Bioactivity of Chinese Insect Tea

Insect tea is a unique type of tea that differs from regular tea. Its production locations are primarily in rural areas of China inhabited by ethnic minorities, and its production mode is ethnically distinct. Kuding tea, Hawk tea, and fragrant leaves were obtained as fresh leaves from wild plants. Simple steaming reduced the astringency of the leaves, which were then dried in the sun. The leaves were then layer by layer placed in the bamboo basket. The leaves’ scent enticed insects to deposit eggs in them. The larvae hatched after a period of time, ate the treated leaves, and then ejected the faeces. Insect tea items were created by treating insect dung particles. This book discusses the benefits of bug tea, including its ability to reduce gastritis, as well as its antioxidant and anticancer properties. The goal of this book is to promote and showcase insect tea as a valuable resource that isn’t well known.

Author(s) Detalis

Xin Zhao
Chongqing Collaborative Innovation Center for Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing 400067, China and Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing 400067, China and Chongqing Engineering Laboratory for Research and Development of Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing 400067, China and Department of Food Quality and Safety, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing 400067, China.

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Accounts of Biological Functions for Accumulation of Radioisotopes in Fishes

The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Fukushima-Ken (Prefecture), Japan, was destroyed in March 2011 by a major earthquake (magnitude 9) that struck off the northeast coast of Honshu Island, followed by a historic tsunami on March 11, 2011. Significant amounts of radioisotopes were released into the atmosphere and nearby seawater as a result of nuclear meltdown, hydrogen explosion damage to the buildings housing the reactors, and pollution of cooling water from the reactor cores. Since occasional studies have found that the majority of fishery products still contain radioisotope levels above the Japanese Norm Value, fishing is currently prohibited off the coast of Fukushima-Ken. The Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology has measured radioisotope levels in fishery species off the coast of Iwaki-Shi (Iwaki City), Fukushima-Ken (located south of the former nuclear power plant); these data may be used to better understand the relationship between the accumulation of specific nuclides (radioisotopes) and certain fish species, as mentioned in the following chapters:
“Feminam Okamejei kenojei spp. Accumulation of a Specific Nuclide by Female Common Skete (Feminam Okamejei kenojei spp.)” is the first chapter.

“Full Quantity of Caesium Radioisotopes in Fish from the Fukushima-Ken Exclusive Economic Zone, Japan, in November 2012” is the second chapter.

“Some Fish Species in Offshore Fukushima, Japan May Accumulate a Particular Nuclide (Radioisotope)” is the third chapter.

“Possible Atomic Fuel Output by Fish Accumulation of Unique Radioisotopes Offshore Fukushima, Japan,” fourth chapter,

Author(s) Details

KATSURA Hidemitsu
Coimbatore Institute of Technology (CIT), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641014, India and Department of Ocean Sciences, Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan 4-Chome, Minato-Ku, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan and Institute of Product Design and Manufacturing (IPROM), Universiti Kuala Lumpur (Uni.KL), 119 Jalan 7/91, Taman Shamelin Perkasa, 3.5 Miles Cheras, 56100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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Investigating the Effects of Host Grains on the Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.)

The present study was conducted to observe the effect of host preference on Sitophilus oryzae, the most cosmopolitan pest that causes severe losses in rice, maize, barley, wheat, on ovipsis, adult emergence, adult body length, longevity and sex ratio. Investigations into the production of S. were carried out. Oryzae in laboratory conditions on the four major cereal crops of maize, rice, chick pea, and millet. The mean developmental time from egg to adult varied, with maize (32.5 days) being the lowest and millet (43 days) being the maximum. The male and female body length also differed in the test grains. Overall, the body lengths of the females in all the test grains were found to be longer than males. The fertility and longevity of the various grains have also been altered. With 453 adults over a lifetime of 184 days, the highest fertility and longevity were found in maize. The female: male ratio was not found to vary significantly in maize, rice and millet with regard to fertility. A substantial decrease (maize- 2.36:1, rice- 2.35:1 and millet- 2.21:1) was observed in chick peas, i.e. 1.98:1. The current study showed that there was a linear association and a strong connection between grain loss and the amount of adult emergence. All the stages of the life cycle were found to be highest in the maize, starting from the form of egg laying to the emergence. The study also indicates that maize was rich in carbohydrates, which increased the insects’ size, fertility and longevity. Therefore, maize is the best grain suitable for rising S. Insects of Oryzae.

