Latest Research on Growth of Rice: October 2021

Effect of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

The response of twelve rice varieties against six salinity levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1) were studied at germination and early seedling stages. Data were analyzed using SAS and means were separated by LSD for final germination percentage (FGP), speed of germination (SG), germination
energy percentage (GE%), plumule and radical length and plumule and radical dry weight. Based on dry matter yield reduction, rice varieties were classified as tolerant (T), moderately tolerant (MT), moderately susceptible (MS) or susceptible (S). Germination was completely arrested at 20 dS m-1 salt concentration. Salinity decreased FGP, SG, GE % and led to reduction in shoot and root length and dry weight in all varieties and the magnitude of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Rice
varieties MR211, IR20, BR40 and MR232 showed greater salt tolerance during germination (germinated at 12 dS m-1 salinity). However, MR211, MR232 and IR20 performed better based on dry matter yield reduction. The result suggested that MR211, MR232 and IR20 might be used for further study of salinity effect on growth processes and physiological consequences at advanced stage of growth, since salt tolerance of a crop at germination and early seedling stage may not correspond to that at advanced stage. [1]

The effect of soil puddling on the soil physical properties and the growth of rice and post-rice crops

Changes in soil physical properties due to traditional methods of puddling for lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) production and post-rice legumes was investigated in field experiments conducted on three sites in Indonesia and two in the Philippines over a 3-year period. Puddling treatments used in the field were, in increasing order of puddling intensity, dry cultivation prior to submergence, one and two plowing and harrowing treatments using a draught animal and associated implements, and two cultivations using a mechanical roto tiller. Rice was followed by mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilzek) on all five sites, and in addition soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) at Ngale and peanut (Aracis hypogaea L.) at Jambegede were also grown. All puddling treatments were followed by post-rice treatments of surface drainage (with and without surface drains) for the Indonesian sites and sowing technique (zero-till-dibble versus plough-broadcast-harrow) for the Philippine sites. Rice yields were highest under the traditional puddling techniques using draught animal traction. Results suggested that puddling with a roto tiller reduced yield because of insufficient depth of puddling, while dry cultivation may have reduced yield due to increased soil strength of the puddled layer; both are thought to limit root development. Puddling had no significant effect on post-rice mungbean and peanut production. However, results showed that increasing puddling intensity tended to reduce soybean yield. Dry cultivation of lighter textured, well drained soils such as at Manaoag, tended to require more intensive weed control in both rice and dryseason crops compared to higher puddled treatments. Weed infestation was thought to be the largest contributing factor for reduced mungbean yield at Manaoag. Increasing soil puddling intensity at Ngale and Jambegede appeared to reduce root growth. Soil water depletion tended to be smaller in the plough layer that was cultivated under wet conditions compared to pre-rice dry land preparation. Soil water extraction was small and root proliferation was upto 40 cm depth under wet conditions where plant water requirements were met from seasonal rainfall. Root proliferation was deeper and soil water use greater under dry climatological conditions. Small amounts of subsoil water use resulted in substantial yield increases ranging from 3–24 kg mm−1 of soil water used, reinforcing the important role of subsoil water storage and use by the dry season crop in this farming system. [2]

Effect of Carbon Nanomaterials on the Germination and Growth of Rice Plants

For the successful diverse applications of different nanomaterials in life sciences, it is necessary to understand the ultimate fate, distribution and potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials. Phytotoxicity studies using higher plants is an important criterion for understanding the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. We studied the effects of engineered carbon nanomaterials of various dimensionalities (carbon nanotubes, C60, graphene) on the germination of rice seeds. A pronounced increase in the rate of germination was observed for rice seeds in the presence of some of these carbon nanostructures, in particular the nanotubes. Increased water content was observed in the carbon nanomaterial treated seeds during germination compared to controls. The germinated seeds were then grown in a basal growth medium supplemented with carbon nanomaterials for studying their impact on further seedling growth. Treated seedlings appeared to be healthier with well-developed root and shoot systems compared to control seedlings. Our results indicate the possible use for carbon nanomaterials as enhancers in the growth of rice seedlings. [3]

Effect of NaCl Induced Stress on Germination and Seedling Growth of Various Oryza sativa L. Genotypes

An experimental study aimed to investigate the effect of saline stress on rice (Oryza saliva L.) germination and early seedling characteristics, and genotypic differences in response to saline stress was conducted under lab conditions at College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Germination percentage (%), germination rate, emergence energy (%), germination speed, seedling height (cm), vigour index, seedling fresh and dry weights (mg) were recorded. Treatments consist of three different saline stress levels: 0 mM (Control), 100 mM and 200 mM, and eight rice genotypes; Basmati 385 and Super Basmati (Pakistani), Sakha 101, Sakha 102, Sakha 103, Sakha 104, Sakha 105 and Sakha 106 (Egyptian). It was conceived from results that saline stress significantly affected all the germination parameters in reverse order.         (0 mM < 100 mM < 200 mM). Genotypic differences among rice cultivars germinating under saline stress were also recorded significant. Most valuable outcome of the study: interaction between various levels of saline stress and rice genotypes were highly significant. Sakha 101, Sakha 103, Sakha 106 and Basmati 385 have performed better even under 200 mM NaCl; they have higher level of saline stress tolerance potential and could be used in future breeding programs. [4]

Effect of Different Methods of Zn Application on Rice Growth, Yield and Nutrients Dynamics in Plant and Soil

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 2394-1073,Vol.: 6, Issue.: 2

Original-research-article [5]


[1] Ma, J., Nishimura, K. and Takahashi, E., 1989. Effect of silicon on the growth of rice plant at different growth stages. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition35(3), pp.347-356.
[2] Kirchhof, G., Priyono, S., Utomo, W.H., Adisarwanto, T., Dacanay, E.V. and So, H.B., 2000. The effect of soil puddling on the soil physical properties and the growth of rice and post-rice crops. Soil and Tillage Research56(1-2), pp.37-50.

[3] Nair, R., Mohamed, M.S., Gao, W., Maekawa, T., Yoshida, Y., Ajayan, P.M. and Kumar, D.S., 2012. Effect of carbon nanomaterials on the germination and growth of rice plants. Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology12(3), pp.2212-2220.

[4] Ghoneim, A.M., Ahmad, A., Afzal, M. and Ebid, A., 2015. Effect of NaCl induced stress on germination and seedling growth of various Oryza sativa L. genotypes. Advances in Research, pp.1-8.

[5] Ghoneim, A.M., 2016. Effect of different methods of Zn application on rice growth, yield and nutrients dynamics in plant and soil. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, pp.1-9.

