A Genomic Study in Octoploide Triticale (8x) and their Genitors (Wheat and Rye) by C-banding, N-Banding and In Situ Hybridization: The Translocation Identification 2BL/7RS

The major goal of this research is to look at the heterochromatin (noncoding DNA sequences rich in CG bases) genomes of a primary triticale and its progenitors, wheat and rye, on the one hand, and to locate the nuclear organiser regions (NOR) and ribosomal genes on the other (5S and 45S). Results and Methodology: When the hybrids were compared to their ancestors, the C bands in their genomes showed a different pattern. The hybrid (Mahon-demiasxRC9) genome is less heterochromatic than the genitor D genome (Mahon-demias). In comparison to their homologous of the D genitor, the hybrid (Mahon-demias xRC9) genomes B and D demonstrate a richness in heterochromatin. Despite this, the R genome of the hybrid (Mahondemias xRC9) is nearly identical to that of its E genitor (RC9), with the exception of the 2BL / 7RS chromosome. The organising regions (NOR) designated on the chromosomes 1R, 2R, 3R, and 6R of rye and on the chromosome 1B of wheat in the genitors and hybrids and on the triticale chromosomes 1B, 1R, 2R, 3R, and 6R, revealed the same localisation as that stated by the authors. The 5S locus on chromosome 5R is co-localized with the 45S locus, according to molecular research. The 45S loci are found on the chromosomes 1R, 3R, 5R, and 7R. They are the organiser areas of the nucleoplasm (N.O.R). 5S loci are found on chromosomes 2A, 5B, and 7RS / 2BL in triticale. On chromosomes 1R, 3R, and 7RS, the 45S locus is found. 2BL. In contrast to the bibliography, chromosome 5R has two loci, 5S and 45S, co-located on the short arm’s telomer. This finding shows that the rye variety that functioned as the genitor gained rDNA during the selection process, which it then passes on to his successors in a stable manner. FISH confirms the 7RS / 2BL translocation indicated by C-banding. Conclusion and Implications: The findings show that intervarietal and interspecific polymorphisms exist in rye and triticale, as well as the presence of telocentric chromosomes B or isochromosomes with a heterochromatic and/or euchromatic structure. Finally, we create a molecular cytogenetic map of our vegetal material’s marker chromosomes and ribosomal genes (genitors and hybrid).

Author (s) Details

Dounia Hammouda
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Genetic and Vegetal Biotechnologies, University of Mentouri Constantine1. Faculty of Sciences. Ain El bay 25000, Constantine, Algeria.

Nadra Khalfallah
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Genetic and Vegetal Biotechnologies, University of Mentouri Constantine1. Faculty of Sciences. Ain El bay 25000, Constantine, Algeria.

Houda Badri Mohammed
National Research Center, Division of Genetics Engineering and Biotechnology. Department Genetics and Cytology, Cairo, Egypt.

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Nannochloropsis gaditana as a Source of Novel Antitumor Compounds

Proteomics techniques have evolved over the last few decades into a critical tool for understanding the dynamics of proteins in biological processes, as well as an important methodology for academic and practical research [1-4]. To organise and understand the massive amount of data generated by a single proteomics experiment, a variety of bioinformatic tools are necessary. By comparing the retrieved protein information with the existing patents database, a unique approach called “Applied Proteomics” has been created to get insight into prospective uses of the identified proteins. The application of proteome of non-model microorganisms, which have been extensively characterised as a novel source of metabolites [5-8], has been enabled by the advent of large sequencing technology and MS/MS advances. Nannochloropsis gaditana has been identified as a potential alternative source of biomolecules [9-13]. Our research group recently published the first full proteome analysis of this microalga [14], which identified 488 proteins with potential commercial applications utilising the applied proteomics paradigm. To test our method, we used the protein UCA01 from the prohibitin family. In conclusion, the revalorization of microalgae biomass is a critical element in the European Union’s “Blue Growth” politicies. UCA01, a protein derived from Nannochloropsis gaditana, has been created as a new cancer-fighting weapon. This protein has a specific inhibitory effect on tumour cell proliferation while having no effect on control cells. This concept, dubbed “applied proteomics,” provides the first practical approach to transforming proteome information in a prospective commercial application. It is based on a revolutionary bio-algorithm that can identify proteins that have potential industrial applications. Hundreds of proteins have been described.

