Effect of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.)
The response of twelve rice varieties against six salinity levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1) were studied at germination and early seedling stages. Data were analyzed using SAS and means were separated by LSD for final germination percentage (FGP), speed of germination (SG), germination
energy percentage (GE%), plumule and radical length and plumule and radical dry weight. Based on dry matter yield reduction, rice varieties were classified as tolerant (T), moderately tolerant (MT), moderately susceptible (MS) or susceptible (S). Germination was completely arrested at 20 dS m-1 salt concentration. Salinity decreased FGP, SG, GE % and led to reduction in shoot and root length and dry weight in all varieties and the magnitude of reduction increased with increasing salinity stress. Rice
varieties MR211, IR20, BR40 and MR232 showed greater salt tolerance during germination (germinated at 12 dS m-1 salinity). However, MR211, MR232 and IR20 performed better based on dry matter yield reduction. The result suggested that MR211, MR232 and IR20 might be used for further study of salinity effect on growth processes and physiological consequences at advanced stage of growth, since salt tolerance of a crop at germination and early seedling stage may not correspond to that at advanced stage. 
The effect of soil puddling on the soil physical properties and the growth of rice and post-rice crops
Changes in soil physical properties due to traditional methods of puddling for lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) production and post-rice legumes was investigated in field experiments conducted on three sites in Indonesia and two in the Philippines over a 3-year period. Puddling treatments used in the field were, in increasing order of puddling intensity, dry cultivation prior to submergence, one and two plowing and harrowing treatments using a draught animal and associated implements, and two cultivations using a mechanical roto tiller. Rice was followed by mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilzek) on all five sites, and in addition soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) at Ngale and peanut (Aracis hypogaea L.) at Jambegede were also grown. All puddling treatments were followed by post-rice treatments of surface drainage (with and without surface drains) for the Indonesian sites and sowing technique (zero-till-dibble versus plough-broadcast-harrow) for the Philippine sites. Rice yields were highest under the traditional puddling techniques using draught animal traction. Results suggested that puddling with a roto tiller reduced yield because of insufficient depth of puddling, while dry cultivation may have reduced yield due to increased soil strength of the puddled layer; both are thought to limit root development. Puddling had no significant effect on post-rice mungbean and peanut production. However, results showed that increasing puddling intensity tended to reduce soybean yield. Dry cultivation of lighter textured, well drained soils such as at Manaoag, tended to require more intensive weed control in both rice and dryseason crops compared to higher puddled treatments. Weed infestation was thought to be the largest contributing factor for reduced mungbean yield at Manaoag. Increasing soil puddling intensity at Ngale and Jambegede appeared to reduce root growth. Soil water depletion tended to be smaller in the plough layer that was cultivated under wet conditions compared to pre-rice dry land preparation. Soil water extraction was small and root proliferation was upto 40 cm depth under wet conditions where plant water requirements were met from seasonal rainfall. Root proliferation was deeper and soil water use greater under dry climatological conditions. Small amounts of subsoil water use resulted in substantial yield increases ranging from 3–24 kg mm−1 of soil water used, reinforcing the important role of subsoil water storage and use by the dry season crop in this farming system. 
Effect of Carbon Nanomaterials on the Germination and Growth of Rice Plants
For the successful diverse applications of different nanomaterials in life sciences, it is necessary to understand the ultimate fate, distribution and potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials. Phytotoxicity studies using higher plants is an important criterion for understanding the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. We studied the effects of engineered carbon nanomaterials of various dimensionalities (carbon nanotubes, C60, graphene) on the germination of rice seeds. A pronounced increase in the rate of germination was observed for rice seeds in the presence of some of these carbon nanostructures, in particular the nanotubes. Increased water content was observed in the carbon nanomaterial treated seeds during germination compared to controls. The germinated seeds were then grown in a basal growth medium supplemented with carbon nanomaterials for studying their impact on further seedling growth. Treated seedlings appeared to be healthier with well-developed root and shoot systems compared to control seedlings. Our results indicate the possible use for carbon nanomaterials as enhancers in the growth of rice seedlings. 
Effect of NaCl Induced Stress on Germination and Seedling Growth of Various Oryza sativa L. Genotypes
An experimental study aimed to investigate the effect of saline stress on rice (Oryza saliva L.) germination and early seedling characteristics, and genotypic differences in response to saline stress was conducted under lab conditions at College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Germination percentage (%), germination rate, emergence energy (%), germination speed, seedling height (cm), vigour index, seedling fresh and dry weights (mg) were recorded. Treatments consist of three different saline stress levels: 0 mM (Control), 100 mM and 200 mM, and eight rice genotypes; Basmati 385 and Super Basmati (Pakistani), Sakha 101, Sakha 102, Sakha 103, Sakha 104, Sakha 105 and Sakha 106 (Egyptian). It was conceived from results that saline stress significantly affected all the germination parameters in reverse order. (0 mM < 100 mM < 200 mM). Genotypic differences among rice cultivars germinating under saline stress were also recorded significant. Most valuable outcome of the study: interaction between various levels of saline stress and rice genotypes were highly significant. Sakha 101, Sakha 103, Sakha 106 and Basmati 385 have performed better even under 200 mM NaCl; they have higher level of saline stress tolerance potential and could be used in future breeding programs. 
Effect of Different Methods of Zn Application on Rice Growth, Yield and Nutrients Dynamics in Plant and Soil
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 2394-1073,Vol.: 6, Issue.: 2
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