Discrete Dynamical Systems: With Applications in Biology

Discrete-time dynamical systems or difference equations have been increasingly used to model the biological and ecological systems for which there is time interval between each measurement. This modeling approach is done through using the iterative maps. Iterative maps are an essential part of nonlinear systems dynamics as they allow us to take the output of
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Antisense oligonucleotides (oligos) have been evaluated for treating prostate cancer in both in vivo and in vitro models. This study evaluates the growth inhibition of in vitro propagating LNCaP cells employing mono- and bi-specific oligos directed against BCL-2 and employing RT-PCR, the expression of five apoptosis regulatory proteins (BCL-2, bax, caspase-3, clusterin, AKT-1), a tumor
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In the current study the spider’s biodiversity was surveyed, the findings of Theridiid spider Nesticodes rufipes was recorded and documented from the suburban area of Turahalli forest, south Bangalore Karnataka. The samples were collected, during the monsoon season as the richness of species were encountered. Totally 11 families with 18 different species were documented and
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The study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between the iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and type 2 diabetes, to estimate the effect of the IDA on the level of glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) and to assess the ameliorating effect of IDA treatment on progression of diabetes and its complications. This study included 125 male
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This study deals with the distribution and ecology of euglenoids in relation to physicochemical characteristics of water in four lakes of Tumkur district. Guluru, Bugudanahalli, Colony and Teeta are the four lakes selected for the present study during 2015-17 and discussed. Euglenoids function as indicators of aquatic superiority. A total of ten species under three
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In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of Azadirachta indica (neem) extracts on mycelial growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and P. brevicompactum. Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) (neem plant) extract is one of the most important plant products which inhibit mycotoxin production. The effect of neem oil extract
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Objective: To establish a more accurate reliable standard value of the widely used cephalometric parameters for the Iraqi Arab adults and comparing them to the norms of Caucasians counterparts. Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis of the pertinent cephalometric studies of Iraqi adults for period confined between 1988 to 2017 was conducted. 27 of the total
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The aim of the study is to document the threats faced by reptiles with other species in UAE and the conservation efforts done by Barari Natural Resources (BNR). The study was conducted by reviewing the factors affecting the existing wildlife in 34 different sites managed by Barari Natural Resources in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi,
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Shrimp is the most valuable fishery resource in Mexico, representing almost 40% of the total production landed, with revenues of more than US $ 132 million per year and with more than 30,000 direct and indirect jobs. Three penaeid shrimp species account for >95% of the wild stock of the Pacific coast. The blue and
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Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a single-celled parasitic ciliate that causes problems for almost all species of freshwater fish. It affects both wild and farmed fish. It infects the fish host and causes “White spot disease”, which becomes fatal within a matter of days. Three hundred twenty four (324) infected tiger shark/striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fingerlings (mean
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