Author (s) Details

Carrasco-Reinado, Rafael
Microbiology Laboratory, Institute of Viticulture and Agri-food Research (IVAGRO), University of Cádiz, Pol. Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
Escobar-Niño, Almudena
Microbiology Laboratory, Institute of Viticulture and Agri-food Research (IVAGRO), University of Cádiz, Pol. Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.

Fernández-Acero, Francisco Javier
Microbiology Laboratory, Institute of Viticulture and Agri-food Research (IVAGRO), University of Cádiz, Pol. Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.

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Proteasome and Organs Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: A Review

Organ failure needs the transplanting of functional organs from donors to treat patients. The development of organ preservation solutions enhanced transplantation methodology over time. Ischemia occurs when organs are stored in preservation solutions, resulting in a lack of oxygen and nutrition, which damages the tissues. When the organ is ready for transplantation, reperfusion promotes tissue damage by increasing oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammation. The success of transplanting is decreasing. The inclusion of a proteasome inhibitor in the preservation solution, on the other hand, reduced the damage caused by the ischemia-reperfusion process. The proteasome is a protein structure that regulates inflammation and aids in the removal of damaged proteins. The purpose of this review is to outline the proteasome’s involvement in protecting organs from ischemia-reperfusion injury, as well as the pharmaceutical substances that regulate the proteasome. The success of transplanting is decreasing. The inclusion of a proteasome inhibitor in the preservation solution, on the other hand, reduced the damage caused by the ischemia-reperfusion process. The proteasome is a protein structure that regulates inflammation and aids in the removal of damaged proteins. The purpose of this review is to outline the proteasome’s involvement in protecting organs from ischemia-reperfusion injury, as well as the pharmaceutical substances that regulate the proteasome.

Author (s) Details

Joan Oliva
Clinical Research Department, Emmaus Medical, Torrance, CA 90503, USA.

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Therapeutic Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cell on Organ Ischemia-reperfusion Injury: A Review

The scarcity of organ donors is a big global issue. Organ failure necessitates the use of functional organ transplants. Organs are kept for varying periods of warm and cold ischemia time, which necessitates their placement in a preservation device. The organs are damaged during ischemia and reperfusion due to a lack of oxygen during the ischemia step and oxidative stress during the reperfusion step. To avoid or reduce the severity of injuries, many approaches have been created. Cold static preservation solutions, which comprise the inclusion of numerous chemical compounds, were initially created to maximise cold static preservation. Injuries to the organ Mesenchymal stem cells (such as bone marrow stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, and umbilical cord stem cells) have been shown to be effective in the healing of damaged organs. The use of bone marrow stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, and umbilical cord stem cells to prevent or reduce ischemia-reperfusion damage will be the focus of this review.
 
Author (s) Details

Joan Oliva
Clinical Research Department, Emmaus Medical, Torrance, CA 90503, USA.

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Cell Death and Organ Injury: The Example of the Kidney

Tissues usually mend after being harmed. The acknowledgment that harm has occurred is required for cellular responses to heal. Apoptotic cell death is often triggered by the cell’s surroundings. In fact, when cells are overworked, persistent cellular stress can trigger homeostatic repair systems or cause them to die. Apoptosis causes parenchymal cell death in the kidney during acute and chronic renal damage, although it does not cause an inflammatory response. Inflammation, on the other hand, can cause necrosis, which is distinguished from apoptosis by the loss of plasma membrane integrity, resulting in the release of unprocessed intracellular content, including cellular organelles, which are immunogenic proteins. Depending on the intensity of the insult, the relative contribution of apoptosis and necrosis to injury varies. Immunologically silent apoptosis or immunogenic necrosis can cause regulated cell death. Recent advancements have improved The concept of controlled necrosis is the most groundbreaking. Necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parhanatos, mitochondria permeability transition regulated necrosis, and NETosis are some of the regulated necrosis modes that have been described. Mitochondria, which are well-known for their canonical roles in cellular respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, are also recognised as key contributors in the cell death pathway, playing a key role in detecting and integrating environmental signals to trigger adaptive and compensatory responses in cells. As a result, mitochondrial damage and malfunction have been identified as a pathogenic event in a number of disorders, including Kidney disease can be both chronic and acute. As a result, we explore the several modalities of cell death in kidney injury, emphasising converging cell death pathways and demonstrating that a combination therapy targeting multiple cell-death pathways may lead to novel therapeutic prospects.
 
