Self and Management Ratings of Job Performance in the Perspective of Teachers’ Career Success

The aim of this study is to explore the effect of job performance on the success of teachers in the Malaysian school context. In this study, two dimensions of job performance were examined, such as mission performance and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). This examination led to more knowledge by accepting the various interpretations of job performance assessments in the form of self and management ratings for the career progress of teachers. The data was collected from 390 respondents via mail surveys. The results suggested that the selfrating of job success was the only factor correlated with the inherent career achievement of teachers. There were no major connections between OCB self-ratings on either the extrinsic career achievement of teachers or the intrinsic career success of teachers. This study found that the OCB management ranking was the key factor correlated with the intrinsic career performance of teachers. There were no notable relations between job performance management scores on the extrinsic career success of teachers and the intrinsic career success of teachers. This investigation has given some new information that can be guided to the Ministry of Education (MOE) in order to improve the level of teacher performance and OCB, especially in the Malaysian school climate.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ummi Naiemah Saraih
Faculty of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Jalan Kangar-Alor Setar, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia.

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A Brief Discussion: Me, Religion and Culture

The spiritual realm that envelops us, me-the creative person, religion-the uncontainable cosmos, and culture-is the triad that guides the essay. Religion and culture reflect certain soft human dimensions that rationalists such as economists and politicians generally do not investigate. Human beings, who are the initiators and the motivators of such systems, carry out all superhuman systems of faith and worship. Individuality is imperative because imagination and innovation are conceived. As long as it maintains a complex balance between personal rights, duties and responsibilities, it should be promoted. The negative opinion of Marx on religion is rejected because it is clear that religion was and still is a critical response to very ancient human needs. People have been in search of mysteries, unhuman incidents and disastrous occurrences since the early days of civilization. The proper response was found to be God and his postulates. A key component of any social system is culture, which is the expression of human physical and spiritual achievement. It is also mistreated because it is intangible and is concerned with values other than money. Culture must begin at home, before looking to global arenas, to ensure progress and further expansion. Its advocates must learn to deal with the new risks that have arisen from the rapid development of technology. Today’s world is shifting. Nothing is certain in the Post-modern period of the 21st Century. The only known thing at present is confusion. This condition allows religious individuals to pursue redemption from God and non-religious persons to promote escapism. Laypersons and talented individuals are split into people who are imaginative, reckless and egotistic. In this extraordinary transformation, which often looks like a revolt, both classes, the everlasting worshipers of religion, the advocates of multifaceted culture and the general public participate. The article concludes with a positive outlook and a hope that the Western Civilization will recover the leadership position of its world, provided the requisite restoration measures are taken.

Author(s) Details

Amos Avny
Senior Management and Strategy Consultant, Omnidev International, Israel.

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An Overview of History and Current Situation of Education for Children with Disabilities in Cambodia: A Gray Literature Review

The private sector has been in charge of educating all children with disabilities in Cambodia. The schooling of children with visual and hearing impairments will, however, be shifted to the public education system in 2020. In this paper, we report on historical improvements to the existing state of education for people with disabilities in the Cambodian education system. This article is based on interviews with Mr. Pen Thavy, the Cambodian government’s materials, and other supporting documents. The “Convention on the Rights of the Child,” adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on November 20, 1989, was the first turning point in the Cambodian movement towards education for children with disabilities. This treaty was ratified by Cambodia in 1992. In Cambodia, the principle of “Education for All” was implemented into educational policy. The “Educational law” passed in 2007 was the first law to explicitly mention education for children with disabilities. Three NGO schools are run by schools specialising in education for children with disabilities. One is the Krousar Thmey Foundation, which runs 8 visual/hearing disability schools for girls. Another is Rabbit-School, which has admitted 26 students in the special class, 25 students in the preparation class for children aged 4-6 years, 18 students in cerebral paralysis children’s schools, and 46 students in the integrated class. The third is the Komar Pilar Foundation, which does not have government coordination and is not officially considered to be a school. The total number of students with all disabilities was 44,759 in primary schools and 6787 in secondary schools in 2017, according to the data that we were given. This paper is the first study in each Cambodian province showing the number of children with disabilities. The most common disability in primary schools was mental illness and visual deficiency in junior high schools. The data show that each province differed so much in the number of invisible disabilities such as personality disorders, learning impairment, intellectual disability and emotional distress. A reason for it can be known to be misidentification of disabilities.

Author(s) Details

Akihiro Nishio
Health Administration Center, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.