Author (s) Details

Miss. Bhumi Thakkar
Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara- 390002, India.

Prof. Pragna Parikh
Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara- 390002, India.

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A Comprehensive Review of Steroid Hormones in Reproduction and Roles of GnRH-a in Gonadal Maturation of Marine Fish

A series of hormones including gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), gonadotropins (GTHs) and steroid hormones control the reproduction in teleosts. This literature review discusses the changes in steroid hormone levels in relation to sexual inversion, reproductive behaviour and gonadal growth, as well as the application of GnRH-a to induce marine fish maturation, in order to contribute to a deeper understanding of steroid hormones in reproductive and gonadal maturation. The results revealed that steroid hormones E2, 11-11-KT and DHP are abundantly produced in gonadal tissues under the influence of pituitary gonadotropins in many species of teleost, and are important for crucial gametogenesis measures. As markers for both the sex of the fish and its stage in the seasonal reproductive cycle, plasma steroid levels have been used in particular with regard to spawning induction. Determination of plasma steroid concentrations in relation to sexual identity In the ambisexual fish species, sex inversion. In addition, changes in plasma steroid levels have been clearly defined in many marine species in relation to gonadal growth, number of spawnings, fertility. The analysis also showed that exogenous administration of GnRH-a caused the final maturation of some teleosts of the brood stock. In summary, E2, T, 11-KT and C21 steroids are active in inducing gonadal maturation in some fish species in relation to sex inversion, reproductive processes, and GnRH-a. The findings of various studies have shown that certain steroid hormones such as E2, T, 11-KT and C21 steroids play a significant role in the reproductive process of teleosts. Moreover, GnRH-a is effective in inducing certain fish species to mature.

Author (s) Details

Huynh Minh Sang
Institute of Oceanography, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 01 Cau Da St., Nha Trang City, Vietnam and Graduate University of Science and Technology, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Pham Xuan Ky
Institute of Oceanography, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 01 Cau Da St., Nha Trang City, Vietnam.

Ho Son Lam
Institute of Oceanography, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 01 Cau Da St., Nha Trang City, Vietnam.

Phan Minh Thu
Institute of Oceanography, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 01 Cau Da St., Nha Trang City, Vietnam and Graduate University of Science and Technology, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam.

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Monitoring and Identification of Vietnamese Paphiopedilum Species Using Vegetative Morphology

Context: The use of floral morphology to discriminate against Paphiopedilum species has been used effectively and frequently because of the distinct characteristics of their reproductive parts. The definition of flower morphology and structure is also the subject of most classification references. Nevertheless, since unauthorised trade plants are often at non-flowered or plantlet levels, species protection faces great problems. Molecular methods were applied and highly accurate results were obtained, but expended time and were unable to rate 100% resolution over the genus. Powerful support for other identifying methods and a remarkable contribution to the detection and prevention of illegal sales of Paphiopedilum would therefore be a simple identification using only vegetative characteristics. Objectives: In this review, we aimed to explain in detail the leaf characteristics of Paphiopedilum species in Vietnam that serve to differentiate quickly and easily without flower or laboratory techniques.

Study Design: Observed variables were saved and arranged using Microsoft Excel 2010 based on qualitative features of leaf form, colour, vein function, thickness, durability and quantitative features of leaf size. Methodology: In order to analyse the leaf morphology of nineteen species and two variants belonging to the Vietnamese population of Paphiopedilum, we analysed the leaf morphology of nineteen species and two variants in an orderly manner from parameters that are easiest to realise to the less clear characteristics for the most effective recognition, even to the non-botanist. Results: Using leaf morphology, 16 out of 20 species were described. When integrating morphological and molecular methods without the presence of their flowers, this figure was up to 100 percent. For the first time, an artificial key to the genus Paphiopedilum was established using vegetative data. Conclusion: For the identification of Paphiopedilum species, leaf morphology can be effectively used as the first step. Our studies have provided useful tools in serious or combined with molecular techniques in Our findings have provided useful tools for extreme or mixed molecular methods in biodiversity management and commercial management of these important organisms. This study will allow researchers to discover important areas of vegetative morphology that have not been listed by many researchers. A new artificial main theory may have practical use for endangered Paphiopedilum species in trade regulation.

Author (s) Details

Huyen-Trang Vu
Faculty of Biotechnology, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.

