Latest News on Biotechnology : April 21

[1] Biotechnology

The following topics were reviewed: microbiological engineering (microorganism biochemistry, biomass production, bioconversion); enzymatic engineering (enzymology and biocatalysis, enzyme production, immobilized enzymes, enzymatic reactors); genetic engineering (mutation selection, genetic recombination); quality control of biotechnology products; valorization of agricultural and industrial wastes (methane production).

[2] Biotechnology. An industrial view

Biotechnological research has witnessed enormous progress, particularly in the last decade. The popular concept of biotechnology is that it is concerned with the production of new wonder drugs, such as interferon. However, another side to the subject is large-scale biotechnology concerned with the biological processes for making many of the everyday bulk production on which society depends. An industrial view of biotechnology is given with examples such as ammonia production, penicillin, single-cell protein, methanol and polyhydroxybutyrate.

[3] Hyperthermophiles and their possible potential in biotechnology

To develop novel processes in microbial biotechnology organisms with outstanding properties are required. Archaea represent a nearly unexplored third domain (`continent’) of life, which harbours organisms living in extreme environments such as alkaline to acidic hot springs, anaerobic sediments and highly saline environments. From high temperature terrestrial and marine biotopes many extreme heat-loving (hyperthermophilic) Archaea and Bacteria have been isolated, which grow at temperatures between 80 and 113°C. Within the 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic tree of life, hyperthermophiles occupy the deepest phylogenetic branches representing more than 30 genera. In their mode to gain energy, they exhibit a great variety: obligate chemolithoautotrophs utilizing only CO2, hydrogen, and different sulfur compounds are primary producers in hot and anaerobic environments. Organotrophs grow on organic acids, alcohols, sugars, amino acids, or polymers like starch or chitin. This diversity in combination with their unusual heat resistance makes hyperthermophiles appropriate for new biotechnological applications at high temperatures. After cloning the genes into easy cultivable mesophiles, enzymes active at temperatures up to 130°C are produced for food industry, biochemical and molecular research, or chemical industry. In addition, cultures can be applied directly in chemical processes like desulfurication of flue gases and in biohydrometallurgical processes.

[4] Modern Approaches to Classification of Biotechnology as a Part of NBIC-Technologies for Bioeconomy

Aims: The aim of the article is to systematize and improve existing theoretical approaches to the classification of biotechnology as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy.

Study Design: The reviews were carried out in the period 2005–15 on the basis of studying the world countries biotechnologies development trends as well as on the basis of the research results obtained by World and Ukrainian institutions and universities.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of International Economic Relations and Tourism Business of VN Karazin Kharkiv National University conducted the research between January 2016 and June 2016.

 

Methodology: Content analysis and bibliographic retrieval have been used as the main methods of research, which allowed making a meaningful analysis of classic papers and works of modern economists-practitioners devoted to the Global and Ukrainian trends in biotechnologies’ scientific research as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy.

Results: The article demonstrates that currently there is no common and unified classification of biotechnology. The authors systematized existing approaches to biotech typology by a wide range of criteria (objects, the level of human impact to biological systems, technologies, colours, and area of application) and proposed to improve them. The authors analyzed the “colour” classification, found its inconsistencies and disadvantages (e.g. separation of “white” biotechnology from “grey” one or expediency of “violet” biotechnology in this classification). With the help of the input-output matrix the authors expanded the scope of relationships between different biotech fields by supplementing new biotech application examples at the intersections of branches, adding extra fields (“brown”, “black”, “gold”, and “violet”) and particular cases of their interactions, namely, they: expanded the scope of application as to biomedicine, explained the role of biomedicine for development of bioterrorism as a feedstock supplier, defined the impact of biopharmaceutics on food industry and bioterrorism by means of concrete examples, considered industrial biotechnology as a platform for biomedicine development and supporting force for such a negative endeavor as bioterrorism, characterized the role of agricultural biotechnology in biopharmaceutics enhancement, added examples of interaction between arid zones and desert biotechnology on the one hand and food industry/ biopharmaceutics on the other hand, identified the area of arid zones and desert biotechnology application, included potential application of scientific results for enhancement of industrial biotechnology. Moreover, the authors developed the hierarchical model that reflects the ties between platform technologies (regenerative technologies, genetic engineering, synthetic biology, etc.), biotechnologies, and bioeconomy as a new type of economy based on biotechnology commercialization.

