Critical Interventions Aimed to Reduce Body Dissatisfaction: The Way You Perceive Your Body Matters

Objectives: To decide whether brief cognitive dissonance interventions, media literacy, and a mindful body scan among female undergraduate students may reduce body dissatisfaction and whether mindfulness, emotion control, positive and negative effects, and levels of media literacy have an impact on body appreciation. Study Design: An experimental design was used in the present study and three intervention groups and an active control group were included. Research Location and Duration: Center for Psychological Creativity from January 17 to March 6, 2020 at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Methodology: 78 female participants with a mean age of 21 years (SD = 5.16) between the ages of 17 to 49 years. All participants underwent an induction procedure for body dissatisfaction and completed self-report questionnaires on body satisfaction (using the Body Appreciation Scale), mindfulness (using the Five Facet Mindfulness Scale), emotion regulation (using the Emotion Regulation Difficulties), positive and negative impact (using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and media literacy (using the Critically Thinking About Media Messages, Media Attitudes Questionnaire, and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire). Results: Three different multiple linear regression tests showed discrepancies in the variables predicting Time1, F(7, 70) = 12.09, p < .001, Time 2, F(7, 70) = 14.74, p< .001, and Time3, F(7, 70) = 15.07, p < .001 body appreciation ratings. A one-way ANOVA showed that after the completion of the intervention, F(1, 76) = .069, p = .793, but not after the body dissatisfaction induction procedure or before the intervention, body appreciation scores increased for all four conditions. Conclusion: These results confirm that negative effects and low levels of media literacy contribute to feelings of discontent with the body and that brief periods of directing the mind away from the body lead to increased enjoyment of the body. Future research should look at the impacts of brief interventions among men who idealise the muscular-ideal on body appreciation.

Author(s) Details

Lucijana Herceg
Department of Psychology, Mount Royal University, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary, AB, T3E 6K6, Canada.

Mitchell Clark
Department of Psychology, Mount Royal University, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary, AB, T3E 6K6, Canada.

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Assessing the Language Learning Strategies of Two Indonesian Young Learners in the USA

This research aims to resolve the English language used by young Indonesian learners who come to the US and describe their strategies for language learning. Some theoretical issues related to this topic are discussed in second language acquisition and then accompanied by the discussion of the learning strategies of the subjects and some factors related to the strategies and the explanation of the language development of the subjects. It is always fascinating to see how in a very short time, children learn a certain language; not just how they create sounds and combine them into thousands of words, but also how they develop those words into sentences to convey their feelings and thoughts. The two subjects are good learners of English: they had “three variables” of good language learning: skill, motivation, and chance. They were bright kids and they knew how to learn a new language by using their knowledge; they were good guessers and risk-takers. They were also inspired to practise their English; they were articulate and willing to communicate; and eventually, in their natural environment, they now had a strong opportunity to learn English. The key consequence of this research is the training of Indonesian speakers in English. It is clear that the variations between the forms of English and Indonesian sentences have created difficulties for learners. A teaching syllabus based on contrastive analysis would be more practical and “touch” the language-leaning needs of the learners. A contrastive analysis-based teaching syllabus would be more practical, but only in apparent contrasting features. In order to increase learners’ understanding of the new features, it should emphasise marked discrepancies in L2, where L1 and Universal Grammar are unmarked.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Suhendra Yusuf
English Department & Graduate School of Educational Management, Nusantara Islamic University, Bandung, Indonesia.

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Educational Reforms and Well-being

The higher education sector in Ghana has undergone many reforms over the past two decades, ranging from deregulation and financial sustainability to major infrastructure investment. The goal of these reforms is to address school diversity, promote inclusive learning and increase access to quality tertiary education. The reforms involved improvements in work skills, job conversions, teaching and learning styles, self-consciousness and relocations of employees with a possibly consequent impact on employee well-being. These changes, however, failed to properly account for concerns of employee well-being. Therefore, there has been no commitment to personal improvements and support schemes to help workers keep pace with the changes. In public universities, we explored these trends to understand the well-being changes from the storylines of academic workers in higher education during the reforms. Using laddering interview methods focused on the principle of personal transformation, the study followed a qualitative research design to request storeys from 19 academic workers who have lived through the reforms. For the study of the interactions of academic workers, the Interpretative Phenomenology Method (IPA) of data analysis was used. In a developing world background, the research offers personal storeys expressed in real-life experiences and hinged on the eudemonic theory. The research found that during the time of organisational reforms, leadership, personal attitude changes and political intervention constitute a Change-Effect Model that shapes the well-being of academic workers. The results give organisational changes and employee well-being a new dimension and consider from a crucial point of view how a change-effect model can be implemented in the process of change management to facilitate employee well-being in locally relevant and productive ways.

Author(s) Details

Dudley Ofori
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Hull, United Kingdom.

James Antwi
Royal Ann College of Health, P.O.Box KS 6253, Atwima, Manhyia-Ashanti Region, Ghana.

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In Some Sports Branches, Can Hand Preference Be an Advantage in Sportive Performance and Academic Succes?

