Mangrove Oysters: Mortality and Microbiota Population Dynamics during Processing and Ambient Storage

The molluscan bivalve shellfish Mangrove Oyster (Crassostrea gasar) is a typical inhabitant of the mangrove / estuarine ecosystem of Nigeria’s Niger Delta. The dynamics of mortality and microbiota population of fresh, processed and stored mangrove oysters were investigated at ambient temperature. During purification in tap water (TW) and brackish water (BW) microenvironments, the mortality rates of raw oysters were calculated for 14 days. In the environment, mortality was observed on the 5th, 11th and subsequent days , respectively. The shelf-life of oysters was greatly improved in BW microcosms. It thus shows the beneficial effect of mangrove oyster depuration in BW as opposed to TW microcosms. Using standard microbiological methods, the microbial counts of raw (shucked), processed and oyster meat samples during ambient storage were determined. The aerobic plate counts (APCs) for raw (shucked) and processed oyster meat samples on day 0 were 1.36 ⁇ 105 and 3.00×103 CFU / g, respectively, but After storage, it increased from 0-0.8 to 102 CFU / g. In numbers and variety, bacteria were more prevalent than fungi. Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Proteus and Staphylococcus were the most commonly isolated microbes from raw (shucked), processed and preserved oyster meat samples, while others were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Bacillus (20,8 percent) and Pseudomonas (16,7 percent); Aspergillus (52,3 percent) and Penicillium (45,4 percent) were the most dominant genera during storage. Non-detectability of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter species as well as bioburden reduction, however, underlines the criticality and necessity of sufficient pre-consumption heat treatment for oysters, as some of these organisms are not only potentially pathogenic, but also of public health significance. This study highlights the marketability of depurated mangrove oysters to boost health risks and severe post-harvest economic losses on or before 5 days and 24h for processed samples.

Author (s) Details

Lawrence O. Amadi
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, P.M.B. 5080, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria and Department of Microbiology, School of Applied Science, Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, P.M.B. 20, Bori, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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Studies on the Staphylococcal Protein A as a Pharmacological Treatment for Autoimmune Movement Disorders

Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is a key virulence factor that enables Staphylococcus aureus to evade
host innate and adaptive immune response. The immunomodulatory properties of SpA have led to a
hypothesis that it may have pharmacological applications as a treatment for autoimmune disease.
Clinical trials are underway to test whether ultrapure SpA can be used to treat immune
thrombocytopenia and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we propose to investigate the potential of
staphylococcal protein A as an innovative drug to manage autoimmune movement disorders.

Author(s) Details

Gemma Eftimiadi,
GNOSIS, NPO, Gruppo di Studio dei Disturbi Motori e Comportamentali del Bambino, Cuneo, Italy.

Costantino Eftimiadi
GNOSIS, NPO, Gruppo di Studio dei Disturbi Motori e Comportamentali del Bambino, Cuneo, Italy and Medicina Generale Convenzionata ASL CN1, Cuneo, Italy.

Piergiuseppe Vinai,
GNOSIS, NPO, Gruppo di Studio dei Disturbi Motori e Comportamentali del Bambino, Cuneo, Italy.

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Plant Mimicry: ‘A Mesmerizing Maneuver’

The kingdom of plants is full of mimics, which has been evolving some very unique and fascinating
tactics to trick predators and competitors. ‘Plant mimicry’, the impressive outcomes of natural
selection; is based on three protagonists, i.e., model, mimic and signal receiver. True mimicry involves
the deception of a signal receiver which is unable to discriminate between the model and the mimic of
a signal. The information on mimicry in plants is surprisingly scattered, largely sketchy and little known
in publications and thus, different classes of plant mimicry are conceptually grouped in this review.
Based on the mimic’s signal to the receiver, it is presented as: (1) Batesian mimicry: the mimic signals
a fitness cost to the receiver and the mimic’s signal is deceptive. The advertised costs to the receiver
are greater than the actual costs; (2) Aggressive mimicry: the mimic signals a fitness benefit to the
receiver and the mimic’s signal is deceptive. The advertised benefits to the receiver are greater than
the actual benefits; (3) Müllerian mimicry: the mimic signals a fitness cost to the receiver, and the
mimic’s signal is non-deceptive; and (4) Rewarding mimicry: the mimic signals a fitness benefit to
manipulate receiver behavior and the mimic’s signal is non-deceptive. Further, plants do mimic other
plants, fungi, animals, inanimate objects, reproductive parts etc. So, in this paper, a catalogue of
different fascinating-named mimicry has been portrayed as well on the basis of which object is being
mimicked by plants.

