Feasibility of Artificial Insemination Network for Egyptian Buffalo Development: A Literature Reviews

Egypt has a competitive advantage in milk production rather than red meat production, particularly from buffalo, according to literature evaluations. Furthermore, water resources are becoming increasingly restricted, limiting fodder acreage horizontal expansion. Furthermore, there is strong competition for available agricultural land resources between food and feed needs. As a result, horizontal dairy buffalo stock expansion is difficult. As a result, vertical expansion through improved milk output is the sole option for buffalo development in Egypt to address the existing domestic milk production gap. The Egyptian customer loves buffalo milk because of its vibrant colour and high total solids content, notably fat. Buffalo milk is more expensive than cow milk, yet its production is growing at a quicker rate than cow milk’s. An artificial insemination (AI) network is being used to speed up the anticipated genetic improvement of buffalo milk output. A recent study [1] showed that the return on genetic investment in dairy buffalo might be achieved (IRR = 19.71%). Egypt, on the other hand, has only two AI-centers for selected buffalo sires, supplying four AI-units, according to official figures. As a result, the purpose of this research was to determine the feasibility of constructing an AI network in Egypt by evaluating (NPV, IRR, and payback period) as well as the sensitivity of the proposed programme to negative developments. An AI-unit of buffaloes’ semen and an AI-Center for raising buffalo sires in the Nile Delta were used in the study, as well as data from a field survey. While the Egyptian economy’s average discount rate was 17.5 percent, the predicted IRR for one AI-unit was roughly 35 percent under the most likely scenario, according to the data. IRRs of roughly 28 percent and 31 percent, respectively, would arise from a 10% fall in semen price and a 10% increase in insemination costs. The AI-projected center’s IRR under the most likely circumstances was around 31%. A 10% decrease in the price of sperm and a 10% increase in feed costs or the price of the sire would result in 26 percent, 30 percent, or 28 percent savings, respectively. As a result, the lowest semen dose sale price is the most effective variable on the IRR. Unfavorable adjustments, on the other hand, would keep high-return investments in building a viable AI-Network for significantly expanding dairy buffalo milk yield.

Author (s) Details

Ibrahim Soliman
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Ahmed F. Mashhour
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

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An Advance Study on Dairy Buffalo Development through Investment in Genetic Improvement

In Asian countries, dairy products are an essential source of animal protein, particularly for nutritionally disadvantaged groups and vegetarians. As a result, raising buffalo milk output through genetic improvement from the sperm of a selected buffalo sire with a high anticipated milk difference is the preferred method of expanding domestic milk supply. Data was acquired from Artificial Insemination Centers in Egypt as a case study to evaluate the rate of return (IRR) on genetic investment using a dynamic mathematical investment model. The reproductive qualities and feed efficiency are the most essential variables in IRR, aside from the economic variables. It was possible to achieve the most likely IRR of 19.71 percent. The IRR would be reduced by 7.51 percent if the number of conception services, the age at First Calving, and the service length were all increased by 10%. If feed efficiency were to reduce by 10%, the IRR would drop by 9%. If feed costs, sperm prices, and milk prices all declined by 10%, the IRR would be reduced by 7%. Domestic genetic merit is necessary to import buffalo sires’ semen with a high anticipated milk difference at reasonable prices until establishment.

Author (s) Details

Ibrahim Soliman
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Basher Bahgat
Department of Agricultural Economics, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

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The Chalactalistcs of Inhalational Anesthesia for Cats

While sevoflurane is becoming more often used in veterinary medicine, it can produce dose-dependent hypotension, hypoventilation, decreased cardiac contractility, and hypothermia. To avoid excessive anaesthetic depth, sevoflurane must be carefully titrated and monitored due to these adverse effects. “Produces immobility in 50% of rats exposed to unpleasant stimulus,” according to one anaesthetic depth evaluation employing a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). There is currently limited information on the MAC of sevoflurane required for blunting adrenergic responses (MAC-BAR) in cats. As a result, the MAC and MAC-BAR of sevoflurane required to suppress autonomic reactions and intentional movements in cats were compared in this investigation.

Methods: To assess sevoflurane MAC and MACBAR, six adult healthy domestic short haired cats (1 year old, 3 males and 3 females) were anaesthetized with sevoflurane on two occasions with a minimum 14-day washout period.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between sevoflurane MAC (2.920.47%) and MAC-BAR (3.240.41%).

Conclusions and Clinical Implications: These findings suggested that in sevoflurane-anaesthetized cats, harmful cardiovascular side effects such as hypotension and decreased cardiac contractility can readily develop.

Author (s) Details

Tadashi Sano
Rakuno Gakuen University, Japan.