Hand choice is the primary use of the right or left hand. The principle of hand choice is that the chosen hand is used in everyday tasks more reliably and skillfully. In other words, while right-handed people use their right hand more effectively than left-handed people in everyday activities, left-handed people use their left hand more efficiently and effectively than right-handed people. There is a common misconception that left-handed individuals are more unskilled. However the best examples proving the invalidity of this view are the performance of boxing, kung fu, karate, taekwondo, archery, wrestling and soccer players using their left and feet skillfully and the successes of musicians and tennis players. In terms of academic performance, female individuals were more successful than male individuals, according to the results. It was found that students of the left hand preference had 13 percent higher academic performance than students of the right hand preference. Moreover at 20.8 percent, the athlete students displayed more academic achievement than the non-athlete. In general, left-handed athletes seem to have some inherent cognitive advantages compared to right-handed athletes for academic achievement and results.

Author(s) Details

Recep Gursoy
Faculty of Sports Sciences, Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey.

Tolga Altuğ
Department of Physical Education and Sports, Mugla Sitki Kocman University Health Sciences Institute, Mugla, Turkey.

Salih Gürsoy
Department of Physical Education and Sports, Celal Bayar University Health Sciences Institute, Manisa, Turkey.

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An Experimental Study on the Impact of a Training Program on the Development of Perceived Cognitive Competence among Students with Learning Disabilities

Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between a training programme targeted at learners with learning disabilities and their perceived skills. Particular focus is put on educational, social and moral concerns surrounding children with special needs who are being taught in regular schools. The study explores the strong need to recognise the barriers hindering Jordanian students especially those in the early stages, who are continually in need of intensive care and attention. It is clear that special educational services and individualised and appropriate care need to be done for students with various disabilities. The cognitive competence of students that they acquire from different sources is the first step in learning and engaging in various activities. Study Design: A quasi-experimental design was used in the study. Location and Period of Study: Jerash District Ministry of Education, Jordan. Methodology: Recent research has adopted the ‘Perceived Competence Scale for Children’ self-report tool[1] as the key tool. The research sample consisted of 26 fourth-grade students with learning disabilities (13 male and 13 female) who attended the resource rooms. The samples were spread through eight campuses. Sheikha adapted the instrument to cope with the Jordanian climate and the peculiar characteristics of society. In order to achieve the study goals and address the research questions, the covariance analysis (ANCOVA) of the control group was used in the current research prior to the implementation of the training programme. This kind of research was used to test the Discrepancies in the performance of students with learning disabilities before and at a later point of the jobs of the training programme. Additionally, to distinguish differences between the experimental and the control group, the mean and the standard deviation were used. Results: The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in gender performance among students with learning disabilities. The mean values also showed that the cognitive ability of students with learning disabilities signalled obvious discrepancies in the performance of the students after performing the experimental community training programme. The outcome of the study suggested that for students with disabilities, the established training programme was useful. In order to continue their studies, the students who completed this special training programme gained cognitive ability and took part in various events.

Author(s) Details

Ahmad M. J. Alfawair
University of Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman.

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Study on Estimating Mental Hygiene of Farm Women: The Socio-ecological and Psychological Interpretation

Due to persistent contamination, extortion, ground water depletion, arsenic and heavy metal polluted water, the health-ecology and environment has become quite fragile. Agriculture has undergone drastic changes and a wide variety of stressors are faced by farmers. Male and female farmers both have high levels of depression relative to the general working population, but there is little difference in the levels of anxiety symptoms. This research addressed the health ecosystem and health dynamics of farm women so that as they are food producers, they can combat various environmental and occupational problems. This research was carried out with the intention of generating confidential knowledge on the mental hygiene of female farmers. A survey with one hundred farm women as respondents was carried out at Kotulpur Block in Bankura district of West Bengal and they were randomly selected. The knowledge was gathered through a pilot study, a formal interview and a concentrated community interview. Correlation analysis, multiple regression and step-down regression analysis, path analysis, factor analysis and artificial neural network analysis are the statistical methods used for data analysis. For this analysis, twenty independent variables were selected: functional literacy, per capita income, menstrual hygiene, drinking water status, etc. Distance from work (x7), period of jobs (x9), per capita income (x12), per capita expenditure (x13), dizziness (x17) and drinking water status (x19) are some of the variables that have had a direct effect on the mental hygiene of women farmers. Per capita income (x12) is the most significant factor among those variables, as it has had the highest indirect impact on as many as 13 exogenous variables in path analysis to classify the mental hygiene of farm women (y). As farmers provide food for millions of people around the world, it is very important to the sense of the agro-ecosystem. Only if they succeed will the entire civilisation survive.

Author(s) Details

Miss Swagata Ghoshal
Department of Agricultural Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, 741252, India.

Prof. (Dr.) S. K. Acharya
Department of Agricultural Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, 741252, India.

