Research on the Competency of the Post Graduate Teachers in Appreciating English Poetry

The Post Graduate Teachers teaching English as a second language to Higher Secondary Classes
that is 11th and 12th grades need to cultivate a good sense of appreciation for poetry. They need to
inherit the thirst for reading poetry aloud and competence to elucidate the essential characteristics of
poetry. A study was launched to understand the level of appreciation of poetry of the Post Graduate
Teachers by giving a test with 25 items for testing their skills of understanding of alliteration,
metaphor, simile, personification, repetition, sound–patterning, stress-patterning, imagery,
unpatterned rhyme, connotative words and suggestive words. A sample of 90 post graduate teachers
of both sex working in State Government Higher Secondary Schools, Private Matriculation Schools
and Private CBSE schools in Chennai city answered the test in fifty minutes time. The ‘t’ test was
applied. The Post graduate teachers in CBSE schools in Chennai City had the highest mean scores in
their competency in appreciating the elements of English poetry. Those in Government Schools and
Matriculation Schools came next in the order. But there was no significant difference in their
competencies between any two types of schools. They have a high level of appreciation of poetry but
with slight difference in mean scores. There is no significant difference in competencies for
appreciating poetry between the post graduate teachers working in any two kinds of schools

Author(s) Details

Dr. Rajendran Muthiah
Apollo College of Arts and Science, Chennai, India.

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Studies on the Role of Political Leaders in Enhancing Peace and Tranquility

Political leaders play an important role in facilitating peace and tranquility. Their vitality is appreciated
due to the fact that they have followers- people who believe in what they say and act accordingly. This
chapter is cemented on the speech of the considered one of the gurus of development management
in the world, when he made his presentation before the political party leaders in Ruvuma region in
Tanzania. While the amplification of the speech is based on Tanzania, we consider that the speech is
relevant to the nationals of the world. The chapter is a review in nature and has articulated
experiential and factualism of the current world in setting the literature review, methodology,
discussion and conclusion. The speech called upon leaders to realize that the emergent of political
parties does not mean to jeopardize humanity. Political parties are planes, buses, trains, motorcycle,
bicycle and footers for the sake of moving the direction one would want to go, yet those who move are
more important than the vessels they use. Development is what one ought to vision in whatever is
done. Hence, synergizing thinking is a must for attaining development under the surface of peace and
tranquility. The chapter concludes that peace is inevitable without political leaders playing a vital role
of harnessing what they believe with others’ beliefs. In addition, political leaders must appreciate that
losing and wining an election is the major outcomes of democratic elections.

Author(s) Details

Norman A. S. King
Teofilo Kisanji University and Genesis University College, Tanzania.

Montanus C. Milanzi
Mzumbe University, Tanzania.

Lucy Massoi
Mzumbe University, Tanzania.

Newton Kyando
Open University, Tanzania.

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Emphasizing Tanzania Development Bailout: A Focus on Improving Agricultural Production

This chapter aims to discuss measures that need to be employed to boost the agricultural production
in country like Tanzania. The objective of the study is to assess the perception of agronomist on what
do they consider to be barriers for agricultural improvement in Tanzania, and to propose solutions for
the ultimate sustainable agriculture in Tanzania. The methodology employed in the study was
qualitative approach, where interview was the main data collection instrument used. The design of the
study was the case study. The sample was drawn through purposive sampling, where only participant
on the training were involved in the study. Results of the study indicates that the leading barriers to
the development of horticulture in Tanzania include insufficient market, ignorance of the farmers on
the potentials of horticulture, weak government policies in relation to horticulture, incompetent
agronomist as they lack practical knowledge, weak commitment of the local government
councils, and inability of politicians in articulating potentials of horticulture. In addition, it was leant
that Agronomist have not done much to participate in educating the farmers on the best practices for
improving agriculture. It is therefore recommended that; each council should have targets on how
many farmers should enjoy best practices per year.

Author(s) Details

Norman A. S. King
Teofilo Kisanji University, Mbeya, Tanzania.

Montanus Cyprian Milanzi
Mzumbe University, Tanzania.

