNRBDA recommendations, the most commonly used agrochemicals among rice farmers were 2,4-D Amine and Orizo Plus. The provision of protective equipment was ranked first as the most important way in which LNRBDA contributed to the transfer of agrochemicals to rice farmers. As a result, the study recommended that the agency make an effort to raise awareness and provide information through LNRBDA activities in the media.

Author (S) Details

Oyetoro John Oyewole

Department of Agricultural Extension& Rural Development, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

Mr. Salihu Abogude Aliyu
Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

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Enrichment of Organic-Inorganic Se and Vitamin E in Quail Products and Their Effects on Performances and Antioxidant Source in Quail Eggs

The goal of this study was to find the best combination of organic selenium, inorganic selenium, and vitamin E for optimal quail production and reproduction, as well as the highest antioxidant level in quail eggs. Seven hundred twenty quails (360 females and 360 males) were used in this study at the age of six weeks. There were nine different treatment diets to choose from: T1 (commercial diet/control), T2 (diet containing 0.46 ppm inorganic Se + 43.50 ppm vitamin E), T3 (diet containing 0.92 ppm inorganic Se + 43.50 ppm vitamin E), T4 (diet containing 0.92 ppm inorganic Se +87.00 ppm vitamin E), T5 (diet containing T6 (diet containing 0.46 ppm organic Se + 43.50 ppm vitamin E), T7 (diet containing 0.92 ppm organic Se + 43.50 ppm vitamin E), and T8 (diet containing 0.92 ppm organic Se 0.92 +87.00 ppm vitamin E). A factorial nested design was used to set up the experiment. Duncan’s test was used to see if there were any significant differences between the treatments. This study found that 0.92 ppm organic selenium + 43.50 ppm vitamin E (T7) provided the highest selenium content in meat, egg albumin, and egg yolk, as well as hatchability. The antioxidants represented by vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase enzyme were significantly higher in quail eggs. were significantly higher in quail fed the other treatment diets.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Syahrir Akil
Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Agribusiness & Food Sciences, Djuanda University, Jl. Tol Ciawi Bogor 16720, Indonesia.

Wiranda Gentini Piliang
Department of Nutrition & Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University , Jl.Agatis Kampus IPB Darmaga, IPB Bogor 16680, Indonesia.

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Sorghum Landraces Phenotypic Diversity in Kenya

Understanding the dynamics of genetic resources and improving and maintaining sorghum
productivity require characterising the available Kenyan sorghum genetic diversity. The aim of this
study was to determine the extent and structure of diversity in Kenyan sorghum landraces. The
diversity of 148 sorghum accessions collected from Kenya’s Western, Turkana, Coast, and Eastern
regions was assessed using phenotypic data. The accessions were phenotyped using qualitative and
quantitative morphological characters. The majority of the accessions were high yielding, as
evidenced by the number of panicle branches (43), the length of the panicle (21 cm), and the grain
weight (1.5 g). As evidenced by the number of leaves and nodes, as well as the average number of days to 50 percent blooming, the majority of the sorghums were late maturing and tall (88 days). Turkana and coast sorghums were identical in maturity, height, and panicle length. Broad-sense heritability was highest for the number of panicle branches (0.957). The majority of the sorghums had a dull green midrib (49.55%), no basal tillers (83%), waxy bloom (39.64%), and produced prop roots (87 percent ). panicles that stand tall In the accessions, peduncles that were loose or semi-loose predominated (69%) and peduncles that were slightly exerted predominated (83%). With only two Eigen values, PCA explained 67 percent of the total variance. The results of phenotypic cluster analysis revealed two major groups, each of which was further subdivided into four subgroups.

Author (s) Details

Rachel K Kisilu
University of Nairobi, Department of Plant Science & Crop Protection, P. O. Box 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya.

Kahiu Ngugi
University of Nairobi, Department of Plant Science & Crop Protection, P. O. Box 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya.