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Evolving Technology and Its Impact in the Online Lives of University Students

The lives of young people, widely known as digital natives worldwide, have been infiltrated and transformed by developing technological developments and changing digital environments. Today’s students have spent a large part of their lives surrounded by and using digital-age computers, video games, mobile phones, and similar resources. As such, relative to textbooks and lecture notes, they are more relaxed in the midst of their mobile phones, tablets and netbooks. This study delves further into students’ technological activities and intends to study the influence of evolving technology in the emerging online lives of the digital native university students at a University in Fiji. A survey study design using a scale of the Likert kind was introduced and the information was evaluated using SPSS and addressed using a thematic approach. Findings show that young native digital university students were born in the digital age and have grown up in their everyday lives to appreciate the power of digital communication at a massive pace. Results also have consequences for pedagogy and practise as conventional teaching methods can be approached by millennials with resistance and scepticism. This paper suggests that technical resources could be used to boost digital literacy and numeracy, leading to a thriving digital economy, because digital natives are technologically savvy.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Wahab Ali
Education Department, The University of Fiji, Fiji.

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Evaluating the Organizational Performance of Higher Education Institutions in Pangasinan

The aim of this study was to determine the profile and organisational performance of Pangasinan higher education institutions (HEIs) in terms of quality and excellence, relevance and responsiveness, access and equity, and effectiveness and productivity. Performance measurements are usually categorised as either absolute or relative—It is absolute when performance is measured in relation to a previously established or ideal attribute and relative when compared to a standard performance or a comparable feature of the performance of another organisation. The descriptive research design was made use of in this report. 30 administrators, 711 faculty, 469 non-teaching staff, and 1,689 students responded to the research method. In the analysis of the results, statistical tolls were used such as means, frequency counts, percentages, t-test for independent samples and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The results show that most of the Pangasinan Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) were classified as small, young and operating on a tiny internal operating budget. The performance level of the HEI administrators, faculty, non-teaching staff and students ranged from “moderately high” to “high” with respect to all the indicators. In terms of consistency and excellence, relevance and responsiveness, access and equity, the performance of HEIs was “moderately high,” but “low,” along with efficiency and effectiveness. In their performance, administrators, faculty, non-teaching staff, and students differ in consistency and excellence, relevance and responsiveness, access and equity, and effectiveness and productivity. The HEIs’ years of life are connected to the success of the administrators, faculty and non-teaching employees. Based on the results, it is concluded that despite their limited internal operating budget and being young in this endeavour, the Higher Education Institutions in Pangasinan are performing and achieving the goals/indicators of quality and excellence, relevance and responsiveness, access and equity, and efficiently and effectively at a high level. However, even with those metrics, there is still space to boost output to a higher level. The HEIs’ years of life as an entity are synonymous with the success of HEIs. It is recommended that HEIs constantly review and enrich their curricular programmes, incorporate a purpose-based curriculum for the growth of staff and faculty, and enhance the activities of research and extension through the injection of additional budgets and incentives for faculty members. Further research on the success of HEIs need to be carried out using other variables such as social and economic benefits resulting from the presence of these institutions by the immediate community and the whole province.

Author(s) Details

Josephine S. Lambinicio
Urdaneta City University, Pangasinan, Philippines.

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Reporting a Case Study on Blended Coaching and Coaching Curve Approches in Enhancing Teaching Competency

The new millennium of educational reform in Malaysia is the expertise and coaching skills of School Development Professional Coach Plus (SISC+). SISC+ was asked to diversify their teaching approach when transforming teaching and learning (TnL) among teachers. The aim of this study is to highlight the approach of integrated coaching by School Improvement Specialist Coach Plus (SISC+) to enhance teacher capacity growth. The coaching style is a mixture of coaching in terms of facilitative, directive and dialogue. In this analysis, the coaching curve by Bradley William was also used. From 2018 to mid 2019, this case study included an in-depth study of a teacher teaching history subject. Using the Teacher Coaching Tool (TCT) instrument used by SISC+ as a standard document to instruct teachers, data was collected. The results showed that the teacher’s teaching and learning (TnL) competency in the classroom was strengthened by writing teaching goals, activity-based awareness of pedagogical content, and TnL aspects of conclusions. The precise methods of coaching, their order of execution and their overall impact rely on the use of objectively measurable evidence and the relationship between the coach and the instructor. Further research with a wider sample on the efficacy of SISC + coaching practise is recommended to discuss the numerous problems in the field of coaching.

Author(s) Details

 

Noel Jimbai Anak Balang
Faculty of Education, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

Professor Dr. Zamri Mahamod
Faculty of Education, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

Professor Dr. Nor Aishah Buang
Faculty of Education, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

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A Review on Challenges Faced by Students and Teachers on Writing Skills in ESL Contexts

English is a global language, and today it is sought after. By a large margin, English is the most commonly spoken language in the world. Nevertheless, for second language students to learn, English language writing has consistently been a test. Building up the ability of students reported as a hard copy is one of the major challenges that ESL teachers are looking at in many schools these days. In any event, writing has consistently been a major challenge for students in the learning of the English language, particularly in elementary schools. Not only that, teachers still face a few obstacles in explaining writing skills to elementary school students. This research aims to examine the difficulties faced by both students and teachers in learning and teaching elementary school writing skills along these lines.

Author(s) Details

Rachel Nyanamoney Moses
Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

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