Latest Research on Farm Income : May 21

[1] Farm Income Variability and the Supply of Off‐Farm Labor

If farmers are risk averse, greater farm income variability should increase off‐farm labor supply. This effect is confirmed for a sample of Kansas farmers. Off‐farm employment of farmers and their spouses is also found to be significantly influenced by farm experience, off‐farm work experience, farm size, leverage, efficiency, and farm‐specific education. In addition, farm operators and spouses who receive significant income support through government farm programs are less likely to work off the farm. This may suggest that policy changes reducing farm income support payments may increase off‐farm employment of farmers and their spouses.

[2] Stability of Farm Income and the Role of Nonfarm Income in U.S. Agriculture

This study measures the variability in real net farm income in the U.S. agricultural sector and per farm and determines if variability has diminished over 1933 to 1999. Second, the role of nonfarm income in reducing the variability in total farm household income is examined. Results indicate that the variability in real net farm income in the sector and at the farm level has not diminished and that nonfarm income has helped to reduce the variability in total farm household income.

[3] Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria

While the poverty implications of off-farm income have been analyzed in different developing countries, much less is known about the impact of off-farm income on household food security and nutrition. Here, this research gap is addressed by using farm survey data from Nigeria. Econometric analyses are employed to examine the mechanisms through which off-farm income affects household calorie and micronutrient supply, dietary quality, and child anthropometry. We find that off-farm income has a positive net effect on food security and nutrition. The prevalence of child stunting, underweight, and wasting is lower in households with off-farm income than in households without. Using a structural model, we also show that off-farm income contributes to higher food production and farm income by easing capital constraints, thus improving household welfare in multiple ways.

[4] Profitability of Sugarcane Production and Its Contribution to Farm Income of Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Aims: Aims of the study were to determine how profitable is sugarcane production and its contribution to farm income of farmers in Kaduna state.

Study Design: Primary data were collected for this study from sugarcane farmers through the use of well structured questionnaires.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Maigana Agricultural Zone of Kaduna state, Nigeria between September and December 2014 cropping season.

Methodology: Multistage-stage sampling technique was employed for data collection.

Results: A total of 330 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed. The net farm income of sugarcane farmers in the study area per hectare was realized to be N78,036.05 k. The results also revealed that the average return on investment was N1.83 k; meaning that for every N1 invested in sugarcane production in the study area, a profit of N1.83 k was realized by the farmers. Also, sugarcane production in the study area contributed averagely to about 19.55% of the farmers’ annual farm income.

Conclusion: It is concluded that sugarcane production in the study area was profitable despite the problems encountered; that none of the farmers solely depended on sugarcane farming as his only source of income; rather majority of them (i.e. about 80%) earned most of their income from other sources annually.

[5] Farm and Non-farm Income Diversification in Selected Areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh

 Rural income diversification by increasing income and reducing risk of vulnerability help the poor farmers to improve their standard of living. The study assesses the occupational patterns, sources of income diversification and factors that affect farmer’s decision towards income diversification. The findings will be extended to the rural farmers to identify their potential socioeconomic indicators that affect their livelihood diversification decision. Two villages of Sunamganj district of Bangladesh was purposively selected for this study. The results of the analyses showed that the maximum farmers (25) were following the crop cultivation + fish catching + non-farm occupational pattern. The Simpson index of diversification (SID) showed that the low, medium and high levels of diversified farmers were about 23 percent, 43 percent, and 13 percent, respectively. The result of the Logit model shows that age negatively and farm size positively influence income diversification decision of the farmer while sex, education level, marital status, family size, membership status of the sampled farmers, access to credit and market distance does not. The FGD revealed some coping strategies during the lean period. It could be suggested to the poor farmers to improve their farm activities and to diversify their income sources to non-farm income activities to reduce income vulnerability.

 

Reference

[1] Mishra, A.K. and Goodwin, B.K., 1997. Farm income variability and the supply of off‐farm labor. American Journal of Agricultural Economics79(3), pp.880-887.

[2] Mishra, A.K. and Sandretto, C.L., 2002. Stability of farm income and the role of nonfarm income in US agriculture. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy24(1), pp.208-221.

[3] Babatunde, R.O. and Qaim, M., 2010. Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria. Food policy35(4), pp.303-311.

[4] Sulaiman, M., Abdulsalam, Z. and Damisa, M.A., 2015. Profitability of sugarcane production and its contribution to farm income of farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.1-9.