My-Huyen Bui
Faculty of Biotechnology, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.

Quoc-Luan Vu
Tay Nguyen Institute for Scientific Research, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Lam Dong Province 670000, Vietnam.

Thanh-Diem Nguyen
Faculty of Biotechnology, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.

Hop Tran
University of Natural Science, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.

Huu-Trung Khuat
Agricultural Genetics Institute, Pham Van Dong Street, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.

Ly Le
Faculty of Biotechnology, International University – Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.

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Jumping Plant-louse of the Genus Pseudoeriopsylla (Hemiptera-Psylloïdea-Homotomidae), Pest of Moraceae from Cameroon

In Cameroon, four species of Pseudoeriopsylla are known: P. laingi, P. etoundii, P. bitomi and P. mpoamei. The genus Pseudoeriopsylla is exclusively African and is distinguished by the presence of a pterostigma on the forewing and the absence of a costal split. In 1957, Eastop caught one species of P. laingi in a yellow trap in Bamenda (North-West) and it is not redescribed here. The morphological features of the three described species from Cameroon are revealed in this work. The leaves and young buds of Ficus spp. feed on these insects. (Moraceae) in Cameroon’s western highlands.

Author (s) Details

Victor Joly Dzokou
Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, Crop Protection (UR_PHYZA), University of Dschang, P.O.Box 222 Dschang, Cameroon.

Wenceslas Yana
Laboratory of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bamenda, P.O.Box 39 Bambili, Cameroon.

Joseph Lebel Tamesse
Laboratory of Zoology, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Yaounde I, P.O.Box 47 Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Eliane de Coninck
Royal Museum for Central Africa, Leuvensesteenweg 13 B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium.

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A Descriptive study on the Livelihood Status of Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) Fishermen of Greater Noakhali Regions of Bangladesh

During August 2014 to January 2015, the current study aimed to explain the livelihood status of Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) fishermen in Lakshmipur and Noahkali Districts in Bangladesh by means of a questionnaire survey tool. Pangas (Pangasius pangasius), Koral (Lates calcarifer) and Poa (Johnius coitor) were also found to be captured during Hilsa fishing, as by catching Chandi jal (set gill net). The use of mechanised (5-40 HP; Horse Power) boats in the study areas has been observed by 85% of fishermen. Hilsa fishing was observed mostly during October-November, while such activities were almost absent during February-May (off-period), forcing fishermen to temporarily begin migrating for their livelihoods to the nearby urban areas. Average net profits of fishermen on a daily basis during fishing The duration was 600 BDT, while their actual daily field income by fishing is expected to be 1695 BDT if they are assisted by nets, ships, fuels, etc., which means that the aratdars take almost 64 percent of their daily income. In the adjacent region, the socio-economic situation of the fishermen was not satisfactory. Therefore, for the better livelihood of the fishermen in the greater Noakhali region, subsidies could be suggested as a means of networks, boats, fuels, engines, etc.

Author (s) Details

Md. Jahangir Sarker
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

A. M. M. Borhan Uddin
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Md. Shamsul Alam Patwary
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Mehedi Hasan Tanmay
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Farhana Rahman
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Moshiur Rahman
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

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An Assessmental Study on the Determination of Heavy Metals in Sediment of Fish Farms in Bangladesh

Despite scarce scientific work on revier sediemtn and fish in Bangladesh, heavy metal pollution of aquatic ecosystems is often most evident in sediments, but unfortunately no work has yet been published particularly on heavy metal contamination of fresh water fish farm sediments. In order to assess the environmental contamination of the selected fish farms in Mymensingh, Bangladesh, heavy metals in mud surface sediments have been found. Surface sediment samples (0-15 cm) were collected with a single core sampler from 20 fish farm ponds in February 2014 and analysed to measure the concentrations (mg/Kg DW) of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). In the current analysis, the calculated concentration of heavy metals was in the order of Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd, which is very similar to other pond mud sediment results. The mean Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni concentrations observed in the present study were 208, 14.845, 0.009, 63.0544, 63.0544. And 58.665 mg/kg respectively, respectively. In total sediments, the range of measured concentrations (mg/kg) was 11.5-18.5 for Pb, 0.007-0.011 for Cd, 53.5-77.3 for Cr, 50.8-66.4 for Ni and 100-250 for Zn. In all sediment samples, the concentrations of Zn and Ni were above the guidelines of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for highly polluted sediments and the concentration of Cr dropped below the moderately polluted range. As per USEPA, the metal concentrations of Pb and Cd are far below the controlled level. The study results therefore showed that the consistency of the pond mud sediment in the Mymensingh area could be regarded as highly and moderately contaminated for Zn, Ni and Cr, respectively.