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Studies on Beliefs, Values and Morals: The Philosophical Underpinnings of Dysthanasia

Though abstract principles are deeply embedded in the sub-consciousness of every adult human, beliefs, values, and morals constitute a moral structure whose implementation oversees every activity in our daily lives. In medical practise, ethical dilemmas are associated with end-of-life procedures, care, and prognosis, which are defined in accordance with individual or collective beliefs and values. Dysthanasia, from Greek, means making death impossible, and it is an ethical dilemma with essential implications at the moment. Given that death itself has two moments, the death process and the time of death, dysthanasia is the excessive prolongation of the death process with the aid of technological devices that allow procedures to sustain life. Although it is through technical developments that the moment of death can be postponed, it is the ideals and values that are profoundly rooted in the physicians’ subconscious that are responsible for the mindset of ethical dilemmas at the end of life. Beliefs and values, when included in fields such as information phenomenology, technology dialectics, conflicts of values, existentialism and metaphysics, can somehow explain this present, evolving, and compelling question. Beliefs and beliefs are an individual’s abstract notions. Because of its wide acceptance, ideals and principles become the foundation of every area that frames cultures as they transcend the limits of self and are enfolded by society.

Author(s) Details

J.Filipe Monteiro
Consultant Pneumologist (Retired), CHLN Pneumologia 1, Santa Maria University Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal.

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Counteracting Ageism and Learning about Aging through Early Children’s Literature

Worldwide, life expectancy is rising. In general, people are not prepared for this long life and have ageist attitudes that hinder exploiting the “dividend of longevity” they have been granted. This improved longevity stresses the need to combat ageism and plan for the later years of life. The children of today are the older adults of tomorrow. In an ageing nation, they need to be prepared to live a long life. Unfortunately, research has repeatedly shown that even young children exhibit ageistic attitudes, and as the child grows older, these attitudes become more difficult to change. People with negative ageing attitudes prefer to live life accordingly, and these attitudes become prophecies of self-fulfillment. Early literature for children is a resource that can help counteract ageism and teach children about ageing. The definition of ageism, the consequences of ageism, the value of self-assessment of one’s ageing behaviours, and tools are provided to find early childhood literature (Preschool-Primary) to combat ageism and learn about ageing.

Author(s) Details

Sandra L. McGuire
Academy for Gerontology in Higher Education Fellow, Professor Emeritus, The University of Tennessee, USA.

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Modelling Career Success of Teachers towards OCB and Justice Relationships: An Analysis in Malaysia

This study examines the relationship in the Malaysian teaching community between organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and the career success of teachers. Two dimensions of teacher career success, which are multiple promotions and career satisfaction, have been explored in this study. The study also explores the role of justice as a moderating force in OCB relationships and career progress in three dimensions of justice, called distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. The data was collected from 390 respondents by mail. The first results showed that both the amount of promotions and job satisfaction are not significantly linked to OCB. The second findings showed that the indicator of job satisfaction was found to be all dimensions of fairness, but not the amount of promotions. This research also shows that the association between OCB and the number of promotions, as well as job satisfaction, has closely interacted with distributive justice. In this report, the Ministry of Education (MOE) contributed some new knowledge to improve the level of OCB, justice and career performance for teachers, particularly in the Malaysian context.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ummi Naiemah Saraih
School of Business Innovation and Technopreneurship, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Jalan Kangar-Alor Setar, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia.

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Studies on Being Itself, World Images, Limit Situation, Temporality and Existence as an Analytical Structure for Existential Enlightenment

Karl  Jaspers claims that some restricting situations in the representations of the universe must be met in order to become Being itself, including death, pain, hardship, randomness and remorse. It comes into existence only by joining these limit situations, while the current empirical avoids facing such situations. But Jaspers did not regard time as a restricting condition in which we are in an inappropriate time from the beginning and from which we leap by decisive precursor acts to our own time. This article argues that time, considered primarily by Heidegger, is properly a finite situation that becomes itself through its conflict. For this, a hermeneutical phenomenological analysis is carried out, which updates the definitions of Bein itself, restricting condition, temporality and nature semantically. In reality, the self is immersed in the presentist boundary situation that elides the past and the future as merely being there or current empirical, and considers the objects as present in sight in a waiting attitude delivered to the chat, uncertainty, and greed for the new. The self is patented as being, managing to be beyond time, exercising its own time, on the rise, exhibiting senses that are concepts of life and being patented in its historical being by taking the leap into existence or for itself or being itself, through a definitive precursor attitude and spontaneous unconditioned behaviour.

Author(s) Details

Hugo Campos Winter
Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile.