[5] Sherf-Ul-Alam, M., Ahmed, J.U., Mannaf, M., Fatema, K. and Mozahid, M.N., 2017. Farm and Non-Farm Income Diversification in Selected Areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.1-9.

Latest Research News on Agriculture : April 21

[1] Agriculture 

Reports that, for the world’s poor, agriculture remains fundamental to (1) eliminating poverty, (2) increasing economic growth, (3) boosting shared prosperity, and (4) promoting environmental sustainability, especially in the context of climate change. To provide immediate relief to countries hard hit by high food prices, the World Bank launched the Global Food Crisis Response Program (GFRP). Emphasis on food security also takes into account inclusive green growth. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) has made agribusiness a priority because of its potential for broad development impact and especially strong role in poverty reduction, while the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency’s (MIGA) guarantees mitigate the noncommercial risks of agribusiness investments.

[2] Nanofertilizers and nanopesticides for agriculture

The excess use of mineral fertilizers and unsafe pesticides has led to pollution and serious health issues. Nanoscience may solve those issues by providing nanomaterials of higher performance. Here we reviewed the development of nanofertilizers and nanopesticides and their applications on crop systems. Nanofertilizers such as N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo and carbon nanotubes show better release and targeted delivery efficiency. Nanopesticides such as Ag, Cu, SiO2, ZnO and nanoformulations show better broad-spectrum pest protection efficiency in comparison with conventional pesticides.

[3] Transforming traditional agriculture

The author concentrates on the economic problem confronting agriculture, presents a theoretical approach to explain the economic stagnation of traditional agriculture, and tests his hypotheses empirically. He identifies the sources of profitable economic growth in transforming traditional agriculture, and discusses investment, including both new material inputs and investments in farm people.

[4] Influence of Kenyan Youth’s Perception towards Agriculture and Necessary Interventions; a Review

Approximately 64% of unemployed persons in Kenya are youth, most of which live in rural areas and lacks formal education and vocational or professional skills. In spite of this, youth participation in agriculture has been relatively low in the country. This may be partly attributed to, among other factors, thepoor perception of the youth on agriculture. Agriculture which is basically a rural-oriented sector remains the backbone of the Kenya’s economy contributing over 30% of GDP. The sector provides over 80% of employment opportunities in the country but remains unattractive to the youth. This implies that most of the Kenyan youth are not fully engaged in productive economic activities which put their dependency index quite high. If the perception of youth towards agriculture is not changed, they will remain a big burden to the society and to their families in particular. There are various activities along the agriculture value chain which the youths can engage in to ensure their self-reliance and create employment thus reducing youth-related social problems and improving national economic growth and self-sufficiency. The paper seeks to analyze and discuss the influence of Kenyan youth’s perception towards agriculture and required interventions. This information will be useful in developing policies that will make agriculture attractive to the youth.

[5] Factors Affecting Agricultural Productivity among Arable Crop Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

The main objectives of the study were to examine and identify the factors that affect agricultural productivity in Imo State, Nigeria. The method of proportionate random sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 99 farmers who were interviewed using validated, structured questionnaire. Primary data collected were analyzed using frequencies, means, and the Ordinary Least Squares multiple regression analysis technique. The results of the analysis show that the marginal value products estimated for farmland, planting materials, chemical fertilizer and labour are 0.0654, 0.0615, 0.0871 and 0.0831 respectively. Yam/cassava/maize/vegetable/melon combination was identified as the main crop combination practiced by the farmers in the state. Analysis of resource use efficiency shows that the farmers are highly efficient in the use of planting materials but highly inefficient in the use of land and chemical fertilizer. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis on the determinants of agricultural productivity show that age, level of education, years of farming experience, farm size, extension contact, fertilizer use, planting materials and labour use are the main determinants of agricultural productivity in the state. It is recommended that extension agents should teach farmers to use the right quality and quantity of chemical fertilizers, and the use of high yielding planting materials to enhance farmers’ productivity

 

Reference

[1] World Bank, 2014. Agriculture.

[2] Chhipa, H., 2017. Nanofertilizers and nanopesticides for agriculture. Environmental chemistry letters15(1), pp.15-22.

[3] Schultz, T.W., 1964. Transforming traditional agriculture. Transforming traditional agriculture.

[4] Njeru, L.K., Gichimu, B.M., Lopokoiyit, M.C. and Mwangi, J.G., 2015. Influence of Kenyan youth’s perception towards agriculture and necessary interventions; a review. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.40-45.

