Characterization of Polyhydroxyalkaonoate Extracted from Bacillus megaterium JHA and Its Biodegradation Studies

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are naturally occurring polymers that are generated as a source of energy by a variety of bacterial organisms. They can be used to replace petroleum-based plastics in a sustainable way. Bacillus megaterium JHA, a gram-positive bacterium isolated from oil-contaminated soil, demonstrated the ability to accumulate high levels of PHA on glucose as a
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Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish I. Bioassay methods for acute toxicity The review describes profitable methods for measuring lethal levels of pollutants for aquatic organisms. Methods for research in the laboratory are emphasized but the same principles could be applied in field work. Greater use of standard toxicological methods and terminology is urged. For
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The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol–chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on Since its introduction, the ‘single-step’ method has become widely used for isolating total RNA from biological samples of different sources. The principle at the basis of the method is that RNA is separated from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution
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Induction of Cell Migration by Matrix Metalloprotease-2 Cleavage of Laminin-5 Structural changes in the extracellular matrix are necessary for cell migration during tissue remodeling and tumor invasion. Specific cleavage of laminin-5 (Ln-5) by matrix metalloprotease–2 (MMP2) was shown to induce migration of breast epithelial cells. MMP2 cleaved the Ln-5 γ2 subunit at residue 587, exposing
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Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease Detailed studies in the past two decades have shown that redox active metals like iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and other metals undergo redox cycling reactions and possess the ability to produce reactive radicals such as superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide in biological
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Soil Enzymes Nutrient cycling in soils involves biochemical, chemical, and physiochemical reactions, with the biochemical processes being mediated by microorganisms, plant roots, and soil animals. Enzymes are denatured by elevated temperature and extreme pH. The two most remarkable properties of enzymes are their specificity and catalytic efficiency, and it is in these properties that enzymes
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Biogeochemical nutrient cycles and nutrient management strategies Nutrient loading by riverine input into estuarine systems has increased by 6–50 times for the N load from pristine conditions to present, whereas a 18–180 times increase has been observed in the P load. Reductions in the ratio of N to P delivery has also occurred with time.
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The Distinction between Grain Size and Mineral Composition in Sedimentary-Rock Nomenclature A system of grain-size nomenclature of terrigenous sediments and sedimentary rocks is introduced wherein fifteen major textural groups are defined on the ratios of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Further subdivision of every class is predicated on the median diameter of every size fraction
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Moonlighting proteins The idea of 1 gene—one protein—one function has become too simple because increasing numbers of proteins are found to possess two or more different functions. The multiple functions of such moonlighting proteins add another dimension to cellular complexity and benefit cells in several ways. However, cells have had to develop sophisticated mechanisms for
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Antimicrobials are the synthetic molecules obtained from natural sources are widely used against pathogenic microbes. The improper use of these antimicrobial agents has resulted in multi-drug resistance property among various pathogens and is a great threat to the global population. Also, the spread of these resistant microbes is a great challenge to the medical practitioners.
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