Author(s) Details

Avani Patel
C G Bhakta Institute of Biotechnology, Uka Tarsadia University, Gopal Vidyanagar, BardoliMahuva Road, Tarsadi-394350, Gujarat, India.

Dhruti Mistry
C G Bhakta Institute of Biotechnology, Uka Tarsadia University, Gopal Vidyanagar, BardoliMahuva Road, Tarsadi-394350, Gujarat, India.

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Analysis of Chemical Signatures in ModeratelyThermophilic Bacteria

The analysis of fatty acids methyl esters as biochemical markers have been used in the identification
of bacteria. A total of 18 out of 44 moderately thermophlic bacteria isolated from water samples of the
Coramandal Coast, Chennai, Tamilnadu, were analyzed for Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). The
present study showed that the predominant fatty acid was 15:0i followed by 15:0a, which were
characteristic of Bacillus. The results suggest that the order of decreasing abundance of terminally
branched fatty acids is as follows: iso even-numbered acids namely 16:0i, 14:0i, iso odd-numbered
acids, 15:0i, 17:0i, 13:0i, 19:0i and anteiso acids, 15:0a, 17:0a, 11:0a, 19:0a. Straight chain saturated
fatty acids identified were 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0. The remaining fatty acids components were
present in negligible quantities. The isolates were also identified and classified using the comparison
with the TSBA database as Bacillus cereus-GC subgroup A, B. subtilis, B. laevolacticus,
B. alcalophilus, B. pumilus subgroup A, Staphylococcus schleiferi, S. gallinarum-GC subgroup A,
Kurthiasibirica, Geobacillus stearothermophilus-GC subgroup.

Author(s) Details

S. Aruna Sharmili
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai 600 086, India.

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Cost Effective Cultivation of Spirulina platensis by Using Fish Waste Hydrolysate

The greatest problem in the world today is Global Food Protein Shortage. So, there is an urgent need
to find other protein sources. The best potential is seen in Single Cell Protein i.e. Spirulina platensis.
The purpose of this study was to assess the growth, biomass, and other useful compounds (Protein,
Chl-a, Chl-b, Carotenoids Phycocyanin) of Spirulina on cost effective alternative medium i.e. Fish
Waste Hydrolysate (FH) medium and Zarrouk’s medium (ZM) was used as standard. This study
showed better growth rate, biomass (protein content), high level of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
content, carotenoid, phycocyanin pigment production of Spirulina cultivated in Fish Waste Hydrolysate
medium. It is suggested that FH medium could be used as the alternative and cheap medium than
standard medium ZM.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Avinash Anand Raut
Department of Microbiology, Yashwantrao Chavan College of Science, Karad, India.

Pratiksha D. Magdum
Department of Biotechnology, Smt. Kasturbai Walchand College, Sangli, India.

Aadesh S. Kulkarni
Department of Biotechnology, Smt. Kasturbai Walchand College, Sangli, India.

Deep N. Thakkar
Department of Biotechnology, Smt. Kasturbai Walchand College, Sangli, India.

Pranay P. Patil
Department of Microbiology, Yashwantrao Chavan College of Science, Karad, India.

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Influence of Electron-ion Technology on the Microbiology of Production Processes

Study on the use of electron-ion technology with a view to the inactivation of microorganisms, e.g., a
byproduct of ozone gas, have been further developed in response to the need to suppress any
microflora in fermentation processes in the microbiological industry, as well as with the development
methods of storing vegetables and food products in the presence of ozone disinfection of municipal
wastewater. The question of ozone destruction of microorganisms of various taxonomic groups
covered extensively in the literature. Until recently, in connection with the use of ozone for disinfection
of drinking water the majority of works were devoted to study ozone effects on pathogen
microorganisms.

Author(s) Details

M. Ya. Burlev
Myker Ltd., Moscow, Russia.

V. D. Kharitonov
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Dairy Industry, Moscow, Russia.

N. S. Nikolaev
Moscow State University of Food Industry, Moscow, Russia.

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Nanoparticles in Environmental Clean-up

In the last few decades, nanotechnology has occupied significant domain in the scientific realm
because of its multidisciplinary nature. The enhanced properties and suitability of nanoparticles
makes them to use in various applications in different field. The use of nanoparticles in environmental
remediation is particularly suitable due to its high surface area to volume ratio that results in high
reactivity. This chapter mainly describes the inorganic, carbon and polymer based nanomaterials for
use in treating various contaminants of the environment.