[5] Obasi, P.C., Henri-Ukoha, A., Ukewuihe, I.S. and Chidiebere-Mark, N.M., 2013. Factors affecting agricultural productivity among arable crop farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, pp.443-454.

Latest News on Okra Production: Feb 2021

Trichoderma-fortified compost extracts for the control of choanephora wet rot in okra production

The potential of water extracts produced from rice straw (RST) and empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) composts fortified with Trichoderma harzianum for the control of Choanephora wet rot of okra caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum was studied under field conditions. Disease severity was lowest in plants treated with Trichoderma-fortified RST extracts (9.56%) with a disease index of 1, mancozeb (Dithane M-45® (2 g l−1 of water), Trichoderma-fortified EFB compost extracts, extracts of RST and EFB, and an aqueous suspension of T. harzianum recorded disease severity values of 10.25%, 19.38%, 37.56%, 53.71% and 56.36%, with a disease index of 1, 1, 2, 3 and 3, respectively. There was a reduction of 85.04% in Choanephora wet rot severity on okra treated with Trichoderma-fortified RST extracts during 12 weeks of assessment in the field, which was comparable to the conventional fungicide Dithane M-45®, suggesting that application of extracts produced from well-matured compost fortified with biocontrol agents could be an alternative control strategy. [1]

Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production

Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH3 catalyst, temperature 65 °C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. [2]

Okra production with pine straw mulch

Conventional planted okra in Booneville, Arkansas and Lorman, Mississippi were mulched with loblolly pine straw (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine straw (P. palustris Mill.), respectively, at a rate of 11 t/ha or left bare. At Booneville, plant stand, season yields (18.6 t/ha), pod weight (16.3 g), plant dry weight (2.3 kg), or stem diameter (3.5 cm) were not affected by the loblolly pine mulch. However, mulch application increased pod number (1.22 vs. 1.06×106/ha) and plant height (1.5 vs. 1.6 m), while reducing weed competition (0.05 vs. 0.40 t/ha) and visible plant stress, during periods of soil moisture deficits. Soil temperatures at 5 and 15 cm depth were reduced by mulch until mid-August when plant canopies covered the rows. Seasonal moisture at 30 and 45 cm depths was similar between mulched and bare soils, based upon unreplicated neutron probe measurements. At Lorman, season okra yield (29.8 vs. 24.6 t/ha), number of pods per ha (1.24 vs. 1.07×106) and weed competition were reduced and soil pH lowered 0.56 units by longleaf pine straw mulch. Mulch reduced early season yield at both locations. [3]

Some Okra Production Decisions and Farmers’ Awareness of Meloidogyne species Infection in Two Agro-ecologies, Ghana

A survey was conducted among okra farmers in two agro-ecologies (forest guinea savanna transition and moist semi-deciduous forest) of Ghana between August and December 2014, to assess their production decisions and awareness of the Meloidogyne species infection menace in okra. There were 240 respondents and more males (58%) than females (42%). Thirty nine percent (39%) of the farmers had no formal education and 48% had basic education. Approximately 56% had been cultivating okra for up to 10 years. Sixty four percent (64%) did not treat their okra seeds before sowing. Eighty five percent (85%) cultivated okra on commercial scale level (>3 acres). About 65% practiced sole cropping. Whilst 45, 79, 15 and 47% of the farmers responded positively to the Meloidogyne species infection awareness in okra in the Atwima Nwabiagya, Wenchi, Atebubu Amantin and Kintampo North Districts respectively, none was aware of the infection in the Ejura Sekyedumasi and Offinso North Districts. All, 61, 88, 86, 95 and 72% of the farmers in the Ejura Sekyedumasi, Kintampo North, Atebubu Amantin, Wenchi, Offinso North and Atwima Nwabiagya Districts respectively did not manage the infection. This was first survey study in exploring farmers’ awareness on Meloidogyne species infection in okra. Future studies need to be improved to include the nature of management strategies adopted if any to increase yields and reduce synthetic nematicides usage. [4]

Soil Chemical Properties, Growth Parameters and Yield as Affected by Poultry Manure Tea for Okra Production

A study was conducted in the experimental farm of the Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria to determine the effect of poultry manure tea on soil chemical properties, the vegetative growth and yield of okra.

The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. The treatments consists of 2kg of poultry manure soaked in 50, 75, 100 liters of water and N.P.K 20-10-10 while okra was used as the test crop.