News Update on  soybean Production: October 2021

World Soybean Production: Area Harvested, Yield, and Long-Term Projections

Soybeans (Glycine max) serve as one of the most valuable crops in the world, not only as an oil seed crop and feed for livestock and aquaculture, but also as a good source of protein for the human diet and as a biofuel feedstock. The world soybean production increased by 4.6% annually from 1961 to 2007 and reached average annual production of 217.6 million tons in 2005-07. World production of soybeans is predicted to increase by 2.2% annually to 371.3 million tons by 2030 using an exponential smoothing model with a damped trend. Finally, three scenarios and their implications are presented for increasing supply as land availability declines. The scenarios highlight for agribusiness policy makers and managers the urgent need for significant investments in yield improving research. [1]

The importance of soybean production worldwide

Interest in the impact of agriculture on soil structure or changing soil species makeup has increased. Due to its major position as one of the more important crops, more research into soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr)) management can contribute to better understanding of its production. With respect to the importance of soybean production worldwide, its production must be evaluated from different perspectives including its symbiosis with soil microbes. Soybean is an important source of food, protein, and oil, and hence more research is essential to increase its yield under different conditions, including stress. The most important countries of the world with the highest rate of soybean production include the USA, Brazil, Argentina, China, and India. Many crop species including soybean are found associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia. However, other beneficial rhizospheric microorganisms have also been tested, applied, and used as biofertilizers. Microbial interactions may have important functions in soybean production and health. It is also important to evaluate the abiotic factors which interact with the growth and yield of this crop. This chapter explores the current available information relevant to the benefits of soybean production worldwide. Among the major factors affecting the production of soybean is the appropriate use of inocula. Better knowledge of the wide variation in abiotic/biotic parameters is important for understanding the ecology of the soybean system and for management purposes. Evaluation of soybean production, worldwide, can improve our understanding relative to the effects of different factors affecting the growth and yield of soybean globally. [2]

Soybean production potential in Africa

Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) could possibly become a major crop in Africa due to its many uses as a food, feed, and in industry. Also, its ability to undertake symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a great advantage over cereal crops. This study simulated yield potential across west and east Africa. A number of areas were excluded from soybean production because of inadequate early season rains to allow timely sowing of the crop. Among the remaining areas, average yields greater than 200 g m−2 were commonly simulated. Two drought traits were examined as plant modifications to increase yields. These results identified those areas and plant traits in Africa where soybean has the potential to be an important, viable crop. [3]

Constraints to Increasing Soybean Production and Productivity in Benue State, Nigeria

Apart from its industrial uses, soybean is a cheap plant food source that the low-income population in Nigeria depends on for protein and nutrient needs, but there is a decline in its production and productivity. Identifying the production constraints is critical to formulating policies and programmes that would boost soybean output for domestic and industrial utilization. This study was undertaken in twelve villages of Benue State, Nigeria where a random sample of 120 soybean farmers was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The findings showed that the average age of the farmers, mean household size and mean soybean farming experience were 43 years, 12 persons and 16 years respectively. Also, the mean farm size was 2.1 hectares with an average annual soybean farm income of 61,758 Nigerian Naira (US$385.99). The study further found that the constraints of marketing, production and linkages hampered the increased production and productivity of soybean in Benue State. In the light of the above, there is need for training and re-training of extension workers to effectively disseminate soybean improved technologies to farmers. In addition, extension agents should provide soybean farmers marketing information, establish viable links between respondents and relevant stakeholders in order to improve access to inputs and modern technologies while the local and state governments establish rural markets with good marketing infrastructure and good rural roads to enable farmers have high returns on soybean investment. [4]

Economic Efficiency of Soybean Production in Ogo-Oluwa Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

This study estimated the technical, allocative and economic efficiencies indices and further examined the factors influencing technical efficiency for the sampled soybean farms in Ogo-Oluwa Local Government Area of Oyo State (LGA). The study made use of a cross-sectional data obtained from sampled soybean farmers in the Ogo-Oluwa of Ogbomoso zone of Oyo State Agricultural Development Project (ADP) that were purposively selected because of the higher concentration of soybean farms compared to other LGAs in the zone. Eighty respondents were randomly chosen from a list of soybean farmers obtained from the Apex Farmers Association of Nigeria (AFAN). Data collected was analysed using the stochastic frontier model. The overall technical efficiency was estimated with no effort of broken it down into pure and scale efficiencies. It was observed from the findings that the range of efficiencies index varies great with minimum of 0.827, 0.135 and 0.128 and maximum of 1.0 for technical allocative and economic efficiencies respectively. The mean efficiency which indicate the average potential there in soybean production in the study area 0.94, 0.892 and 0.839 for technical, allocative and economic efficiency respectively. Of 80 soybean farmers involved in the analysis only one was found to be technically allocatively and economically efficient. The measures of relative allocative and technical efficiency provide evidence as to the source of deviations from overall cost-minimising behaviour. Many sampled soybean farms employed the ‘wrong’ input mix, given input prices, so that, on average, costs were 11 per cent higher than the cost minimizing level. However, farms have the potential to reduce their physical input, on average, by 6 per cent, and still produce the same level of soybean output.
In conclusion, there was a great potential to improve the output of soybean farms and save cost if variable inputs were adjusted to the optimal level along the short-run isoquant. Farmer’s age, extension visit and education significantly influence technical, economic and allocative efficiencies respectively. Inefficiency results in large part from allocative rather than from technical inefficiency. [5]


[1] Masuda, T. and Goldsmith, P.D., 2009. World soybean production: area harvested, yield, and long-term projections. International food and agribusiness management review12(1030-2016-82753), pp.1-20.

[2] Pagano, M.C. and Miransari, M., 2016. The importance of soybean production worldwide. In Abiotic and biotic stresses in soybean production (pp. 1-26). Academic Press.

[3] Sinclair, T.R., Marrou, H., Soltani, A., Vadez, V. and Chandolu, K.C., 2014. Soybean production potential in Africa. Global Food Security3(1), pp.31-40.

[4] Agada, M.O., 2015. Constraints to increasing soybean production and productivity in Benue state, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.277-284.

[5] Ajao, A.O., Ogunniyi, L.T. and Adepoju, A.A., 2012. Economic efficiency of soybean production in Ogo-Oluwa local government area of Oyo state, Nigeria. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.667-679.

News Update on  Millet production: October 2021

Hybrid and Nitrogen Influence on Pearl Millet Production in Nebraska: Yield, Growth, and Nitrogen Uptake, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a staple grain crop in the arid and semiarid regions of Africa and India, and a new grain crop in the USA. A 2-year field experiment was conducted near Mead, NE, in 1995 and 1996 on a Sharpsburg silty clay loam (fine, smectitic, mesic Typic Argiudoll) soil with approximately 29 g kg−1 organic matter, 35 kg ha−1 NO3–N, and pH of 6.0. The objective was to determine the influence of hybrid and N on grain yield, dry matter accumulation and partitioning, and growth rates throughout the growing season. Nitrogen concentrations, uptake, and use efficiency were also determined. Treatments were a factorial combination of the pearl millet dwarf hybrids (59022A × 89-0083, 1011A × 086R, and 1361M × 6Rm) and N levels (0 and 78 kg ha−1) in a randomized complete block design. Two plants per plot were sampled at 2-wk intervals and partitioned into plant parts, dried, weighed, and analyzed for N concentration. Applied N increased grain yield by 0.4 to 0.5 Mg ha−1, but had only a small effect on dry matter accumulation and partitioning. Hybrid differences were small for grain yield. Pearl millet dry matter accumulation increased cubically in both years, with maximum crop growth rates among hybrids ranging from 0.48 to 0.57 g m−2 per growing degree day (GDD) in 1995 and ranging from 1.9 to 3.1 g m−2 GDD−1 maximum in 1996. The relative growth rate among hybrids declined from 0.012 to 0.020 g−1 m−2 GDD−1 in both years to near zero at physiological maturity. Nitrogen concentrations were higher during the vegetative stages and decreased with plant age. Applied N decreased N use efficiency for aboveground biomass (NUE1) by 18 to 25 g DM g−1 N, and N use efficiency for grain (NUE2) by 7 to 12 g grain g−1 N. Environmental variability due to years had a greater effect on yield, growth, and N levels than hybrid and applied N. [1]