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Relationship between Rainfall Variability and Millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) moench.) Yields in the Sudan Savanna Ecological Zone of Nigeria: A Modelling Approach

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between rainfall variability parameters and millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) moench.) yields in Nigeria’s Sudan Savanna ecological zone. Daily rainfall, millet, and sorghum yield data collected by nearby stations between 1981 and 2010 were used as input in the model. It aims to create a model that can predict millet and sorghum yields based on rainfall data. The following analytical tools were used to develop and test the model’s performance: ogive of cumulative pentad rainfall, product – Stepwise multiple regression analysis, moment correlation coefficient (r), and coefficient of determination (R2). Four yield forecast models were developed as a result of the research: three for millet in Kano, Katsina, and Potiskum, and one for sorghum in Potiskum. Assuming the best-fitted yield forecast models, the model accounted for 61.7 percent of the variation in millet yield related to total yearly rainfall and 68.1 percent of the variation in sorghum yield related to total rainfall in May. The 38.3 percent unaccounted variation in millet yield and 31.9 percent variation in sorghum yield suggest that other factors may influence the yield variability of the two crops.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Haruna Saleh
Department of Geography, Umaru Musa Yar`adua University, Katsina State, Nigeria.

Dr. Tasi’u Yalwa Rilwanu
Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

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A Review of the Literature of African BlackwoodDalbergia melanoxylon, Guill. and Perr

Tanzania’s African Blackwood Conservation Project (ABCP) conducted a literature review on D. Mpingo or melanoxylon (African Blackwood) in the late 1990s (over twenty (20) years ago). Furthermore, it has been nineteen (19) years since the last population study and population density was performed, and seventeen (17) years since the last inventory study was taken. Today, studies on the species’ propagation, tissue culture, population, and harvesting activities have revealed new information. Recent research on this species’ propagation methods has piqued the interest of researchers, who are now hoping to figure out how to save the species from extinction. Because of its low regenerative ability in natural environments, it may be threatened or extinct. It was now appropriate to add new information to the literature of D. melanoxylon from various recent findings spanning approximately thirteen (13) years from the last review of the species’ literature from 2000-2014, which is now twenty (20) years ago. This literature review was written to help researchers who are interested in advanced propagation strategies for this species, such as tissue culture and mycorrhiza association, as well as recent studies on the species. This review has also revealed the species’ threats, recent population status in Tanzania, recently recommended research to be taken into account, ethnobotanical and ecological literatures as previous and early findings were unable to take botanists to the advanced propagation techniques that have recently been reported, and finally Dalbergia melanoxylon biology and silviculture.

Author (s) Details

Washa B. Washa
Biological sciences Department, University of Dar es Salaam – Mkwawa College, P.O. Box. 2513, Iringa Tanzania.

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Assessment of Variation in Agronomical Traits among Herbicide Tolerant M3 and M4 Maize Lines

The goal of this study was to look at agronomical trait variation in 39 herbicide-tolerant M3 and 37 M4 maize lines from March to July 2015 and September 2015 to January 2016. The experiment used a randomised complete block in triplicates. Plant height, ear diameter, hundred seed weight, ear length, grains row-1 and ear-1, total ears plant-1, yield plant-1, ear height, and herbicide tolerance were all collected. The data was examined using Genstat 16th edition at a 5% level of significance. Except for rows ear-1 and total ears plant-1, the results revealed significant (p0.05) differences between M3 and M4. The most productive M3 a Lines 520-58 and 520-38 3 yielded 116.2 g plant-1 and 151.1 g plant-1, respectively, but yielded less than check varieties (165.3 g) and (183.5 g). The most herbicide tolerant M3 and M4 lines were 513-12 and 520-38_3, which took 25 and 28.5 days to die, respectively. Grain yield plant-1 correlated significantly and positively with the majority of traits in M3, whereas it correlated significantly and positively with 100 seed weight, grains row-1, and total ears plant-1 in M4. Furthermore, tolerance days had a negative and highly significant correlation with plant height and ear height. Plant-1 grain yield was negatively and significantly correlated with herbicide tolerance.

Author (s) Details

John K. Kariuki
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Juja, Kenya

Prof. John M. Wesonga
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Juja, Kenya.

Githiri S. Mwangi
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Juja, Kenya.

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