The results showed that the application of 2kg of poultry manure in 100liters of water increased the soil chemical properties significantly while the application of 2kg of poultry manure in 75 liters of water was observed to support more of the vegetative growth of okra as well as the yield of the okra plant. Although, N.P.K 20-10-10 inorganic fertilizer increased the parameters measured, poultry manure tea was significantly better. [5]

Reference

[1] Siddiqui, Y., Meon, S., Ismail, M.R. and Ali, A., 2008. Trichoderma-fortified compost extracts for the control of choanephora wet rot in okra production. Crop Protection, 27(3-5), pp.385-390.

[2] Anwar, F., Rashid, U., Ashraf, M. and Nadeem, M., 2010. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production. Applied Energy, 87(3), pp.779-785.

[3] Makus, D.J., Tiwari, S.C., Pearson, H.A., Haywood, J.D. and Tiarks, A.E., 1994. Okra production with pine straw mulch. Agroforestry systems, 27(2), pp.121-127.

[4] Danso, Y. and Kwoseh, C. (2016) “Some Okra Production Decisions and Farmers’ Awareness of Meloidogyne species Infection in Two Agro-ecologies, Ghana”, Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 11(5), pp. 1-6. doi: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24455.

[5] Ojo, A. O., Sokalu, A. O. and Faramade, A. K. (2014) “Soil Chemical Properties, Growth Parameters and Yield as Affected by Poultry Manure Tea for Okra Production”, Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 5(1), pp. 104-109. doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/9340.

Organoleptic, Chemical, Microbiological Quality and Heavy Metal Safety of Traditionally Dried Marine Fish of Bangladesh

Dried fish products are an important part of the diet of individuals living in the world’s developed and developing countries. Most of these products are prepared using traditional methods that help to satisfy people’s food and nutritional needs, particularly those in groups with low incomes. It is essential to determine the quality and security of these goods in order to protect the health of the customer. Therefore, a study was conducted to gain knowledge of the organoleptic, chemical, microbiological consistency and heavy metal protection of 6 (six) traditionally dried Bangladeshi marine fish. Based on organoleptic characteristics such as colour, odour, texture, insect infestation and the presence of broken pieces in the samples, the products were judged to be of low to moderately acceptable quality. The effects of the proximate composition of these products, such as moisture, crude protein, lipid and ash content, ranged from 18.56% to 24.20%, 33.56% to 58.22%, 2.74% to 15.44% and 15.87% to 32.22%, respectively. Total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) and peroxide (PV) values were respectively 28.46 ± 0.5 to 42.88 ± 4.9 mg N/100g and 46.80 ± 1.9 to 82.70 ± 3.8 m.eq/kg oil, both higher than the recommended dried fish values. In these samples, no harmful coliform bacteria were detected although their microbial load ranged from 0.95 ⁇ 104 to 1.9 ⁇ 105 CFU/g, suggesting varying levels in those products of viable bacteria. When the safety factor was assessed in terms of the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), the toxic metal Pb was found to be far higher than the limits set by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), at an alarming amount. Guidelines regulating the European Community Legislation (EU) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). However, the remaining heavy metals were within the permissible boundaries. These data provide useful information for domestic consumers on these highly relished dried fish, so that they can be selected based on their quality aspects.

Author (s) Details

Professor Dr. Md. Shaheed Reza
Department of Fisheries Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.

Professor Dr. Md. Abul Mansur
Department of Fisheries Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.

Professor Dr. Md. Kamal
Department of Fisheries Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/364

A Recent Approach on Process Optimization and Characterization of Gamma Irradiation Induced Variations in Functional Properties of Maize (Zea mays L.) Flour

The effect on the functional properties of maize flour of particle size and high dose gamma irradiation has been studied. Maize flour collected from 80, 60 and 40 mesh sieves at three particle size levels (<177, <250 and <420 μm) was irradiated in clear glass bottles at three gamma radiation doses (25, 50 and 75 kGy) using a gamma source of 60Co. In response to an increase in the particle size of the flour, a significant linear increase in water holding and swelling capacity and bulk density and a significant linear decrease in emulsifying stability were observed. A significant linear positive effect on water holding ability and solubility, but a significant linear negative effect on oil holding capacity, protein solubility and bulk density values, was observed in the Gamma radiation dose. These observed trends in the functional properties of maize flour with the application of gamma irradiation indicate that the consistency of maize flour can be improved through the irradiation process with regard to the manufacture and packaging of food items. It was found that the particle size of the flour was directly correlated with the ability to retain water, the swelling capacity and the bulk density of the flour. In addition, gamma radiation has a beneficial effect on enhancing the absorption of water and oil, swelling, and emulsifying ability of maize flour.