Millet production under pruned tree crowns in a parkland system in Burkina Faso


As a tree management tool, three treatments of crown pruning (total-pruning, half-pruning and no-pruning) were applied to Vitellaria paradoxa (karité) and Parkia biglobosa (néré) in agroforestry parkland systems in Burkina Faso. The area under each tree was divided into four concentric tree influence zones (Zones A: up to 2 m from the tree trunk, B: up to half of the radius of the tree crown, C: up to the edge of the tree crown and D: up to 2 m away from the edge of the tree crown). Millet production under these zones and outside was assessed during two cropping seasons over the study period of three years and the results showed that tree crown pruning had significant effect on millet production and the highest millet grain yield and total dry matter were produced under total-pruned trees (507 ± 49 and 2033 ± 236 kg ha−1 year−1, respectively). Light transmission, transpiration and soil nutrient status under the trees were also analysed in relation to millet production. The results of the analysis showed that total-pruned trees gave the highest millet production due to the reduction by crown pruning of the effects of large tree crowns on PAR transmission below crowns and rates of transpiration by trees. Soil was more fertile closer to the tree trunks than outside tree crowns. This may also be one of the reasons why millet overall performed better under Zone B than outside tree crowns. The higher production of millet under Zone B than under Zone A, the zone closer to the tree trunk, may be due to lower light intensity and more intense competition for water between trees and crops under Zone A. It was concluded that at least in the short term millet production could be improved by crown pruning of both karité and néré, but long term effects may depend on the ability of the trees to maintain the amelioration of soil fertility and on how quickly the trees recover from pruning. [2]

Scattered shrubs in pearl millet fields in semiarid Niger: Effect on millet production

Various kinds of shrubs species are found in many fields and fallows in semiarid Niger. In order to understand the nature of their interactions with millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) and their role in soil conservation, experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996. Three treatments were applied with different shrub densities: cutting all shrubs, cutting half of the shrubs and leaving all shrubs. Millet was harvested per plot and in different circular zones around selected shrubs. In addition, transects across shrubs were investigated for soil parameters and microtopography changes. Millet yield and soil-nutrient status were higher around shrubs compared to the open field. Microtopography was elevated up to 20 cm near shrubs. The positive influence of shrubs on increased millet production extended to 2 m distance from the shrub. Competition between uncut shrubs and millet plants was found within a distance of 1.2 m. An increasing yield of millet was found in plots with shrubs up to a density of about 450 shrubs per hectare. Shrubs showed to be effective for preservation of soil fertility of fields in south-west Niger and thus important for millet production. Optimal for shrub management in farmers’ fields would be cutting half of the shrubs and leaving the other half uncut for simultaneous wood production. [3]

Effect of Phosphate Levels on Soil Rhizosphere Nutrient Balances and Finger Millet Yield

Soil infertility is one of the main factors leading to low finger millet production in the semi-arid tropics of Kenya. About 50-80% of P applied as fertilizer is adsorbed by soil and the amount of P needed to achieve maintenance of its adequate status and influence on other soil properties has not been well documented. An on-station experiment was therefore conducted at the KALRO-Kiboko research station during the 2014 long and 2015 short rain seasons to investigate the influence of phosphorus rates on soil rhizosphere chemical properties and yield of three finger millet varieties. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in factorial arrangement and replicated three times. There were four P levels (0, 12.5, 25 and 37.5 kg ha-1 P2O5) and three varieties (U15, P-224 and local check-Kat FM1). Phosphorus application reduced the soil pH significantly for both seasons with the 37.5 kg ha-1 P2Orate eliciting the greatest pH from 9.26 to 7.90 (1.36 units) during the long rain season. As expected, soil phosphorus increased with the highest rate with 11 ppm during the long rain season and 9 ppm for the short rains. The organic carbon increased by 0.28% for the long rain season on the 25 kg ha-1 P2Orate while the highest rate increased total N by 0.05%. The 25 kg ha-1 P2Orate and U-15 indicated the highest yield for both seasons with a maximum of 3.71 t ha-1 realized during the short rain season. Monitoring change in soil nutrient status is important for prescribing P fertilization in order to maintain or replenish soil fertility. The application rate of 25 kg ha-1 P2Oled to the optimal yields under the improved variety and hence the study recommends this rate. [4]

Evaluation of Pearl millet Varieties for Adaptation to the Semi-Arid Agro-Ecology of Northern Ghana

Field trials were conducted at the Manga Agricultural Research Station near Bawku in the Upper East Region to evaluate nine genotypes of Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] for adaptation to the Sudan Savanna agro-ecology of northern Ghana. The varieties are: Arrow, Bongo Short Head, Bristled millet. SOSAT-C88, Tongo Yellow, GB 8735, ICTP 8203, B9_Tabi and Manga Nara a local check (farmers’ variety). The experiment was established as a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates. All standard agronomic practices and data as recommended for Pearl millet production in Ghana were adhered to. The results indicate highly significant (P<0.001 differences among years and genotypes for all the traits recorded. The local variety Manga Nara was the earliest to reach 50% flowering; whilst SOSAT-C88 was the latest. Downy mildew incidence at 30 days after sowing was least on SOSAT-C88 and ICTP 8203 and highest on the farmers’ variety. At maturity downy mildew incidence was highest on Tongo Yellow. Bristled Millet produced the tallest plants whilst Manga Nara, Bongo Short Head and GB 8735 produced the shortest plants. Bongo Short Head produced the broadest spikes whilst B9_Tabi gave the longest spikes. Pearl millet harvest indices were generally low with Arrow and ICTP 8203 producing the highest and GB 8735; Bongo Short Head and the farmers’ variety the lowest. ICTP 8203, SOSAT-C88 and Bristled Millet recorded higher grain yields than the other genotypes evaluated. The farmers’ variety, GB 8735 and B9_Tabi recorded the lowest grain yields compared to the trial mean. SOSAT-C88 produced superior straw yield compared to the other genotypes whilst Tongo Yellow; the farmers’ variety, Arrow and GB 8735 produced appreciably lower straw yields. ICTP 8203, SOSAT-C88 and Bristled Millet were the most efficient whilst the farmers’ variety was the least efficient in rainwater capture and use. [5]


[1] Maman, N., Mason, S.C., Galusha, T. and Clegg, M.D., 1999. Hybrid and nitrogen influence on pearl millet production in Nebraska: yield, growth, and nitrogen uptake, and nitrogen use efficiency. Agronomy Journal91(5), pp.737-743.

[2] Bayala, J., Teklehaimanot, Z. and Ouedraogo, S.J., 2002. Millet production under pruned tree crowns in a parkland system in Burkina Faso. Agroforestry systems54(3), pp.203-214.

[3] Wezel, A., 2000. Scattered shrubs in pearl millet fields in semiarid Niger: Effect on millet production. Agroforestry systems48(3), pp.219-228.

[4] Wafula, W.N., Korir, N.K., Ojulong, H.F. and Gweyi-Onyango, J.P., 2016. Effect of Phosphate Levels on Soil Rhizosphere Nutrient Balances and Finger Millet Yield. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture, pp.1-8.