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A Critical Study on Transparency Enhancement in Tanzania: A Focus on Local Government Administration in Mbeya District

Transparency is advocated as one of the key factors for enhancing good governance. It includes the
ability of the government, government machinery and private firms to observe laid procedures, and in
that regard without having undue influence. Transparency is pre-requisite for proper management of
both government and private entities. It includes ensuring that resources both material and financial
are set to accomplish the tasks intended. This chapter attempts to report the extent to which
transparency is executed in local government administration in Tanzania with concentration on Mbeya
region. The qualitative approach has been opted to accomplish the study. Observation,
documentation and experiential are the main sources of data for the study. The analysis of the study
is descriptive in nature, as narrations have been made on the factual trend analysis of the local
government in Mbeya. The issues given weight are transparency in awarding tenders for development
projects, which indeed consume huge amount of money. Secondly, is the narration of transparency in
decision-making from lower echelon to district level. Thirdly, is the presence or absence of corruption
in the undertaking of government business. The chapter provides problems and the suggestive
measures to curb the problems. It has been concluded that local government administration in
Tanzania faces challenges on the implementation of the programs and projects. However, there is
high level of transparency on the pursuance of local government activities, and specifically decision
making. It is worthy to notice that the current trend of the president of Tanzania, which emphasize on
the use of force account has made the entire government to be much in attaining the goals that were
not attained during the four regimes.

Author(s) Details

Norman Adamson Sigalla King
Teofilo Kisanji University, P.O. Box 1104, Mbeya, Tanzania.

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The Report of a Comparative Analysis of Nutrition Science Coverage by Popular Indian Daily Newspapers

This study assesses the coverage of nutrition related topics by leading English and Telugu language
newspapers in India for six months and comparatively analyzes number of articles, visuals and priority
in space allocation. News media over or under emphasize certain aspects of science topics for a
variety of reasons, such as competition to attract readers and also to protect commercial interests.
Nutrition reports were classified into 16 sub-topics based on the commonness of their content
including natural foods, obesity, fruits and vegetables, animal food and beverages. English dailies
gave more coverage on obesity, beverages, chocolates, whereas Telugu dailies confined mostly to
the traditional foods, promoting consumption of natural foods. The results revealed that the English
dailies published more reports in editorial pages, front pages and as box items to grab readers’
attention significantly (P<0.01) than Telugu dailies. The descriptive analysis method has been used as
parameters for grading the articles. Reliability of agreement between multiple-raters was analyzed by
applying Cohen’s kappa test. Few reports on nutrition found to be relied on unauthentic source of
information. Two English dailies were observed as over-emphasized few research findings. To avoid
publishing of under or over-emphasis of nutrition related topics in print media, there is a need for
synergetic efforts between journalists and scientists in the field of diet and nutrition sciences.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mekam Maheshwar
Division of Extension and Training, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, AP, India.

Dr. Raghunatha D. Rao
Division of Extension and Training, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, AP, India.

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A Study on the Influence of Modifications to International Programs in a Region – Focusing on the UNESCO Global Geopark Program in International and Japanese Contexts


This study attempts to clarify how international discussions related UNESCO Global Geoparks were
reflected in the geopark program in Japan by examining movements and discussions of international
and regional organizations which took roles for the establishment of geopark initiatives, focusing up to
2015 when UNESCO officially launched the program. The process up to the establishment of
UNESCO Global Geopark was divided into four stages including “geopark random activity period”
which various international organizations committed its own “geopark activities”, and followed to
“geopark integration period” which those activities integrated as one geopark program under
UNESCO and all of them happened in less than 20 years.
In Japan, geologists started domestic geopark program influenced by the international geopark
movements. The time when they started and expanded geopark activities in Japan happened parallel
to the “geopark random activity period” in international society. As a result, the geopark system in
Japan resulted in emphasizing geological features compared to UNESCO Global Geoparks in terms
of its evaluation and management even though Japan Geopark Committee take efforts to aim for
the holistic geopark implementation in accordance with UNESCO Global Geoparks policy. This
conclusion suggests aregional confusion due the fact that geopark as an international program
changed its framework within a short period.

Author(s) Details
Ikuno Fujii
World Heritage Studies & World Cultural Heritage Studies, Doctoral course of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba city, Japan.

Hiromu Ito
Faculty of Art and Design, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba City, Japan.