Author (s) Details

Md. Jahangir Sarker
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Indrani Kanungo
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Mehedi Hasan Tanmay
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Md. Shamsul Alam Patwary
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

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Monitoring and Identification of Planktonic Genera/Species and Determination of the Physicochemical Factors Favoring the Growth of These Species in Cape 7 (Aftissat) Zone, South of Morocco

The research was carried out in the region of Cape 7 (Aftissat), south of Morocco, 232 km south of Laayoune. The goal is to define the planktonic genera/species and species 62 km south of Boujdour region. Determination of the physicochemical factors that favour these species’ development. The research was carried out by Carried out on 427 samples, 57.2% (n = 245) of the samples were therefore distributed as follows during the course of the samples. The year 2016 and 42.5 percent in the year 2017 (n = 182). Furthermore, 32.8 percent and 27.6 percent of the samples In winter and fall, respectively, 24.4 percent of the samples were taken in summer and 15.2 percent of all samples were taken in summer. Samples that were taken in spring. A total of 30 species of phytoplankton have been described, of which 70% have been identified. Diatoms are (n = 21), dinoflagellates are 26.67 percent, and silicoflagellates are one species. Additionally, the The most common diatomic species are Navicula sp. (69), Nitzschia sp., Licmophora (47), Pseudo nitzschia spp. (35), (31) and Scrippsiella spp. in the Dinoflagellates class, Protoperidinium spp. (24), Oh. (11). It has also detected several toxic organisms, but with very low frequencies, below the standard. Cape d’Afissat plays a very important role in the economic life of the region, so we must step up our efforts to conserve it and enhance the quality of the water, if possible.

Author (s) Details

Bouchra Bouhaddioui
Department of Biology, Laboratory Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Health and Environment, Faculty of Science, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco.

Aziza Hal Aberrhaman
Department of Biology, Laboratory Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Health and Environment, Faculty of Science, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco.

Lalla Aicha Lrhorfi
Department of Biology, Laboratory Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Health and Environment, Faculty of Science, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco.

Rachid Bengueddour
Department of Biology, Laboratory Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Health and Environment, Faculty of Science, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco.

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Assessment of Macrobenthic Community Structure: An Approach to Coastal Water Pollution in Bangladesh

The present study was planned to investigate the diversity of benthos in Bangladesh’s South-Western coastal waters with the following goals. A study was conducted during February-March 2015 on the assemblages of benthic macro faunal populations in the coastal areas of Bangladesh following the normal methods for assessing the environmental pollution status. The composition of macrobenthic species in the Bakkhali river estuary showed the highest numbers of Polycheate (46%) followed by gastropods-23%, atrhropods-9%, bivalvia-8% and oligochaete-6%. The abundance of the macrobenthic communities (r=0.846) and species richness (r=0.864) is significantly affected by the water salinity of the sampling sites (p ⁇  0.05). Both the study areas showing the maximum (3909 ± 540 ind./m2) and lowest (2236 ± 689 ind./m2) benthic macrofaunal abundance density respectively, namely the Bakkhali River Estuary and the Meghna River Estuary, could be regarded as moderately polluted areas according to Shannon-Wiener Species Diversity Index findings (2.699) ± 0.13 and 2.00 ± 0.11 respectively) and Margalef species abundance (2.21 ± 0.43 and 1.36 ± 0.111 respectively). ), Respectively). Coastal fishing opportunities are high along the south-eastern portion of Bangladesh, and fish production is higher in the estuarine areas of that coast than in the other coastal portions of that coast. About that country. Environmental pollution is considered to be a crucial constraint to producing environmentally friendly fisheries. It is also conceivable that the Macrobenthic Community has clarified in the current review that a key future outline for assessing the coastal water contamination status of the areas concerned could be a key future outline. Concerning Bangladesh.

Author (s) Details

Md. Jahangir Sarker
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Md. Shamsul Alam Patwary
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Md. Monjurul Hasan
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Mehedi Hasan Tanmay
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali-3814, Bangladesh.

Mohammed Rashed Parvej
Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

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