[5] Kanton, R.A.L., Asungre, P., Ansoba, E.Y., Inusah, B.I., Bidzakin, J.K., Abubakari, M., Toah, P., Haggan, L., Totoe, C. and Akum, F.A., 2015. Evaluation of pearl millet varieties for adaptation to the semi-arid agro-ecology of Northern Ghana. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, pp.1-11.

Latest Research on yield of rice: October 2021

Growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars under various methods and times of sowing

Studies for estimating cultivated area and yield of rice using remote sensing data acquired from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) system with six bands (1, 2, 3,4, 5,7) were conducted. Three images taken on different days were visually and digitally analysed for the estimation of rice cultivated area. This was obtained with over 90 per cent classification accuracy. False colour composite of 5R, 4G, 3B was selected for the identification of rice cultivated area at maturity stage. Band combination of 1, 3, 4 and 5 was selected as an appropriate subset in the digital analysis for the estimation of rice areas. An attempt was made to develop a relationship between reflectance values and actual grain yield using an image of the fully ripened stage of the crop. High correlation was observed with reflectance values of some bands and yields. A computerized plant process model was adopted for the simulation of rice growth and yield. This was used for estimating yield per unit area. [1]

Estimation of cropped area and grain yield of rice using remote sensing data

Studies for estimating cultivated area and yield of rice using remote sensing data acquired from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) system with six bands (1, 2, 3,4, 5,7) were conducted. Three images taken on different days were visually and digitally analysed for the estimation of rice cultivated area. This was obtained with over 90 per cent classification accuracy. False colour composite of 5R, 4G, 3B was selected for the identification of rice cultivated area at maturity stage. Band combination of 1, 3, 4 and 5 was selected as an appropriate subset in the digital analysis for the estimation of rice areas. An attempt was made to develop a relationship between reflectance values and actual grain yield using an image of the fully ripened stage of the crop. High correlation was observed with reflectance values of some bands and yields. A computerized plant process model was adopted for the simulation of rice growth and yield. This was used for estimating yield per unit area. [2]

Using C4 photosynthesis to increase the yield of rice—rationale and feasibility

90% of the world’s rice is grown and consumed in Asia, with each hectare of rice-producing land providing food for 27 people. By 2050, because of population growth and increasing urbanisation, each remaining hectare will have to feed at least 43 people. This means that yields must be increased by at least 50% over the next 40 years to prevent mass malnutrition for the 700 million Asians that currently rely on rice for more than 60% of their daily calorific intake. Since predictive models suggest that yield increases of this magnitude can only be achieved by improving photosynthesis, and because evolution has increased photosynthetic efficiency by 50% in the form of the C4 pathway, one solution is to generate C4 rice. However, this is an ambitious goal that requires proof of concept before any major investment of time and money. Here, we discuss approaches that should allow proof of concept to be tested. [3]

Assessing the Effects of Water Management Regimes and Rice Residue on Growth and Yield of Rice in Uganda

Aim: This study was conducted to assess the influence of different water and rice straw management practices and rice genotypes on growth and yield of rice in Uganda.
Study Design: Field experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block Design while the screen house study design was a Completely Randomized Design.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the field at National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI) Namulonge and in the screen house at Kyambogo University during the period of February-July 2013.
Materials and Methods: Ten rice genotypes obtained from the cereals program at NaCRRI Namulonge were grown under different water management regimes, with and without rice straw incorporation both in the field and screen house. Water management regimes used were alternate wetting and drying (AWD), continuous flooding (CF) and continuous drying (CD).
Results: A significant variation in grain yield was observed among rice genotypes and under different water management regimes (P<0.001). Use of rice straw influenced rice yield in the screen house (P<0.001) but not in the field (P=0.23); interactions of water management x genotype and water management x rice straw x genotype influenced rice yield in the field (P=0.003) but not in the screen house (P=0.5). Higher yield gain was observed under the water-saving technology alternate wetting and drying compared to continuous flooding or drying.
Conclusion: This study has indicated significant variations in field performance of rice under different water management regimes and rice straw usage. These findings are therefore important because they suggest that efficient management of water resources and rice residues from rice fields coupled with the use of drought tolerant rice varieties could be an effective integrated approach to improve rice yield and an adaptation strategy to the observed climate variability.  [4]

Relationship of Yield and Yield Related Traits of Some Traditional Rice Cultivars in Sri Lanka as Described by Correlation Analysis

Aims: To understand the relationship between individual trait and yield of one hundred rice cultivars according to Pearson’s correlation coefficient.
Study Design: Completely randomized block design with four replicates. Twenty plants were evaluated in each replicate and eighty plants were evaluated in each cultivar in four replicates.
Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka in 2011-2013.
Methodology: Data were collected in 80 plants of four replicates on: plant height (cm), number of tillers per plant, number of fertile tillers per plant panicle length (cm), panicle weight (g), number of spikelets per panicle, number of fertile spikelets per panicle, 100 grain weight (g), days to maturity and yield per plant (g). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated using SPSS.
Results: According to statistical analysis grain yield was significantly and highly correlated with number of fertile spikelets/panicle (r = 0.765), panicle weight (r = 0.727), number of spikelets/panicle (r = 0.638), filled grain percentage (r = 0.620), number of fertile tillers/plant (r = 0.611), number of tillers/plant (r = 0.575). Hundred grain weight (r = 0.336) and plant height (r = 0.278) were also correlated with at 1% significant level. None of the studied trait was negatively correlated with the yield.
Conclusion:Fertile spikelets per panicle, panicle weight, number of spikelet per panicle and filled grain percentage can be considered as good criteria for selection of rice cultivars suitable for breeding programs.. [5]


[1] Gill, M.S., Kumar, A. and Kumar, P., 2006. Growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars under various methods and times of sowing. Indian Journal of Agronomy51(2), pp.123-127.

[2] Tennakoon, S.B., Murty, V.V.N. and Eiumnoh, A., 1992. Estimation of cropped area and grain yield of rice using remote sensing data. International Journal of Remote Sensing13(3), pp.427-439.

[3] Hibberd, J.M., Sheehy, J.E. and Langdale, J.A., 2008. Using C4 photosynthesis to increase the yield of rice—rationale and feasibility. Current opinion in plant biology11(2), pp.228-231.

[4] Awio, T., Bua, B. and Karungi, J., 2015. Assessing the effects of water management regimes and rice residue on growth and yield of rice in Uganda. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.141-149.

[5] Ranawake, A.L. and Amarasinghe, U.G.S., 2014. Relationship of yield and yield related traits of some traditional rice cultivars in Sri Lanka as described by correlation analysis. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, pp.2395-2403.