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An Assessment of the Suitability of Soils Supporting Oilpalm Plantations in the Coastal Plains Sand, Imo State, Nigeria

Oilpalm yields have been falling, thus soils supporting oilpalms in Imo State’s coastal plains sand have been explored. A bulked sample was taken at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths at each of the ten sites investigated and analysed in the lab. Sandy clayloam dominated the soil’s surface, whereas sandy clayloam dominated the subsurface. pH (4.1–5.6), ECEC (5.7–8.7 cmol/kg), BS (36–87%), OM (1–4.7 g/kg), TN (0.01–0.14 g/kg), Av. P (6–/kg), Fe (0–233 mg/kg), Cu (0–1.2 mg/kg), Zn (0.3–14 mg/kg), Mn (5.7–145.6 mg/kg) were the parameters measured at the topsoil. The condition modifiers g (gley – in the valleys), e (low cec), h (strong acidity), and k (strong acidity) were detected in the soils via the Fertility Capability Classification (fcc) (low content of k). However, the primary limiting factors by appropriateness rating were OM (N), TN (S3/N), and K (S3/S2). The soils were generally suitable (S2) for Oilpalm growth. Alluvial areas should be lightly drained, mild liming (particularly of alluvial soils), liberal nitrogen fertiliser application, and moderate potassium fertiliser application are all advised. The parametric assessment approach was more realistic than the non-parametric evaluation method.

Author (s) Details

E. P. Ukaegbu
Department of Agriculture Science, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria.

S. K. Osuaku
Department of Agriculture Science, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria.

C. C. Okolo
Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

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Study on Staphylococcal Species Detected in Digestive Tract of Beavers (Castor fiber) and Their Variability with Properties

Staphylococci from the intestines of a beaver (Castor fibre) were studied as a contribution to fundamental microbiology and as part of a beaver microbiome investigation. Methodology: In the north-east portion of Poland, Województwo (Provincie) Podlaskie Gmina-Wizajny, GPS:22o 52E:54o22N, free-living beavers (12), both male and female (aged 4-5 years) were collected using a net and placed in wire cages. In Poland, sampling was made available. The ethical norms for animal handling were observed for sampling the jejunum (12), colon (12), and caecum (6).

The average number of staphylococci discovered in the jejunum was 2.73 1.16 cfu/g (log 10); the average number of staphylococci in the caecum was 1.87 0.37 cfu/g; and the average number of staphylococci in the colon was 2.89 1.70 cfu/g. Following a score analysis using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, a high degree of variability in staphylococcal species distribution in the gut of beavers was discovered; in total, nine species were identified, belonging to five clusters, and the strains were assigned to the coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. S. hominis and S. haemolyticus were the most commonly found species (five strains for each). Two strains each of S. epidermidis and S. lentus, S. pasteuri, S. cohnii, S. vitulinus, S. warneri, and S. xylosus, S. pasteuri, S. cohnii, S. vitulinus, S. warneri, and S. xylosus Deoxyribonuclease and nearly haemolysis negative strains were found in fifteen of the strains. Ten isolates (not all of which were from the same species) showed low-grade biofilm forming potential. The majority of the germs were methicillin-resistant and produced a lot of lactic acid.

Conclusion: This study adds to the body of knowledge about the staphylococcal microbiome of beavers and allows for a more in-depth examination of specific strain species.

Author (s) Details

Andrea Lauková
Institute of Animal Physiology, Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Šoltésovej 4-6, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia.

Jana Šcerbová
Institute of Animal Physiology, Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Šoltésovej 4-6, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia.

Anna Kandricáková
Institute of Animal Physiology, Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Šoltésovej 4-6, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia.

Renata Miltko
The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3, Jablonna 051 10, Poland.

Grzegorz Belzecki
The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Instytucka 3, Jablonna 051 10, Poland.

Monika Pogány Simonová
Institute of Animal Physiology, Centre of Biosciences of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Šoltésovej 4-6, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia.

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A Short Review on Chicken Heterophil

Heterophils are the most important leukocytes in phagocytosis in birds. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (heterophils) are a type of polymorphonuclear leukocyte. They’re a part of the body’s natural defence mechanism. When hens come into contact with diseases, they have a primary response. Heterophils are mammalian counterparts to neutrophils; like neutrophils, they respond swiftly to infections and become activated quickly, thanks to chemotaxis. Bacteria, their proteins, and their structures are detected by Toll Like Receptors (TLRs), which are specialised receptors found in immune cells. They contain antibacterial chemicals that are released when germs come into contact with them. Their roles are determined by genetics. They are phagocytic, and their antimicrobial activity may be measured in a variety of methods.

Author (s) Details

N. Anand Laxmi
ICAR- Directorate of Poultry Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India.

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Study on Physiological Effects of Nicotine

Nicotine is regarded to be the principal component in tobacco smoke that acts as a neurotoxin and is responsible for the majority of the negative effects on body functions. Nicotine has an impact on metabolic and cellular processes, as well as hormone secretions and haematological systems. The mice’s haematological parameters, lipid profile, liver enzymes, and reproductive hormones were all altered when they were given nicotine levels.

Author (s) Details

Saima Sharif
Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Shagufta Naz
Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.