Author (s) Details

Haq Nawaz
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan-60800, Pakistan.

Muhammad Aslam Shad
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan-60800, Pakistan.

Sonia Safdar
Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan-60800, Pakistan.

Raheela Jabeen
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Women University, Multan-60800, Pakistan.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/364

Tackling the Fusarium spp. Related Mycotoxins in Malting and Brewing Industries

The principal constituents of the commodities used for brewing are fungi, yeasts and bacteria, common microorganisms arising from the field or storage facilities. Along with metabolites from plants, their metabolites lead to the consistency and protection of the final products – malt and beer. The microorganisms most commonly associated with the protection and consistency of beer-producing cereals belong to Fusarium spp. They have a big impact on yields in the region, which alters and decreases farmers’ economic performance. The real issue, however, is their harmful metabolites, mycotoxins, that affect human and animal health. The emerging analytical methodologies extend the range of recognised toxins that can pose a danger to humans and animals, arising from microorganisms and plants. Throughout the barley-beer chain, it is important to control microflora and, in particular, to act promptly on the proliferation of undesired microorganisms before and throughout malting with suppressive methods. An significant action is the avoidance of the occurrence of mycotoxins in final products and by-products. In addition to the mycotoxin in beer malt, Fusarium spp. Upon opening of the bottle or can, it can cause gushing, an excessive over foaming of beer. Gushing can also lead to economic losses and the scepticism of consumers about the quality of the beer chosen.

Author (s) Details

Kristina Habschied
Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, F. Kuhača 20, 31000 Osijek, Croatia.

Vinko Krstanović
Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, F. Kuhača 20, 31000 Osijek, Croatia.

Krešimir Mastanjević
Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, F. Kuhača 20, 31000 Osijek, Croatia.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/364

Cold Press Black Seed Oil and Omega-3 and Its Beneficial Effects on Metabolic Function and Fatty Liver in Obese Model

Aim: A high amount of Thymoquinone (TQ), an antioxidant, is present in Nigella Sativa seeds. Therefore, we hypothesised that Nigella Sativa oil will boost obesity-induced hyperglycemia through the antioxidant properties of TQ, and decrease blood pressure and OX-LDL in obese mice. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of TQ and omega-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) on inflammation associated with obesity, resistance to insulin and the metabolic effects of browning of adipose tissue.
Methods: 3T3-L1 cells, fat adipocytes, were cultured to investigate the effects of TQ and omega-3 on WAT browning. For 20 weeks, C57B16 male mice were fed a high fat diet (HF) beginning at eight weeks of age. Mice were divided into four treatment groups of five animals, each according to the following: group 1) Lean, group 2) HF diet, group 3) HF diet treated with 3% TQ for the last 8 weeks, and group 4) with 3% omega-3. Blood biomarkers, antioxidant biomarkers, mitochondrial activity and accumulation of tissue fat have been measured.
Results: Increased energy-dependent genes and oxygen consumption resulted in 3 percent TQ treatment (P<0.05). Compared to CA gasoline, TQ lowered fasting glucose and blood pressure (P<0.05) levels. TQ increased hepatic HO-1, mitochondrial Mfn2, PGC1aa, phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and decreased OX-LDL (P<0.05) and haptic apoptosis levels. The size of lipid droplets and increased hallmarks of beige adipocyte proteins such as UCP1, PRDM16, FGF21, Sirt1, Mfn2 and HO-1 protein expression, as well as elevated insulin receptors, were reduced by fat adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells, TQ and omega-3. Treatment with TQ and omega-3 in the adipose tissue of HFD mice attenuated levels of inflammatory adipokines, beige adipocyte hallmarks and mitochondrial biogenesis markers. TQ and omega-3 have also increased inflammation and insulin sensitivity in the liver and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes in addition to adipose. Our data show that TQ therapy in combination with omega-3 can play an important role in reducing the fatty liver associated with obesity, insulin resistance and the chronic inflammatory condition of obesity.

Author (s) Details

Maria Licari
Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA and Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA and Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Marco Raffaele
Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA and Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Lars Bellner
Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA.

Luca Vanella
Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Rita Rezzani
Anatomy and Physiopathology Division, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Francesca Bonomini
Anatomy and Physiopathology Division, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Hsin Hsueh Shen
Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA and Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Stephen J. Peterson
Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA and New York Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, NY 11215, USA.