Latest Research on Foliar Spray : October 2021

Effect of nanoparticles suspension on the growth of mung (Vigna radiata) seedlings by foliar spray method

The present experimental investigation demonstrates the effect of nano-ZnO, nano-FeO and nano-ZnCuFe-oxide particles on the growth of mung (Vigna radiata) seedling. The study was carried out by spraying optimum concentrations of nanoparticles in suspension form on hydroponically grown test units and examining the effect on the shoot growth of seedlings. Based on biomass assay, it was found that the seedlings displayed good growth over control, demonstrating a positive effect of the nanoparticle treatment. The best performance was observed for nano-ZnCuFe-Oxide followed by nano-FeO and nano-ZnO. Absorption of nanoparticles by plant leaves was also detected by inductive coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy. [1]

Potassium Silicate as Foliar Spray and Rice Blast Control

Silicon (Si) is known as a “beneficial element” for plants. The direct and indirect benefits of the element for crops (especially grasses) are related to resistance to diseases, pests, and drought. Since most studies were done with fertilizers applied to the soil, new studies on the efficacy of silicon absorption through the leaves are required. The effect of silicon absorption through the leaves on rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae) control was studied using potassium silicate (K2SiO3) in different doses (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 g L− 1 Si), number of sprayings at two solution pHs. Rice (Oryza sativa), cultivar ‘Metica 1’ (susceptible to blast), was grown in pots in a completely randomized experimental design. Silicate was applied beginning at the 22nd day after emergence (DAE). The pathogen was inoculated on the 25th DAE. Disease incidence was evaluated ten days after inoculation. Potassium silicate pulverization on the leaves did not increase Si absorption or accumulation by the plant; however, there was a reduction on blast incidence. The greatest reduction on blast incidence was observed at 4 g Si L− 1, regardless of solution pH. [2]

Concepts and applications of foliar spray for microbial inoculants

Damages of the (agro)ecosystem by extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the global dying of bee populations possibly linked to pesticide spraying, and stricter regulations for pesticide use together with successful use of microbials in IPM programs are pushing on the development and commercialization of new microbial products and a large and growing biostimulants and biocontrol market. This review focuses on microbial inoculants including bacteria, fungi, and viruses used as biostimulant or biocontrol agent for foliar application and covers all important steps from inoculant development to successful field application. Topics presented comprise typical spraying equipment including the importance of the spraying process and relating effects, furthermore formulation development including classification and adjuvants, and thirdly regulatory aspects as currently applied or under discussion. Microbial inoculants for foliar spray reported in scientific literature are summarized and contrasted with selected commercial products. Special attention is given to factors most important in microbial spray: (a) type of active ingredient (bacteria, fungi, viruses), (b) mode of action (ingestion, contact, competition), (c) interaction with the plant leaf surface, (d) droplet size in terms of microbe concentration and leaf coverage, and (e) environmental conditions during spraying. Finally, we want to emphasize that timely administration is of utmost importance for successful spraying and maximum efficacy. This might be supported by weather stations and disease/pest models as an important step towards precision farming. [3]

Increase of Spinach Growth Through the use of Larger Plug Cell Volume and an Exogenous BAP Spray

Aims: In spinach, transplanting has replaced direct seeding but small containers may cause root restriction effects that would be decreased post-transplant yield. Although a single hormonal regulator (BAP) spray is effective in overcoming root restriction, the mechanisms involved are unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze spinach growth changes by the use of different plug cell volumes and BAP as foliar spray.

Study Design: A randomized complete block factorial design with three blocks was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station campus, Argentina (37º 45′ S, 58° 18′ W and altitude 130 m) from 5th March to 24th May 2008 and repeated once from 15th March to 19th May 2009.

Methodology: We analyzed growth changes by the use of different plug cell volumes and BAP as foliar spray on dry weight accumulation and partitioning in Spinacea oleracea plants in two field experiments.

Results:The use of large plug cell volumes and BAP sprays at the pre-transplant stage increased plant growth, through an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR) and the rate of leaf area expansion (RLAE). We found a close direct relationship between RGR and net assimilation rate (NAR) but an inverse relationship between RGR and leaf area ratio (LAR). In addition, we found that NAR significantly increased as leaf thickness, intercellular spaces and stomatal density increased. A change in dry weight partitioning toward shoots was found as well.

Conclusion: From a grower’s point of view, the use of large plug cell volume would increase spinach growth. On the other hand, a promising approach to increasing crop productivity is the use of plant growth and development regulators such as BAP. [4]

Effects of Foliar Application of Boron (B) on the Grain Set and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of boron (B) on the grain set and yield of wheat (cv. Shatabdi).

Study Design: The experiment was designed with six boron treatments, arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The field trial was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) farm, Mymensingh during 27 November 2010 to 24 March 2011.

Methodology: The B treatments were (i) B control, (ii) soil application of B, (iii) seed priming into boric acid solution, (iv) foliar spray of B at primordial stage of crop, (v) foliar spray of B at booting stage and (vi) foliar spray of B at primordial and booting stages. The rate of B for soil application was 1.5 kg B ha-1 from boric acid (17% B) and the rate for each foliar spray was 0.4% boric acid solution. Seed priming was done by soaking wheat seeds into 0.1% boric acid solution for 10 hours and then seeds were dried before sowing. Every plot received 115 kg N, 25 kg P, 75 kg K and 15 kg S per hectare from urea, TSP, MoP and gypsum, respectively.

Results: The treatment receiving foliar spray of B at both primordial and booting stages of the crop performed the highest yield (3630 kg ha-1) which was statistically similar with the yield recorded with foliar spray of B at booting or primordial stage of crop and with soil application of B before crop (wheat) was sown; all the yields were significantly higher over the yield noted with seed priming or control treatment. The control treatment (no B application) had the lowest grain yield (2600 kg ha-1) which was significantly lower than the yield observed with the seed priming treatment.

Conclusion: Wheat yield was affected due to grain set failure induced by boron deficiency and it was possible to overcome this element deficiency by soil application at 1.5 kg B ha-1 or foliar application of 0.4% boric acid solution at primordial or booting stage of crop. [5]


[1] Dhoke, S.K., Mahajan, P., Kamble, R. and Khanna, A., 2013. Effect of nanoparticles suspension on the growth of mung (Vigna radiata) seedlings by foliar spray method. Nanotechnology development3(1), pp.e1-e1.

[2] Buck, G.B., Korndörfer, G.H., Nolla, A. and Coelho, L., 2008. Potassium silicate as foliar spray and rice blast control. Journal of Plant Nutrition31(2), pp.231-237.

[3] Preininger, C., Sauer, U., Bejarano, A. and Berninger, T., 2018. Concepts and applications of foliar spray for microbial inoculants. Applied microbiology and biotechnology102(17), pp.7265-7282.

[4] Di Matteo, J., Rattin, J. and Di Benedetto, A., 2015. Increase of spinach growth through the use of larger plug cell volume and an exogenous BAP spray. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.372-383.

[5] Fakir, O.A., Rahman, M.A. and Jahiruddin, M., 2016. Effects of foliar application of boron (B) on the grain set and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.1-8.

Influence of Information Sources on Farmers’ Knowledge of Poultry Drugs in Delta State, Nigeria: Implications for Rural Community DevelopmentManagement

The study looked at poultry farmers’ institutional characteristics, their access to information sources, and their awareness and understanding of poultry medications. In order to make deductions, it determined the relationships between variables. With the help of a standardised interview schedule and questionnaire, a multi-stage sampling approach was employed to choose 100 poultry farmers. The data was analysed using frequency counts, percentages, mean, and Chi-square. The majority of the respondents (67%) had never led a group, whereas 62 percent had contact with extension agents and were members of poultry drug groups, according to the findings. It was discovered that 60% of farmers were aware of avian charge and had access to it, whereas 48.8% had access to happy hen treat medication. Petamine (45.0%) and tricero (45.0%) are two others (32.5 percent ). Only neighbour (mean = 2.58) recorded a high level of accessibility among the farmers among the numerous information sources identified, implying that the rate of development of the chicken enterprise in such a community will be slow. Campaign (r = 0.762), exhibition (r = 0.528), and workshop/seminar (r = 2.607) were the only information sources that significantly linked with awareness of poultry medications at the 0.01 significant level. Farmers should be exposed to different information sources that will aid community development, according to the conclusions of the study.

