Farm Income Variability and the Supply of Off‐Farm Labor
If farmers are risk averse, greater farm income variability should increase off‐farm labor supply. This effect is confirmed for a sample of Kansas farmers. Off‐farm employment of farmers and their spouses is also found to be significantly influenced by farm experience, off‐farm work experience, farm size, leverage, efficiency, and farm‐specific education. In addition, farm operators and spouses who receive significant income support through government farm programs are less likely to work off the farm. This may suggest that policy changes reducing farm income support payments may increase off‐farm employment of farmers and their spouses.
 Stability of Farm Income and the Role of Nonfarm Income in U.S. Agriculture
This study measures the variability in real net farm income in the U.S. agricultural sector and per farm and determines if variability has diminished over 1933 to 1999. Second, the role of nonfarm income in reducing the variability in total farm household income is examined. Results indicate that the variability in real net farm income in the sector and at the farm level has not diminished and that nonfarm income has helped to reduce the variability in total farm household income.
 Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria
While the poverty implications of off-farm income have been analyzed in different developing countries, much less is known about the impact of off-farm income on household food security and nutrition. Here, this research gap is addressed by using farm survey data from Nigeria. Econometric analyses are employed to examine the mechanisms through which off-farm income affects household calorie and micronutrient supply, dietary quality, and child anthropometry. We find that off-farm income has a positive net effect on food security and nutrition. The prevalence of child stunting, underweight, and wasting is lower in households with off-farm income than in households without. Using a structural model, we also show that off-farm income contributes to higher food production and farm income by easing capital constraints, thus improving household welfare in multiple ways.
 Profitability of Sugarcane Production and Its Contribution to Farm Income of Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Aims: Aims of the study were to determine how profitable is sugarcane production and its contribution to farm income of farmers in Kaduna state.
Study Design: Primary data were collected for this study from sugarcane farmers through the use of well structured questionnaires.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Maigana Agricultural Zone of Kaduna state, Nigeria between September and December 2014 cropping season.
Methodology: Multistage-stage sampling technique was employed for data collection.
Results: A total of 330 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed. The net farm income of sugarcane farmers in the study area per hectare was realized to be N78,036.05 k. The results also revealed that the average return on investment was N1.83 k; meaning that for every N1 invested in sugarcane production in the study area, a profit of N1.83 k was realized by the farmers. Also, sugarcane production in the study area contributed averagely to about 19.55% of the farmers’ annual farm income.
Conclusion: It is concluded that sugarcane production in the study area was profitable despite the problems encountered; that none of the farmers solely depended on sugarcane farming as his only source of income; rather majority of them (i.e. about 80%) earned most of their income from other sources annually.
 Farm and Non-farm Income Diversification in Selected Areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh
Rural income diversification by increasing income and reducing risk of vulnerability help the poor farmers to improve their standard of living. The study assesses the occupational patterns, sources of income diversification and factors that affect farmer’s decision towards income diversification. The findings will be extended to the rural farmers to identify their potential socioeconomic indicators that affect their livelihood diversification decision. Two villages of Sunamganj district of Bangladesh was purposively selected for this study. The results of the analyses showed that the maximum farmers (25) were following the crop cultivation + fish catching + non-farm occupational pattern. The Simpson index of diversification (SID) showed that the low, medium and high levels of diversified farmers were about 23 percent, 43 percent, and 13 percent, respectively. The result of the Logit model shows that age negatively and farm size positively influence income diversification decision of the farmer while sex, education level, marital status, family size, membership status of the sampled farmers, access to credit and market distance does not. The FGD revealed some coping strategies during the lean period. It could be suggested to the poor farmers to improve their farm activities and to diversify their income sources to non-farm income activities to reduce income vulnerability.
 Mishra, A.K. and Goodwin, B.K., 1997. Farm income variability and the supply of off‐farm labor. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 79(3), pp.880-887.
 Mishra, A.K. and Sandretto, C.L., 2002. Stability of farm income and the role of nonfarm income in US agriculture. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 24(1), pp.208-221.
 Babatunde, R.O. and Qaim, M., 2010. Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria. Food policy, 35(4), pp.303-311.
 Sulaiman, M., Abdulsalam, Z. and Damisa, M.A., 2015. Profitability of sugarcane production and its contribution to farm income of farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.1-9.
 Sherf-Ul-Alam, M., Ahmed, J.U., Mannaf, M., Fatema, K. and Mozahid, M.N., 2017. Farm and Non-Farm Income Diversification in Selected Areas of Sunamganj District of Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.1-9.