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Advancement on the Mechanics of Conceptual Thinking

The knowledge accrued about the implication of the limbic system’s internal mechanisms in the production of articulate expression, from which conceptual thought arises, is now advanced to the extent where it is now possible to formulate a simple mechanic of conceptual thinking. Definition of conceptual thought mechanics resulting from sequences of contact between the limbic system and the neocortex verbal regions. Definition of the increase in the level of attention to complete active awareness when the amygdala is activated by a feeling of uneasiness due to a verbal stimulus, accompanied by an active cogitation phase involving the verbal areas of the neocortex, resulting in the strengthening of a synaptic arborescence corresponding to a changed verbal sequence in the neocortex by the hippocampus that eliminates or decreases. Description of the capacity to generalise resulting from the use of articulate languages, gained through education, from which logical thought emerges and the collectively intelligible mathematical language that also evolves through education in certain individuals to varying degrees. Definition of the mode of mathematical thought whose engrams are found in areas not overlapping verbal areas of the neocortex.

Author(s) Details

André Michaud
Service de Recherche Pédagogique, Québec, Canada.

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Development of a Capacity-Analysis Paradigm for the Senior High School Economics Teacher’s Professional Identity in Ghana

In order to evaluate their validity as components of the professional identity of economics teachers in relation to their ideal professional ability, this study established a set of core professional identity indicators to which professional economics teachers and economics teacher educators in Ghana replied. Specifically, the study analysed the views of respondents on the importance attached to the professional ability rubrics of teachers, as well as differences of opinion on the importance put on professional expertise, beliefs, skills and reflective practise measures of teachers. The analysis was a descriptive form using the method of the survey. The research sample consisted of 751 trained teachers in economics and 125 teachers in economics who were chosen using the basic random sampling technique. The Questionnaire on Senior High School Economics Teachers’ Identity (QSHSETI) was used as a self-developed instrument and a reliability index of 0.96 was obtained. The data was analysed using the mean and the independent t-test sample. For teachers’ identity consideration, there are three paradigmatic stages. As shown in Fig., they are the perfect paradigm. 1, the implementable paradigm as obtained by the instrument developed by the researcher, and finally the perceived or practical paradigm based on the consensus of educators in economics and teachers in economics. The results of this research showed differences in opinion between the perceived competence and desired objectives of teacher educators in economics and that of teachers in economics. Therefore, curriculum creation in teacher education in economics should seek to close the difference between the ideal competency goals and the perceived or core competency goals. The study concluded that teacher education policy makers should support ongoing capacity-building initiatives among teachers in economics and educators in economics. This study was conducted with the aim of assisting economics students, curriculum creators, teacher educators, educational policy makers and scholars, among others, with insights gained from it. In order to bridge the gaps in the technical ability of teachers in terms of knowledge, principles and skills, topics such as techniques of inquiry in economic education, teacher emotional well-being and the efficacy and skills of developing job schemes should be integrated as part of the ongoing capacity-building courses for in-service economics teachers.

Author(s) Details

Dr. M. B. Yidana
Department of Business and Social Sciences Education, Faulty of Humanities and Social Sciences Education, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

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Overview of a Comparative Study between Management and Leadership with Reference to (Sheikh Zayed AL Nahyan and Nelson Mandela)

In this post, I’m reflecting on the paper “managers and leaders: are they different?” by Abraham Zaleznik. He was a famous professor at Harvard Business School who criticised the style of management for focusing only on logic and achieving goals. He assumed that managers and leaders were completely different people. Managers were described by him as inscrutable, distant and deceptive. Plus, while executives are interested in control and how things are done, leaders are more interested in concepts and creativity. In order to approach a clearer understanding of these issues, I try to explore various questions relevant to both management and leadership: do managers and leaders really have entirely different personalities? Or are they both competing with people for the same objective of getting work done? With more experience and hard work, will management be upgraded? Are leaders more empathic than executives? What makes managers manipulative and inscrutable? This is innate or is it acquired? In what ways are leaders different? It seems like a huge challenge, but by conducting a comparative study between two prominent figures, such as Sheikh Zayed Al Nahyan and Nelson Mandela, I can address this question. Based on the enduring lessons from their life stories that will survive for years to come, I will trace some points of parallels and differentiations. Both were gifted visionaries who practised a full spectrum of cognitive, emotional and behavioural abilities in their countries to bring about fundamental change. This paper invites other scientists to explore the dilemma of strong professional growth that comes to nothing if the abilities of the individual are negligible. For the smooth landing from leadership into leadership, further research on organisational psychology also needs to be carried out.

Author(s) Details

Dalia Mohamed Mostafa Mabrouk
Faculty of Arts & Humanities, Suez Canal University, Egypt and Abu Dhabi Police Headquarter, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

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