Titanium alloy production technology, market prospects and industry development
Titanium alloy with a low density, high specific strength, corrosion resistance and good process performance, is the ideal structural materials for the aerospace engineering. Based on the microstructure of titanium alloys, it can be divided into α-type titanium alloys (heat-resistant titanium alloys), β-type titanium alloys and α + β-type titanium alloys. The research scopes also include the fabrication technology of titanium alloys, powder metallurgy, rapid solidification technology, and other military and civilian applications of titanium alloys. Titanium and its alloys have become the ideal structural materials used for the fuselage, and accounted for a significant part of the structural quality in most military aircrafts. Titanium’s future market expectations need to be considered in the macro level market. Apart from the supply and demand trends of titanium market, it is necessary to consider the impact of technological innovations that can help to reduce the cost of titanium production.
 Industrialization of mAb production technology: The bioprocessing industry at a crossroads
Manufacturing processes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have evolved tremendously since the first licensed mAb product (OKT3) in 1986. The rapid growth in product demand for mAbs triggered parallel efforts to increase production capacity through construction of large bulk manufacturing plants as well as improvements in cell culture processes to raise product titers. This combination has led to an excess of manufacturing capacity, and together with improvements in conventional purification technologies, promises nearly unlimited production capacity in the foreseeable future. The increase in titers has also led to a marked reduction in production costs, which could then become a relatively small fraction of sales price for future products which are sold at prices at or near current levels. The reduction of capacity and cost pressures for current state-of-the-art bulk production processes may shift the focus of process development efforts and have important implications for both plant design and product development strategies for both biopharmaceutical and contract manufacturing companies.
 Product Line Design and Production Technology
In this paper we characterize the impact of production technology on the optimal product line design. We analyze a problem in which a manufacturer segments the market on quality attributes and offers products that are partial substitutes. Because consumers self-select from the product line, product cannibalization is an issue. In addition, the manufacturer sets a production schedule in order to balance production setups with accumulation of inventories in the presence of economies of scale. We show that simultaneous optimization of the product line design and production schedule leads to insights that differ significantly from the common intuition and assertions in the literature, which omits either the demand side or the supply side of the equation. In particular, we demonstrate that more expensive production technology always leads to lower product prices and may at the same time lead to higher quality products. Further, a less efficient production technology does not necessarily increase total production costs or reduce consumer welfare. We also demonstrate that in the presence of production technology, the demand cannibalization problem may distort product quality upward or the number of products upward, which is contrary to the standard result.
 Production Technology and Applications of Kojic Acid
Kojic acid is produced industrially by Aspergillus species in aerobic fermentation. The production of kojic acid is increasing because of its commercial value in industry. Kojic acid has various applications in several fields. It is widely used in cosmetic industry, medicine, food industry, agriculture and chemical industry. Nowadays, kojic acid plays a crucial role in cosmetic, especially skin care products because it can enhance the ability to prevent exposure to UV-radiation. Kojic acid continues to attract attention because of its economic potential in medical field as an anti-inflammatory drug and painkiller. In food industry, kojic acid is used in post harvest process as an anti-speck and an anti-browning agent for agricultural product. Due to various usage of this organic molecule, the demand of kojic acid has been increasing rapidly. Thus the studies to improve the kojic acid production are still extensively conducted.
 Socioeconomic Determinants of Livestock Production Technology Adoption in Northern Ghana
The Northern region of Ghana hosts the largest number of livestock producers compared to the other regions, but output is still low despite the introduction of improved technologies which have the potential to increase livestock yields when adopted and provide better livelihoods to participating households. Consequently, adoption of improved technologies has been low, slow and uncertain. This study set out to examine factors that influence the adoption of livestock production technologies. One hundred and fifty (150) livestock farmers were randomly sampled from six communities in three districts of the region. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and a logit regression model. The results showed that the low level of awareness of livestock production technologies have contributed to the low adoption by farmers. The logit regression results disclosed that the likelihood to adopt livestock production technology was significantly explained for 56% by extension contact, intent of producing livestock, number of children, herd size (for some animals species), source of stock, farm record keeping, education and gender. 44% of variation in adoption is therefore caused by other factors. It is recommended that any intervention to increase the adoption of livestock production technology should focus on creating greater awareness and also consider the specific policy variables that influence adoption.
 Cui, C., Hu, B., Zhao, L. and Liu, S., 2011. Titanium alloy production technology, market prospects and industry development. Materials & Design, 32(3), pp.1684-1691.
 Kelley, B., 2009, September. Industrialization of mAb production technology: the bioprocessing industry at a crossroads. In MAbs (Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 443-452). Taylor & Francis.
 Netessine, S. and Taylor, T.A., 2007. Product line design and production technology. Marketing Science, 26(1), pp.101-117.
 Chaudhary, J., Pathak, A.N. and Lakhawat, S., 2014. Production technology and applications of kojic acid. Annual Research & Review in Biology, pp.3165-3196.
 Ansah, I.G.K., Eib, D. and Amoako, R., 2015. Socioeconomic determinants of livestock production technology adoption in northern Ghana. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, pp.166-182.