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Study on the Effect of Day Length and Seasonal Variation on Haematological, Biochemical and Hormonal Traits of Indigenous Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris) in Ghana

The purpose of this study was to see how day length and season affected the haematological, biochemical, and hormonal profiles of laying Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris). Each of the four hens and one male was given 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness (12L: 12D), 14 hours of light and 10 hours of darkness (14L: 10D), 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness (16L: 8D), and 18 hours of light and 6 hours of darkness (18L: 6D) (18L: 6D). In a 3×4 factorial experiment, each group was reproduced three times and reared in three seasons (dry December-March, major rains April-July, and minor rains August-November). SAS’s General Linear Model technique was used to examine the data. Higher by a significant amount (p0.05). 16L: 8D had the greatest (p0.05) packed cell volume (PCV), lymphocytes and eosinophils, total serum protein, and prolactin levels, whereas 14L: 10D had the highest (p0.05) neutrophil and albumin. In heavy rains, PCV and platelets were highest (p0.05), whereas red blood cells and neutrophils were highest (p0.05) in dry and minor rainy seasons, respectively. Between the dry and minor rainy seasons, total serum protein rose (p0.05). Major rains had the highest levels of oestrogen and luteinizing hormones (p0.05), while minor rains had the highest levels of prolactin (p0.05) and major rains had the lowest levels. Except for prolactin, the interaction effect was not significant (p>0.05). According to the conclusions of this study, a daylength of 14-16 hours and a substantial rainy season in Ghana sustain acceptable haematological, biochemical, and hormonal profiles of Guinea.

Author (s) Details

Korankye Okyere
Department of Animal Science Education, Faculty of Agriculture Education, University of Education of Winneba, P.O.Box 40, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana.

Kagya-Agyemang James Kwame
Department of Animal Science Education, Faculty of Agriculture Education, University of Education of Winneba, P.O.Box 40, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana.

Annor Serekye Yaw
Department of Animal Science Education, Faculty of Agriculture Education, University of Education of Winneba, P.O.Box 40, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana.

Asabere-Ameyaw Akwasi
Department of Biology Education, Faculty of Science Education, University of Education of Winneba, P.O.Box 25, Winneba, Ghana.

Kyere Gyeabour Clement
Department of Animal Science Education, Faculty of Agriculture Education, University of Education of Winneba, P.O.Box 40, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana.

Afua Sarpong Asamoa-Bonsu
Department of Catering and Hospitality, Faculty of Vocational Education, University of Education, Winneba, Post Office Box 1277 Kumasi, Ghana.

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Study on the Effect of Parity on Milk Letdown Time in Mehsana Buffaloes

The influence of parity on milk let-down time in Mehsana buffaloes was investigated in a study. On the basis of parity (1-4 lactation), twenty-four Mehsana buffaloes were divided into four groups and kept in the same feeding and housing circumstances. For six months, data on letdown time for different parity buffaloes was collected at morning and evening milking six days a month. For the months of August, September, November, and January, the average letdown time was longer in the evening milking, whereas it was longer in the morning milking in the months of October and December, and the difference was not significant. Lactation-I (L1), Lactation-II (L2), Lactation-III (L3), and Lactation-IV (L4) letdown times were 71.15, 69.22, 62.30, and 56.65 seconds, respectively, with an overall average of 64.83 seconds. The variations between lactation were significant (P0.01). With increased parity, a decreasing trend in letdown time was seen. Morning milking took 65.58 seconds longer than evening milking (64.09 seconds), but the difference was not significant. It may be stated that as the parity of the Mehsana buffaloes increases, the average time required for letdown reduces. As a result, teat manipulation should be given to first-time calvers before to calving, and pre-milking udder stimulation should be included to the milking regimen.

Author (s) Details

H. A. Patel
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Junagadh Agricultural University, Porbandar, India.

A. K. Srivastava
Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University (SDAU) Sardarkrushinagar, Dist: Banaskantha (Gujarat), India.

H. D. Chauhan
Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University (SDAU) Sardarkrushinagar, Dist: Banaskantha (Gujarat), India.

J. B. Patel
Department of Livestock Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University (SDAU) Sardarkrushinagar, Dist: Banaskantha (Gujarat), India.

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A Review on the Role of Poultry in Food Borne Salmonellosis and Its Public Health Importance

Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by Salmonella germs are a major public health problem. Salmonella is isolated from chicken more frequently than from other livestock animals. Salmonella organisms can damage all aspects of chicken production, including hatcheries, incubators, breeding facilities, commercial layer and broiler raising operations, feed preparation units and factories, transportation networks, commercialization facilities, and slaughterhouses. Because of globalisation, a tainted meal might damage the health of people in multiple nations at the same time. Foodborne salmonellosis caused by poultry products has been observed in several countries around the world, including India. Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium are the most common serovars with public health implications. Antibiotic-resistant serotypes in chicken are on the rise at an alarming rate. Multiple risk variables influence the safety of poultry food. There should be programmes to raise consumer awareness about food safety and to guide food handlers and animal breeders, particularly of poultry, in the safe production of food from farm to table, in order to effectively prevent and manage foodborne salmonellosis.

Author (s) Details

Jinu Manoj
College Central Laboratory, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, Haryana, India.

M. K. Singh
College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, SVPUAT, Meerut, India.

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