Author (S) Details

D. U. Okoedo-Okojie
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, University Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

J. I. Osabuohien
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, University Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

View Book :-

News Update con poultry feeding: September 2021


Soybean Cultivar Response to Tillage Systems and Planting Date

The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production area in the USA planted with reduced-tillage practices has doubled in the last two decades. Previous studies show that soybean cultivars yield similarly in various tillage systems when planted in well-drained soils. Reduced-till farmers are planting earlier than in the past, but planting date studies with various tillage systems and cultivars have not been reported. A 3-yr field study was conducted to compare soybean cultivar responses to various tillage systems at various planting dates. Six soybean cultivars were planted on three dates each year (average planting dates were: 7 May, 29 May, and 15 June) with two tillage systems: three passes with a tandem disk in the spring (TD) or notill (NT). A Hastings silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Udic Argiustoll) was used in 2 yr and a Crete silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Pachic Argiustoll) was used in the other. The determinate cultivar yielded less when planted on 7 May than on 29 May at 2.72 and 3.14 Mg ha−1 respectively. Indeterminate cultivars had similar yields for these two dates with 2.99 Mg ha−1. Yield of TD was 0.18 Mg ha−1 less than that of NT for 7 May, but was 0.19 Mg ha−1 greater than that of NT for 29 May. There were no tillage × cultivar or tillage × planting date × cultivar interactions. Although planting date was shown to be an important factor in cultivar selection, this study has shown that planting date is not a critical factor in the tillage-cultivar selection process. The best yielding cultivars in tilled performance tests will likely be the same as those from a no-till performance test, irrespective of planting date. [1]

Determinate- and Indeterminate-Type Soybean Cultivar Responses to Pattern, Density, and Planting Date

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed yield is influenced by planting date, pattern, and density of seeding, but cultivars differing in growth habit may vary in response to cultural treatments. Narrow-row compared to conventional wide-row plantings have consistently produced higher seed yields in the northern USA, where early maturity groups (MG) and indeterminate (INDT) types are commonly used. Positive responses to narrow rows have been less consistent in the southern USA, where late MG and determinate (DT) cultivars are common. Therefore, we hypothesize that this disparity in seed yield response to narrow-row culture between the two areas is due to inherent differences in DT- and INDT-type canopies resulting from their growth habits. This study, conducted in Gainesville, FL (29 ° 38′N) in 1984 and 1985, employed ‘Duocrop’ (INDT) and ‘Kirby’ (DT), May and July planting dates, 0.91-, 0.61-, and 0.30-m interrow spacings, and 0.18- and 0.08-m intrarow spacings in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design. Node and pod numbers, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), total biomass, and seed yields were significantly increased (per unit land area) with increasing plant population density (PPD) up to a certain PPD, depending on spatial arrangement. The greatest seed yield of both INDT and DT types was from the May planting, narrow-row culture (0.30 m), and high PPD, but response to PPD was confounded with squareness (ratio of intra- to interrow distance among plants) of planting pattern. High PPD (18 to 42 plants m−2 and high squareness values gave higher seed yields than combinations of lower PPDs and lower squareness values. We conclude that seed yield of both DT and INDT soybean in subtropical latitudes is optimized by May seeding, high PPD (40 plants m−2), and use of square planting patterns as approximated by narrow-row culture [2]

Backcrossing High Seed Protein to a Soybean Cultivar

An inverse relationship between seed yield and seed protein concentration has limited success in developing soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars with high seed protein. High protein from the donor parent ‘Pando’ (498 g kg−1 protein) was backcrossed to ‘Cutler 71’ (408 g kg−1 protein) to determine if the yield of Cutler 71 could be recovered in addition to the high protein from Pando. Random F4-derived lines, plus three lines with highest seed protein concentration, from the initial cross, the BC1, and the BC2 populations, were evaluated for agronomic traits in separate, two-replicate tests for 1 yr at West Lafayette, IN. Seed from replication composites were evaluated for protein and oil concentration using near infra-red reflectance or near infra-red transmission. The parent line for each backcross was selected first for high seed protein, then for yield and agronomic similarity to Cutler 71. Random F4-derived progenies of the BC3 population, the parent line for each backcross, and the cultivars Pando, Cutler 71, and Hamilton were evaluated in three-replicate tests for 2 yr at West Lafayette, IN. In each backcross generation, lines were identified with seed protein in excess of 470 g kg−1 and that progressively approached the yield of Cutler 71. In the BC3 population, one line averaged 472 g kg−1 seed protein and was significantly (P = 0.05) higher in seed yield than Cutler 71, similar in yield to the cultivar Hamilton. In each backcross population, there were inverse relationships between seed yield and seed protein (R2 values ranging from 0.33 to 0.06) and between seed protein and seed oil (R2 values ranging from 0.55 in BC1 to 0.94 in BC3). In successive backcross populations, minimum oil values increased from 148 in BC1 to 174 g kg−1 in BC3, indicating a trend toward recovering oil concentration (204 g kg−1) of Cutler 71. The data demonstrate that high seed protein can be backcrossed to a soybean cultivar, fully recovering the seed yield of the cultivar, suggesting the absence of physiological barriers to combining high seed protein with high seed yield in these populations. [3]

Cloning and expression of CONSTANS homologs in soybean cultivar Zigongdongdou

Abstract: CONSTANS (CO) acts in the nucleus to promote the transition from vegetative growth to flowering in Arabidopsis, while its homologs are present in many other plant species regardless of the type of photoperiodic response. In this study, we cloned 3 CO homolog genes from a late-maturing (photoperiod-sensitive) soybean cultivar, Zigongdongdou using RLM-RACE. We then identified 5 additional CO homologs by blasting the soybean draft genome ( The 8 genes all consisted of 2 exons and 1 intron. They had distinctive 3’- and 5’-UTRs from each other, suggesting that their transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation could be different. In silico analysis found that all the 8 CO homologs contain a highly conserved B-box domain and CCT domain, which indicated that they functioned similarly to AtCO. The identity percentage of predicted amino acid sequence of the 8 CO homologs ranged from 39% for Glyma04g06240 to 51% for Glyma19g05170 and Glyma13g07030, when compared with AtCO. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 8 CO homologs were classified into 4 clades and each clade had 2 CO homologs with a high degree of amino acid identity. qRT-PCR results showed that 3 CO homologs Glyma04g06240, Glyma13g07030 and Glyma06g06300 had a diurnal rhythm of expression with a peak at dawn (24h) under both short day (SD) and long day (LD) conditions, except that they were lower under LD than under SD. The expression of Glyma13g07030 was up-regulated in leaves 7 days after emergence (DAE) under SD and down-regulated 13 DAE under LD. There was no obvious change for the expression of Glyma06g06300 between LD and SD in leaves. In addition, the transcripts of Glyma13g07030 and Glyma06g06300 were detected in the shoot apical meristem, flower and pod. Our results suggested that the CO homolog Glyma13g01290 might have participated in flowering regulation of Zigongdongdou. [4]

Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) fredii Interacted More Efficiently than Bradyrhizobium japonicum with Soybean

Aims: The purpose of this work was to compare the efficiency of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Ensifer fredii to infect and develop nodules on soybean. Furthermore we also evaluated the competitive ability of both species and how this was altered by the plant genotype and the soil pH.
Study Design: The design of the experiments was completely at random and the number of replicates was different on each of the different experiments tested.
Place and Duration of Study: The place of the studies was the Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales Universidad Nacional de La Plata and the duration of the study was a year and a half.
Methodology: Roots of inoculated soybean plants were fixed and the number of infection initiation sites was evaluated by means of microscopic observation. The number of nodules developed by inoculated plants was also evaluated.
Results: Bacteria were equally effective at developing infection initiation sites on soybean however, E. frediiinduced more nodules than B. japonicum, probably due to the fact that E. fredii is more efficient than B. japonicum at nodulating soybean. However, Bradyrhizobium was more competitive than E. fredii which was unrelated to the soybean genotype but altered by the soil pH. Under the conditions described E. fredii was less competitive than B. japonicum probably due to the high cultivar-rhizobia specificity.
Conclusion: E. fredii was as efficient as B. japonicum at nodulating soybeans. However Bradyrhizobium was a better competitor though this is affected by the plant genotype and the soil pH. The selection and use of fast growing rhizobia in inoculant production seems to depend on broadening the genetic base of soybean or in selecting cultivars with specificity for fast growing rhizobia. [5]


[1] Elmore, R.W., 1990. Soybean cultivar response to tillage systems and planting date. Agronomy Journal, 82(1), pp.69-73.
[2] Parvez, A.Q., Gardner, F.P. and Boote, K.J., 1989. Determinate‐and indeterminate‐type soybean cultivar responses to pattern, density, and planting date. Crop Science, 29(1), pp.150-157.
[3] Wilcox, J.R. and Cavins, J.F., 1995. Backcrossing high seed protein to a soybean cultivar. Crop Science, 35(4), pp.1036-1041.
[4] Bo, N.X.F.J., Cun-xiang, W.U., Wen-sheng, H.O.U., Bing-jun, J.I.A.N.G. and Tian-fu, H.A.N., 2014. Cloning and expression of CONSTANS homologs in soybean cultivar Zigongdongdou. CHINESE JOURNAL OF OIL CROP SCIENCES, 36(2), p.142.
[5] Pastorino, G.N., Alcántara, V.M., Malbrán, I., Videira, L., Sarinelli, J. and Balatti, P.A., 2015. Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) fredii interacted more efficiently than Bradyrhizobium japonicum with soybean. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, pp.10-19.

Latest Research Tomato Seedling: September 2021


Machine Vision Techniques for Measuring the Canopy of Tomato Seedling

The canopy area of tomato seedlings is an important indicator of their quality. A machine vision system was designed for automated measurement. In a well-controlled lighting environment, it is feasible to use constant threshold values as a first step in partitioning images of tomato seedlings into the meaningful parts: canopy, root-growth medium, and a background. The selection of threshold values, however, should be based on an analysis of a training set of similar tomato seedling plugs. An image processing procedure was developed and evaluated to segment seedling canopy from background and root-growth medium parts of the seedling images. The segmentation process adopted an adaptive thresholding technique, the Otsu method, and extended it for an efficient multimode operation. The multimode segmentation operation accurately and quickly identified the canopy portion of tomato seedlings. [1]

Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response and nutrient uptake

Trichoderma species are commonly used as biological control agents against phytopathogenic fungi and some isolates are able to improve plant growth. In this study, the effects of three Trichoderma isolates including Trichoderma harzianum isolate T969, T. harzianum isolate T447 and Trichoderma sp. isolate T in tomato seedling vigor and their nutrient uptake via two inoculants introduction methods (inoculating seed with Trichoderma spore suspension and inoculating nursery soil with Trichoderma fortified wheat) were examined. Seed germination rate was not affected by Trichoderma application, but shoot height, shoot diameter, shoot fresh and dry weight and root fresh and dry weight in tomato seedlings were interestingly (p ≤ 0.05) increased when sown in Trichoderma sp. T and T. harzianum T969 fortified soil and when compared to the control. The soil amended by Trichoderma sp. T and T. harzianum T969 had marked increase in leaf number and leaf area (p ≤ 0.05). Chlorophyll content increased in seedling grown in Trichoderma sp. T amended soil as well as in Trichoderma sp. T and T. harzianum T969 coated seed. A dramatic increase (p ≤ 0.05) in the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, P and K+ were recorded in the seedling shoot and root among T. harzianum T447 soil amended treatment when compared to the control, except for Na+ level in soil amendment with T. harzianum T969 and seedcoating with strain Trichoderma sp. T, which significantly reduced the Na+ concentration. [2]

A humic acid improves growth of tomato seedling in solution culture

The effects of humic acid (HA) on nutrient accumulation and growth of tomato seedlings were evaluated in a solution of limited nutrient availability in a greenhouse. HA additions were made to the nutrient solution at rates of 0, 640, 1280, or 2560 mg/L. The addition of 1280 mg/L HA produced significant increases in shoot accumulation of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn as well as increased accumulation of N, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu in roots. Fresh and dry weights of roots were also increased, However, on comparing nutrient accumulation in plants treated with 1280 mg/L HA and those given an additional supply of nutrients equivalent to those supplied by HA at the 1280 mg/L rate, shoots accumulated more N, P, K, Fe, and Cu, while roots accumulated more K and Ca. Therefore these increases do not appear to be associated with nutrients contained in HA. Eectrolyte leakage, as an indication of membrane permeability, did not differ as a consequence of HA additions. However, electrolyte leakage correlated positively with HA rate. A shift in solution pH from 5.8 to 7.0 had no effect upon on nutrient accumulation or growth of tomato seedlings. The interaction of pH and addition of HA was not significant. [3]

Effect of Agriculture Waste: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruits Peel on Some Important Phytopathogenic Fungi and Control of Tomato Damping-off

Considerable amount of solid wastes in the form of peels and seeds are generated by the fruit processing industries, and these wastes if not disposed correctly are seen to cause serious environmental problems. The aim of this research was to investigate the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of pomegranate peel and evaluation of the antifungal activity against economically important phytopathogenic fungi as well as its effect on the linear growth, and the efficiency of pomegranate powder and its extract against damping-off disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed that, In vitro, methanolic extract of pomegranate peel caused inhibitory effect to the linear growth of six economically important fungal phytopathogens, isolated from different hosts including: Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum dematium, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Phoma spp, and Rhizoctonia solani. Also, Pomegranate peel extract (PPE) effectively decreased linear growth and spore germination of F. oxysporum at 4000 ppm. Under greenhouse conditions, application of pomegranate peel powder as seed treatment or soil treatment deceased pre and post emergence damping off caused by Fusarium oxysporum, compared with untreated infected control. Treating tomato seedlings or soil with peel extract before sowing provided a good protection against damping-off. While soil treatment was more effective than seedling treatment. The major components of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel were identified by Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry analysis.[4]

Isolation and Characterisation of Endophytic Strain Paenibacillus polymyxa SR19 from Urtica dioica and the Study of Their Effect against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp Tomato

In an attempt to obtain biological control agents for fusariose wilt, a total of 54 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from the root of plants Urtica dioica and screened for in vitro antagonist activity against Fusarium oxysporum. Among the 54 bacterial isolates, 27 isolates exhibited more than 60% inhibition of mycelia growth of Fusarium oxysporum. The strain R19 which exhibited the most obvious antagonistic activity was selected for greenhouse studies. The SR19 had no pathogenicity and was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa based on its phenotypical and biochemical properties as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence.
Growth chamber studies resulted in statistically significant increases in inoculating tomato seedling with the endophytic strain SR19 which in turn resulted in improving plant seedling stand by 32% and increasing fresh weights of root and fresh weight of aerial biomass of plants over the untreated pathogen control by 6.95 g and 7.96 g, respectively.
Strain SR19 is a potential biological control agent that may contribute to the protection of tomato plants against fusariose wilt. [5]


[1] Ling, P.P. and Ruzhitsky, V.N., 1996. Machine vision techniques for measuring the canopy of tomato seedling. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 65(2), pp.85-95.