Author (s) Details

Giovanna Priante
Kidney Histomorphology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Clinical Nephrology, Department of Medicine – DIMED, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy.

Lisa Gianesello
Kidney Histomorphology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Clinical Nephrology, Department of Medicine – DIMED, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy.

Monica Ceol
Kidney Histomorphology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Clinical Nephrology, Department of Medicine – DIMED, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy.

Associate Professor Dorella Del Prete

Kidney Histomorphology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Clinical Nephrology, Department of Medicine – DIMED, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy.

Franca Anglani
Kidney Histomorphology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Clinical Nephrology, Department of Medicine – DIMED, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy.

View Book :-  https://stm.bookpi.org/RRAB-V10/article/view/2135

Recent Developing a Novel Parameter Estimation Method for an Agent-Based Model in Immune System Simulation Using History Matching: A Case Study on Influenza a Virus Infection

Agent-based models (ABM) have been widely employed for immune system simulation because they may provide a natural and flexible description of nonlinear dynamic behaviour of complex systems. However, including experimental data into ABM is critical for obtaining an adequate estimation for the model’s main parameters. A systematic strategy for immune system simulation is proposed in this research by combining the ABM and regression method within the context of history matching. During the operation, a novel parameter estimate approach is suggested that incorporates the experiment data for the simulator ABM. To begin, we use ABM as a simulator to model the situation. system of defence Then, utilising the ABM’s input and output data, the dimension-reduced type generalised additive model (GAM) is used to train a statistical regression model and serve as an emulator during history matching. Next, we introduce an implausible measure to exclude the implausible input values, reducing the parameter input space. Finally, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is used to estimate model parameters by fitting the data. system of defences Then, utilising the ABM’s input and output data, the dimension-reduced type generalised additive model (GAM) is used to train a statistical regression model and act as an emulator during history matching. Following that, we provide an implausible measure to eliminate the implausible input values, reducing the parameter input space. Finally, the particle swarm optimization technique (PSO) is used to estimate model parameters by fitting the data to the model.  Among the non-implausible input values, there is data from an experiment. The performance of our suggested method is demonstrated using a genuine Influenza A Virus (IAV) data set, and the results show that the proposed method not only has good fitting and prediction accuracy, but also has good computational efficiency.

 Author (s) Details

Le Zhang
College of Computer Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Tingting Li
College of Mathematics and Statistics, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

View Book :-  https://stm.bookpi.org/RRAB-V10/article/view/2134

Developmental Biology of Cardiochiles nigricollis Cameron a Larval Endo-parasitoid of Rice Leaffolders

nigricollis cardiochiles Cameron is a larval endo-parasitoid of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) and Marasmia exigua Butler, two rice leaf folder species. On the host C. medinalis, the developmental biology of C. nigricollis was investigated. The parasitoid usually parasitized the third and fourth instar larvae of the leaffolder species. Four instars were discovered throughout the parasitoid’s growth. The first instar larvae are segmented and somewhat twisted. The tracheal system could be detected dimly in the second instar, which showed segmentation. In the third instar, the head was well defined, and the larva grew in size. Six to ei full-grown larvae emerged from the host. After the egg was laid, it took a few days for it to hatch. On average, females had a 5.3-day pupal period, whereas males had a 6.7-day pupal period. The duration of incubation, larval development, and pupal development was 1.2 days, 10 days, and 6.7 days, respectively. The pupal stage of C. nigricollis began in late August and developed progressively until the first week of December, when the entire population went into diapause. Only during the wet season was this phenomenon noted. Males took an average of 213 days to emerge from diapausing pupae, whereas females took an average of 224 days. The consistent rise in the number of C. The occurrence of a heterogeneous population of C. nigricollis in the field that responded to changes in air temperature over time could be attributed to nigricollis entering diapause in the field population. On the pupae of C. nigricollis, Brachymeria sp., Orgilus sp., Trichomalopsis (Eupteromalus) parnarae Gahan, and Elasmus sp. were grown as hyper-parasitoids.