Author(s) Details

Dr. S. Bharathi
Department of Microbiology, Sri Sankara Arts and Science College, Kanchipuram- 631 561, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr. M. Radhakrishnan
Centre for Drug Discovery and Development, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai – 600 119, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Screening Methods for the Detection of Antagonistic Actinobacteria: Facts and Problems

Screening is the highly selective procedures for the detection and isolation of only those
microorganisms of interest from among a large microbial population. Actinobacteria are the group of
bacteria with the greatest biomedical value especially antibiotic production. Detection of the
antagonistic property of actinobacteria is the pre-requisite for their exploitation for antibiotic
production. There are several methods described as well as in practice for the detection of
antagonistic actinobacteria. All the screening methods are broadly categorized into diffusion methods
(crowded plate, agar overlay, cross streak, cross spot, drop test, agar plug) and dilution (agar dilution,
broth dilution) methods. Some important methods commonly used for the detection of antagonistic
activity of actinobacteria and their advantages and limitations are described in this chapter.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Manikkam Radhakrishnan
Centre for Drug Discovery and Development, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai – 600 119, Tamil Nadu, India.

Mr. Kaari Manigundan
Centre for Drug Discovery and Development, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai – 600 119, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr. Venugopal Gopikrishnan
Centre for Drug Discovery and Development, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai – 600 119, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr. Ramasamy Balagurunathan
Department of Microbiology, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India

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The Details of Migratory Phenomenons, Bioethics and Vaccinations

The evolution of the HIV following migratory phenomenons is reported in an interesting study carried
on for 15 years. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a technique in molecular biology that amplifies
a specific region of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and has been useful in the molecular
characterization of viruses as poxviruses. In many countries, such as Italy, the vaccinations are
included in the so-called sanitary obliged not coercive treatments. This means that the obligation is
anticipated for all the subjects belonging to one determined range of age to undergo some
vaccinations, but these are not subministrated by force in case of refusal. The legitimacy of the
obligatory vaccination against the smallpox, with all the risks connected, stated that such “risks were
too much reduced to be seriously taken in consideration for the benefits produced on the collectivity”.
To ratify this obligation brings, however, to the reimbursement of the incidental damages produced by
the vaccination. Nevertheless, mass vaccination against smallpox continues to be a leading initiative
in western countries to guard against bioterrorist attack.

Author(s) Details

Giulio Tarro
Foundation T. and L. de Beaumont Bonelli Foundation for Cancer Research, Naples, Italy and Committee on Biotechnologies and Virus Sphere, World Academy of Biomedical Technologies, UNESCO, Paris, France.

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Investigation of Various Antibiotics Alone and Combined with Clarithromycin as Lock Solutions on Eradication of Biofilms Strains Belonging to Enterobacterales


Antibiotic lock solutions is recommended as an adjunctive therapy for patients who have catheter
related bloodstream infections. The aims of our study is, to determine the in-vitro efficacy of colistin,
ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, and doripenem alone or in combination with clarithromycin as 24 hour lock
solutions against biofilm-embedded Enterobacterales (Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae)
strains. The efficacy of antibiotic lock solutions was tested in an in-vitro catheter biofilm model against
two E. coli and two E. cloacae isolated from catheter tip, respectively. In our study, we observed that
the use of doripenem and tobramycin as a lock solution had potent bactericidal effects (> 3 log10
reduction). When colistin was used in combination with clarithromycin, the combination showed
synergistic activity for one E. cloacae strain. Tobramycin, doripenem, and ciprofloxacin were used in
combination with clarithromycin, the combinations had same effect on all strains comparatively with
these antibiotics alone. No antagonistic effect was observed. The findings of our study have important
informations for effectiveness of tested antibiotic lock solution with these antibiotics alone or in
combination in the catheter related infections with belonging to Enterobacterales. Further
investigations are needed to alternative treatment options for catheter related infections that were
caused by Enterobacterales

Author(s) Details

Dr. Emel Mataraci Kara
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, 34116 Beyazit, Istanbul, Turkey.

Berna Özbek Çelik
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, 34116 Beyazit, Istanbul, Turkey.

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