[2] Azarmi, R., Hajieghrari, B. and Giglou, A., 2011. Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response and nutrient uptake. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(31), pp.5850-5855.

[3] David, P.P., Nelson, P.V. and Sanders, D.C., 1994. A humic acid improves growth of tomato seedling in solution culture. Journal of plant nutrition, 17(1), pp.173-184.

[4] Mohamad, T.G. and Khalil, A.A., 2015. Effect of agriculture waste: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits peel on some important phytopathogenic fungi and control of tomato damping-off. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, pp.103-113.

[5] Naoufal, D., Ilham, B., Amine, H. and Khadija, O., 2018. Isolation and Characterisation of Endophytic Strain Paenibacillus polymyxa SR19 from Urtica dioica and the Study of Their Effect against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp Tomato. Annual Research & Review in Biology, pp.1-8.

Pesticides in Agriculture and Environment

Pesticides used in traditional agriculture around the world to control pests, diseases, and weeds are essential for higher output, but they can harm non-target creatures. Pesticide science is an essential area of research, not only for scientists working in the field of agriculture, but also for a variety of other professionals, because the issue necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. Pesticide residues in marketed grains in Brazil, pesticide contamination of water resources, and other important features of pesticide residues in marketed grains in Brazil. This book discusses pesticide bioaccumulation in non-target organisms, as well as the benefits and drawbacks of hormesis to herbicides in agricultural productivity and phytoremediation techniques for herbicide-polluted soils. Even if they are only partially interested in a few chapters, we are confident that readers will find a wealth of important material. Several subjects on current and valuable pesticide science research are presented in this book named “Pesticides in Agriculture and Environment.”

Author(S) Details

Kassio Ferreira Mendes
Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Vicosa, Vicosa – MG, Brazil.

View Book:-

Latest Research on Farm Income : May 21

[1] Farm Income Variability and the Supply of Off‐Farm Labor

If farmers are risk averse, greater farm income variability should increase off‐farm labor supply. This effect is confirmed for a sample of Kansas farmers. Off‐farm employment of farmers and their spouses is also found to be significantly influenced by farm experience, off‐farm work experience, farm size, leverage, efficiency, and farm‐specific education. In addition, farm operators and spouses who receive significant income support through government farm programs are less likely to work off the farm. This may suggest that policy changes reducing farm income support payments may increase off‐farm employment of farmers and their spouses.

[2] Stability of Farm Income and the Role of Nonfarm Income in U.S. Agriculture

This study measures the variability in real net farm income in the U.S. agricultural sector and per farm and determines if variability has diminished over 1933 to 1999. Second, the role of nonfarm income in reducing the variability in total farm household income is examined. Results indicate that the variability in real net farm income in the sector and at the farm level has not diminished and that nonfarm income has helped to reduce the variability in total farm household income.

[3] Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria

While the poverty implications of off-farm income have been analyzed in different developing countries, much less is known about the impact of off-farm income on household food security and nutrition. Here, this research gap is addressed by using farm survey data from Nigeria. Econometric analyses are employed to examine the mechanisms through which off-farm income affects household calorie and micronutrient supply, dietary quality, and child anthropometry. We find that off-farm income has a positive net effect on food security and nutrition. The prevalence of child stunting, underweight, and wasting is lower in households with off-farm income than in households without. Using a structural model, we also show that off-farm income contributes to higher food production and farm income by easing capital constraints, thus improving household welfare in multiple ways.

[4] Profitability of Sugarcane Production and Its Contribution to Farm Income of Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Aims: Aims of the study were to determine how profitable is sugarcane production and its contribution to farm income of farmers in Kaduna state.

Study Design: Primary data were collected for this study from sugarcane farmers through the use of well structured questionnaires.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Maigana Agricultural Zone of Kaduna state, Nigeria between September and December 2014 cropping season.

Methodology: Multistage-stage sampling technique was employed for data collection.

Results: A total of 330 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed. The net farm income of sugarcane farmers in the study area per hectare was realized to be N78,036.05 k. The results also revealed that the average return on investment was N1.83 k; meaning that for every N1 invested in sugarcane production in the study area, a profit of N1.83 k was realized by the farmers. Also, sugarcane production in the study area contributed averagely to about 19.55% of the farmers’ annual farm income.

Conclusion: It is concluded that sugarcane production in the study area was profitable despite the problems encountered; that none of the farmers solely depended on sugarcane farming as his only source of income; rather majority of them (i.e. about 80%) earned most of their income from other sources annually.

[5] Farm and Non-farm Income Diversification in Selected Areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh

 Rural income diversification by increasing income and reducing risk of vulnerability help the poor farmers to improve their standard of living. The study assesses the occupational patterns, sources of income diversification and factors that affect farmer’s decision towards income diversification. The findings will be extended to the rural farmers to identify their potential socioeconomic indicators that affect their livelihood diversification decision. Two villages of Sunamganj district of Bangladesh was purposively selected for this study. The results of the analyses showed that the maximum farmers (25) were following the crop cultivation + fish catching + non-farm occupational pattern. The Simpson index of diversification (SID) showed that the low, medium and high levels of diversified farmers were about 23 percent, 43 percent, and 13 percent, respectively. The result of the Logit model shows that age negatively and farm size positively influence income diversification decision of the farmer while sex, education level, marital status, family size, membership status of the sampled farmers, access to credit and market distance does not. The FGD revealed some coping strategies during the lean period. It could be suggested to the poor farmers to improve their farm activities and to diversify their income sources to non-farm income activities to reduce income vulnerability.



[1] Mishra, A.K. and Goodwin, B.K., 1997. Farm income variability and the supply of off‐farm labor. American Journal of Agricultural Economics79(3), pp.880-887.

[2] Mishra, A.K. and Sandretto, C.L., 2002. Stability of farm income and the role of nonfarm income in US agriculture. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy24(1), pp.208-221.

[3] Babatunde, R.O. and Qaim, M., 2010. Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria. Food policy35(4), pp.303-311.

[4] Sulaiman, M., Abdulsalam, Z. and Damisa, M.A., 2015. Profitability of sugarcane production and its contribution to farm income of farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.1-9.

[5] Sherf-Ul-Alam, M., Ahmed, J.U., Mannaf, M., Fatema, K. and Mozahid, M.N., 2017. Farm and Non-Farm Income Diversification in Selected Areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.1-9.