Author (s) Details

K. S. Behera
ICAR – National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack -753006, India.

View Book :-  https://stm.bookpi.org/RRAB-V10/article/view/2133

Three Novel Cases of Trilateral Retinoblastoma: An Approach towards Genetic Diagnosis

The heritable form of retinoblastoma associated with an intracranial tumour that mostly affects the pineal gland as well as the suprasellar or intrasellar region of the brain is known as trilateral retinoblastoma. Because of its rarity, only a few research on the molecular genetics of this tumour have been published, despite the importance of reporting these cases with molecular analyses. This study intends to raise awareness about retinoblastoma early detection and the use of intracranial magnetic resonance imaging to track subsequent cancers, such as trilateral retinoblastoma. More over half of the Because trilateral retinoblastoma is diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging at the same time as retinoblastoma, baseline screening for trilateral retinoblastoma may be beneficial. In this work, we provide three examples with trilateral retinoblastoma, as well as the molecular data for each proband, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging.

Author (s) Details

Ms. Renata Mendes de Freitas
Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and The Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RRAB-V10/article/view/2132

Optimizing in vitro Generation of Interleukin-10 Secreting B Regulatory Cells

Bregulatory cells are a subpopulation of IL-10-secreting B-cells that are frequently identified as CD19+/38hi/24hi (B-regs). Changes in stimulating molecule concentration have an influence on the population of human Interleukin-10 secreting B-regs. For possible cell treatment, B-regs can be generated by in-vitro co-culture of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AD-MSC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the co-culture of AD-MSC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LPS-EK), lipopolysaccharide–E.coli–K12 strain (LPS-EK) was added in various doses. cellular (PBMC). The concentration of IL-10 in the cell supernatant was measured using a quantitative ELISA at each time point. Cells were examined for morphology, sterility, total count, vitality, and immune-phenotype. The data was evaluated to establish the time interval during which the greatest B-reg population and IL-10 secretion were achieved. The current study adds to our understanding of the kinetics of IL-10 secretion by human B-regs derived from AD-MSC and PBMC in vitro. The current research focuses on the in vitro production of B-regs from mesenchymal stem cells generated from adipose tissue. stromal cells (AD-MSC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as a partial characterisation of B-regs in terms of IL-10 secretion, time, and the quantity of stimulating molecule (i.e. LPS-EK) required for optimal IL-10 secretion. B-regs have been found to secrete cytokine in trace amounts. The media used to feed the cells dilutes the released cytokines by several orders of magnitude. The samples in our investigation were properly concentrated so that the cytokines could be detected using a quantitative Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

Author (s) Details

K. S. Gupte
Department of Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine. G.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases & Research Centre (IKDRC)- Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (ITS), India.

A. V. Vanikar
Department of Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine. G.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases & Research Centre (IKDRC)- Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (ITS), India and Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Transfusion Services and Immunohematology. G.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases & ResearchCentre (IKDRC) – Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (ITS),India.

C. N. Patel
Department of Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine. G.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases & Research Centre (IKDRC)- Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (ITS), India.

U. G. Thakkar
Department of Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine. G.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases & Research Centre (IKDRC)- Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (ITS), India.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RRAB-V10/article/view/2131

The Effect of Antrophogenic Noise on Anti-predator Activity of Sumatran Elephants at the Elephant Conservation Center

Noise anthropogenic effect on animals is caused by an increase in human activity around forest areas. This long-term effect may result in decreased behaviour as well as a negative impact on species composition and inter-species interactions. Sumatran elephants are a critically endangered species. The goal of this study is to see how noise affects the Sumatran elephant’s anti-predator behaviour, as well as the differences in behavioural responses dependent on noise exposure period. Sumatran elephants were observed at the Elephant Conservation Center Saree in Aceh Besar District. The method of observation was approach for animal focused sampling The chi square test was used to evaluate the data, with a significance threshold of 5%. The value of sig is 0.000 or less than 0.05, indicating that noise has an influence on anti-predator behaviour, according to the results of the chi-square test. The Sumatran elephants that were studied appeared to be more receptive to the dawn noise. Predator perceptions of prey can be hampered by noise, which is linked to increased energy expenditure. Visitors, motorised cars, and other voices from the surrounding region all contributed to tremendous noise, which had an impact on the welfare of captive animals.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Abdullah
Department of Biology Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

A. Shabrina,
Department of Biology Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

Dr. Khairil,
Department of Biology Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

M. Saputri
Department of Biology Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

D. Syafrianti
Department of Biology Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

N. Ala

Department of Biology Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/RRAB-V9/article/view/2013