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Vicente Blasco Ibañez: The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, the Civil War of Europeans as a Cultural Struggle and the First Worldwide Plague

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, a novel about the First World War, was written in 1916 by the
Spanish author Vicente Blasco Ibáñez. Ibáñez was a liberal intellectual and opponent to German
militarism and the Dinasty of Austria, whose kings were been intolerant and retrograde during its rule
of Spain in the Seventeenth Century. This study explores the imperialist, militarist and cultural
tensions of the Great War through Ibáñez’s novel. The formation of blocks of alliances and the
capture of rich territories, according to Lenin, translated into the juxtaposition of the German Reich—
represented historically by old Germania and the current German Empire fighting for European
supremacy—with the Latinity of Ancient Rome and the contemporary French Republic. This cultural
and ideological struggle is reflected in the novel’s characters and dialogue. Ibáñez suggests that the
1914 confrontation arose from the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. In the novel, the conflict is typified in
two opposing novelistic characters, a German and a Frenchman, who immigrate to Argentina, in
South America, to escape war and poverty. Both return to their countries of origin rich and related to
each other, having married the daughters of a rich landlord, Madariaga, although his sons have
become cousins and nephews and they face each other from opposite sides of the battlefield. World
War I is an irresistible force the magnitude of which draws together all the characters, Ibáñez was
absorbed in narrating the first year of the war, when France suffered bitter defeats, and writing about
this ongoing event led to his success in the USA, where he maintained the appreciation of the public
by quickly creating a film version of the novel.

Author(s) Details

José Maurício Saldanha-Álvarez
Cultural Studies and Media Department, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil.

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Understanding the Reason of State in the Philosophical Works of Niccolo Machiavelli

Every state has its own reason of survival whether it is democratic or undemocratic, constitutional or
unconstitutional, tyrannical or republican. Thus, the concept of reason of state depends on the nature
of the state. Reason of state in a democratic order is different from that of undemocratic state. This
study gave more emphasis on the philosophical works of Niccolo Machiavelli. Based on his
philosophical works, the study argue that Machiavelli’s reason of state in The Prince, even though it is
implicit, is tyrannical or “reason of power” in its character and not fit for human habituation. On the
other hand, his thought in the Discourses promotes constitutional reason of state. As a result, different
thinkers considered him as one of the advocator of constitutional reason of state. However, in his
totality Machiavelli used The Prince as a means for the Discourses. Methodologically,Hermeneutic
analysis was employed in order to understand the true essence of the Political Philosophy of
Machiavelli.

Author (s)  Details

Tadie Degie Yigzaw
Department of Political Science and International Studies, College of Social Science, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

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Similarities and Differences between Adult and Child Learners as Participants in the Natural Learning Process: Scientific Approach

This paper compares Brian Cambourne’s Conditions of Learning [1], APA’s Learner-Centered
Psychological Principles [2], and Malcolm Knowles’ Adult Learning Theory [3]. These theories
embrace the natural learning process and not the traditional view of learning. The traditional view
suggests that the teacher has the knowledge, the learner is dependent on the teacher to disseminate
the knowledge and the learner has nothing to contribute. In the natural learning process, knowledge is
distributed in a circular and reciprocal way through a collaborative sharing of experiences, centered
on real life situations, and learners are responsible for their own learning. In the 21st century
knowledge is constantly changing and expanding exponentially. The natural learning process
facilitates the life-long learning that is needed to remain a valuable contributor in society where
learning has become a collaborative experience.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Darlene McDonough, Associate Professor
School of Education, St. Bonaventure University, New York, USA.

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CALL, Online Materials, Learning English Idioms and Motivation

Idiom as a major component of language learning has been the objective of numerous studies, each
of which has its own contribution to the field. Idioms are indispensable components of language
learning, especially in oral communication. Language learners with low knowledge of idioms might
have some difficulty getting into casual conversations apparently due to frequent use of idioms in
vernacular language. On the contrary, learners with higher knowledge of idioms tend to engage
successfully in informal conversations. In the era of technology, one way of teaching idioms is through
online resources. Considering the importance of idioms, this study tried to investigate the effect of
CALL and online materials on motivation and idiom learning of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To
this end, seventy-five EFL learners aged from 17 to 21 were chosen through convenience sampling
from Kalameh language institute. Forty-eight of them were considered as homogeneous members
after administering OPT, Pretest of idiom and motivation. Then, they were randomly assigned into two
groups: experimental (n=24) and control group (n=24). The comparison of the means of the pretests
showed that they were homogeneous in terms of general language proficiency, idiom and motivation
prior to the treatment (p>0.05). The experimental group received the treatment, computerized
dictionary, and online materials in two idiom websites; www.englishclub.com and
www.idiomssite.com. The website contained online test practice and sample sentences, so
participants could practice the online activities. The control group received conventional classroom
instruction and no special technology was used. After the treatment, by pre-test/ post-test comparison,
researcher found that participants of experimental group, who were exposed to CALL and online
materials, performed significantly better on the tests of idiom and motivation (p<0.05). The results can
have some implications for teaching and learning of L2 idiom learning and classroom motivation.

Author(s) Details

Fatemeh Alipanahi
Zanjan University, Zanjna, Iran

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