Effect of irradiation on vitamins
Food irradiation is a physical process involving treatment of food with ionising radiation. Its main uses are reduction in spoilage and pathogenic organisms, inhibition of ripening and sprouting processes, and insect disinfestation. Chemical changes in the treated foods are small, and expert committees have concluded that they carry no special nutritional problems. Some vitamins are sensitive to irradiative degradation, however, and opponents of the process have claimed that extensive destruction will occur. Irradiation doses will, however, be limited by organoleptic changes, and maximum levels are being introduced into legislation for specific foods. Examination of the published literature shows that vitamins C and B1 are the most sensitive water-soluble vitamins, and that E and A are the most sensitive fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin losses on irradiation of permitted foods in western countries will not be of nutritional importance. 
Chapter 59 – Hydrosoluble vitamins
The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far reaching implications in the food industry, in agriculture, and in food provision programs. Overall, water-soluble vitamins are complex molecular structures and even today, many areas of vitamin biochemistry still need to be explored. Many readers might be of the opinion that the classic forms of nutritional deficiency diseases have faded into the background of interesting history. This has caused their diverse symptoms to be neglected by most modern physicians since vitamin enrichment of many foods automatically erases them from their consideration in differential diagnosis. Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies are discussed in other chapters. 
Vitamins and cancer
The prospect that high intake of certain vitamins may confer protection against cancer has drawn substantial attention during the last decades. This paper gives a concise update of the role of a number of promising vitamins in prevention of cancer. Vitamin A and its analogues have an important role in cellular processes related to carcinogenesis. However, blood vitamin A levels are under strict control and a high intake of preformed vitamin A does not seem to be relevant for cancer prevention. The antioxidant vitamins C and E and β-carotene may also have other biological activities than free radical trapping that relate to their cancer preventive properties. Mechanisms include immune stimulation, inhibition of nitrosamine formation, enhancement of cell communication and an influence on metabolic activation of carcinogens. Epidemiological data for the antioxidant vitamins are promising, but cannot rule out that another factor or combination of factors in fruits and vegetables might be responsible for a protective effect. The B vitamin folic acid is one of these potential factors that is currently thought to have an influence on DNA methylation and thus on proto-oncogene expression. Folic acid seems to be promising and deserves further study. Vitamin D might be relevant in colon cancer development due to its close links with calcium metabolism that might influence cell proliferation. Overall, results are promising, but the first human intervention trials on (antioxidant) vitamins and human cancer have yielded somewhat disappointing results. At this moment the data seem insufficient to make recommendations for vitamin supplementation to prevent cancer. The results are certainly in line with the advice that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables will help reduce cancer risk. 
Antihypercholesterolemic, Cardioprotective and Vitamins E and C Sparing Properties of Bryophyllum pinnatum in Rabbits
Potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum in preventing excessive lipaemia and oxidation, hence reducing predisposition to chronic diseases was assessed. B. pinnatum supplement was prepared by macerating a known weight of the plant in a known volume of distilled water. Ten rabbits were used for the study and were equally grouped into 2. Rabbits in group 1 were given 0.1 ml of distilled water once daily for 60 days and they served as control animals. A dose of 0.1 ml containing 0.2 g/ml of B. pinnatum supplement was given to each of the rabbits in group 2 once daily for 60 days. Bryophyllum pinnatum caused reduction in cholesterol concentration in serum, kidney, heart, intestine, brain and liver, while increased total lipids concentrations were observed in serum and kidney. B. pinnatum supplement reduced lipid peroxidation in heart, brain and liver. Administration of B. pinnatum caused increased glutathione reductase activity as shown by increased GSH concentration. Bryophyllum pinnatum demonstrated vitamins C and E sparing effects. Conclusively, B. pinnatum may be a good candidate as a nutraceutical. 
Influence of Packaging Materials and Storage Conditions on the Vitamins A and E Storage Stability of Palm Oil in Nigeria
Aims: Despite the presence of natural antioxidants contained in palm oil, it is still susceptible to quality deteriorations if not properly stored. This study therefore evaluates the storage stability of vitamins A and E in palm oil in four prominent packaging materials (metal cans, white plastic bottles, glass bottles and pet bottles) used in Nigeria and under three storage conditions [(refrigeration (5ºC), closed cupboard (27ºC) and direct sunlight (35ºC)].
Study Design: Freshly produced palm oil was filled in metal cans, white plastic bottles, glass bottles and pet bottles and stored in open, direct sunlight (35±1ºC), closed wooden cupboard (27±1ºC) and a refrigerator (5±1ºC) for a period of 120 days The samples were stored in a 4 (packaging materials) x 3 (Temperature) factorial arrangement making 12 treatments for each analysis sampled every 30 days for a period of 120 days. Vitamins A and E contents of palm oil samples were determined at 30 days intervals using ultraviolet spectrometer and high Performance Liquid Chromatography, respectively. Data values of triplicate determinations of vitamins A and E contents obtained from analysis were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean values were separated using Duncan New Multiple Range (DNMR) test using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. The rates of changes in the Vitamins A and E contents over the storage period of 120 days were also determined using Linear Regression analysis.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria between January, 2012 and December 2013.
Methodology: Palm oil filled into the four different packaging materials was stored in the three storage conditions for a period of 120 days. Vitamins A and E contents of palm oil samples were determined at 30 days intervals using ultraviolet spectrometer and high Performance Liquid Chromatography, respectively. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the statistical significant differences in the packaging materials and the storage conditions and the interactions between them. Mean values of vitamin A and vitamin E of different packaging methods and storage conditions were separated by Duncan New Multiple Range (DNMR) test to indicate their levels of significant differences. Linear Regression Analysis was also performed to determine the rates of changes in the vitamin A and E with time during storage.
Results: The vitamins A and E content of the samples stored in open, direct sunlight were virtually lost at the end of the storage period. For samples stored in sunlight, the vitamin A values in metal cans decreased by 97.45%, in white plastic bottle by 92.19%, in glass bottle by 92.46% and in pet bottle by 93.13% while vitamins E also decreased by 92.31%, 61.54%, 75.48% and 82.05%, respectively. Samples stored at room temperature suffered a higher amount of losses compared to the refrigerated samples. The refrigerated samples recorded only a minimal amount of loss. For the storage in both the sunlight and the dark cupboard and storage under refrigerating temperature of 5ºC, the order of preference for the packaging materials was white plastic bottle > glass bottle > pet bottle > metal can.
Conclusion: The results obtained from this study have demonstrated that packaging palm oil in white plastic bottle is the best method of preserving palm oil under refrigerating condition and lacquered metal under sunlight and dark cupboard. It has also shown that vitamins A and E degrade faster when palm oil is stored under sunlight and totally unfit for human consumption at the end of the storage period hence, palm oil should be stored in cold, dry places to limit their losses of antioxidant components. 
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 Chawla, J. and Kvarnberg, D., 2014. Hydrosoluble vitamins. Handbook of clinical neurology, 120, pp.891-914.
 van Poppel, G. and van den Berg, H., 1997. Vitamins and cancer. Cancer letters, 114(1-2), pp.195-202.
 Adekunle, A.S., Adelusi, T.I., Oyewo, E.B., Kamdem, J.P. and Akintade, B.B., 2016. Antihypercholesterolemic, cardioprotective and vitamins E and C sparing properties of Bryophyllum pinnatum in rabbits. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, pp.1-13.
 Oluwalana, I.B., Oluwamukomi, M.O., Toriola, B.O. and Karim, O.R., 2015. Influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on the vitamins A and E storage stability of palm oil in Nigeria. Advances in Research, pp.191-202.