Nader G. Abraham
Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA and Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA.

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The Use of Oleogel as a Fat Replacer in Bakery Products: A Mini Review

Fat is actually a very significant ingredient in the processing of many industrialised foods. However, because its composition includes high levels of saturated and trans fatty acids, its intake has been linked to harmful effects on human health, which has prompted industries to seek alternatives to processed goods for fat replacement. One of the most researched approaches today in the formulation of food products has been the use of oleogel as an alternative to fat replacement. The characteristics that solid fats are capable of providing in bakery products, but with fewer saturated and trans fatty acids, can be given by different organogels. This study focuses on the use of organogels in bakery foods and explores whether the same characteristics of the dough and the consistency of the final bakery products are observed in the use of this fat replacer. When evaluating the functional properties of the dough and the general acceptance of the final product, researchers found appropriate formulations of food products using these organogels, such as those made with solid fat. While there are other techniques to minimise the use of solid fats and, subsequently, the amount of saturated and trans fatty acids in bakery products, oleogelation can be a major industry ally in the development of bakery products as a fat substitute because of its close characteristics to solid fat.

Author (s) Details

L. R. Zandoná
Pharmaceutical-Biochemical Technology Department, Pharmaceutical Sciences School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

S. C. S. Lannes
Pharmaceutical-Biochemical Technology Department, Pharmaceutical Sciences School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/364

Description of Staphylococcus aureus Profile of Some Selected Processed Foods

It is supposed that processed foods are free from pathogenic microorganisms and spoilage, but this is not always true. Therefore, this analysis is intended to determine the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in some foods processed locally. One hundred and sixty samples were purchased from various locations in Calabar, Cross River State, from sixteen different types of processed foods and beverages and microbiologically tested using the Compact Dry X-SA plate for potential contamination with Staphylococcus aureus. The S. existence. In 38 (23.8 percent) of the samples, aureus was present and the overall Staphylococcal counts ranged from 1.2 x 102 cfu/g(ml) to 4.8 x 104 cfu/g(ml), with the highest burger count and the lowest burger load in Rosenberg. With the optimistic S, the food samples. Rosenberg was aureus with an occurrence rate of 30 percent, meat pie with 90 percent, burger 100 percent, donut 100 percent and moi moi moi 60 percent. In some of these foods examined, the presence of Staphylococcus aureus is an indicator of inadequate hygiene practises and a major hazard to consumers’ health. A total of 45 different colonies were isolated and coagulase-positive characteristics screened. 15(33 percent) of the 45 isolates were coagulase positive. The effect of this is that the ingestion of these food items will lead to foodborne staphylococcal illness. For these and similar foods, it is therefore very important for proper hygienic processing and handling practises to be employed.

Author (s) Details

Lennox, A. Josiah
Department of Microbiology, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

B.J. O. Efiuvwevwere
Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

John, Godwin Egbe
Department of Microbiology, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

Asanye, Melinda
Department of Microbiology, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/364

Study on Psychological Bias Caused by Notification of Brand Name in Sensory Evaluation of Mango Fruit Drink

The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the brand name influences the assessment of sensory-based characteristics in the buying process of a product. Even if it induces psychological bias in sensory assessment of mango fruit drink, brand name plays an important role. We performed five separate sensory blind tests, open tests, exchange sample tests, duplicate tests and brand recognition tests in this study to verify the bias induced by brand name notification. For all the tests, the same respondents were assessed. Using the 1-9 hedonic scale, sensory assessment was conducted on attributes such as colour, smell, taste, sweetness, mouth feel, viscosity and overall acceptance. Results of tests showed that brand name induces prejudice during mango fruit drink sensory evaluation. People were aware of mango drinks by their brand name and not by their quality of taste or product. During the open and interchange sample test, the brand obtained more successful scores. It is observed after carrying out the test that different products can taste more or less the same, but the brand name is special, which guides the sensory assessment. In the brand awareness survey, people were unable to recognise the brand by sampling it. On average, the brand was effectively recognised by taste by just 20 percent of customers. The outcome of each test indicates that in sensory assessment, brand name plays an important role because customers appear to be biassed towards a well-known brand as they trust the brand. In all the attributes, there is the propensity to score a popular brand higher. It is also concluded that a significant role is played by being competitive in the quality of the market product as well as brand awareness.

Author (s) Details

Bandana Chatterjee
Department of Food Technology, University of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Kanchan Modi
Department of Biotechnology, Patna, Bihar, India.

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