Conclusion: The authors developed the hierarchical model that reflects the relationships between platform technologies (regenerative technologies, genetic engineering, synthetic biology, etc.), biotechnologies, and bioeconomy as a new type of economy based on biotechnology commercialization. The enhanced version of the input-output matrix “origin – application” is a perspective pattern to be supplemented with the progress of global biotechnology industry, because it includes all the biotech branches that currently are more or less represented in the world. In addition, the model can be transformed and adapted for biotech industry of any country by reducing or splitting of the branches.

[5] African Cassava: Biotechnology and Molecular Breeding to the Rescue

Cassava is an important African food crop, where it is a staple to about 250 Million people. It is a household name in Nigeria, the world largest producer of the root crop. It is propagated from stem cuttings and well known for its adaptation to wide range of adapho-climatic conditions and including those unfavourable for other crops. However cassava production, exploitation, utilization and acceptance are limited by diseases and pests, cyanogenesis, low protein content and quality, and post-harvest physiological deterioration. The breeding research activities of IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) Ibadan, Nigeria, CIAT (International Centre of Tropical Agriculture) located in Cali, Colombia and National Root Crop Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Nigeria have transformed cassava to double as a food security crop as well as a cash and industrial crop. Of recent, Bio Cassava Plus, an initiative sponsored by Bill and Melinda Gates, has been using experimental biotechnology approaches to address several of the main constraints to African cassava. This review presents the many advantages of cassava to the small-scale farmer and its potentials for industrial applications. It also describes the roles of biotic and abiotic factors hampering the production yield, root quality, nutritional adequacy, marketability and acceptance, and commercial processes. The use of conventional breeding and biotechnology in unravelling the milieu of these constraints is discussed as well.

Reference

[1] Scriban, R., 1982. Biotechnology.

[2]  King, P.P., 1982. Biotechnology. An industrial view. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol.;(United Kingdom)32(1).

[3]  Huber, H. and Stetter, K.O., 1998. Hyperthermophiles and their possible potential in biotechnology. Journal of Biotechnology64(1), pp.39-52.

[4] Matyushenko, I., Sviatukha, I. and Grigorova-Berenda, L., 2016. Modern approaches to classification of biotechnology as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy. Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, pp.1-14.

[5] Gbadegesin, M.A., Olaiya, C.O. and Beeching, J.R., 2013. African cassava: Biotechnology and molecular breeding to the rescue. Biotechnology Journal International, pp.305-317.

Probiotics – Isolated from Yak Yoghurt in Qinghai Tibet Plateau of China

The most representative probiotics are lactic acid bacteria, which are typically used in fermented foods, medications, foods and beverages. Yak yoghurt is a kind of fermented milk produced in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, China, by Tibetan herdsmen. In Yak yoghurt, there are abundant lactic acid bacteria. In this monograph, the anti-constipation, anti-colitis, anti-alcoholic anti-liver injury, anti-gastric injury, anti-aging and weight loss effects of Lactobacillus isolated from yak yoghurt were observed by the establishment of disease models in laboratory mice. The results of pathological observation, identification of serum indexes, mRNA and study of protein expression indicated that there were diverse biological activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from yak yoghurt. It can be seen that yak yoghurt lactobacillus is a form of probiotic resource that requires more growth and use to be used.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Xin Zhao
Chongqing University of Education, China.

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A Report on Genetic Mapping in Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome

Two cases of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) in paediatric patients treated with a multidisciplinary approach have been identified in the current case series. Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is an unusual heterogeneous autosomal recessive trait characterised by erythematous palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, periodontitis of early onset, and dura mater associated calcification. With genetic, immunological, and microbial factors playing a role in etiopathogenesis, the aetiology of PLS is multifactorial. The recently discovered PLS genetic defect was mapped to chromosome 11q14-q21, which includes cathepsin C mutations. This paper presents a report of 2 cases of Papillonlefevre syndrome in which diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and genetic mapping.PLS in an extremely rare condition is associated with lifelong psychological and social impacts on the growing children such as depression including hopelessness, aimlessness, social phobia, and a fear of communicating with people outside their family.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Priti A. Charde
Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Wardha, Maharashtra 442001,India..

Dr. Shweta Kale
Department of Prosthodontics, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Wardha, Maharastra 442001, India.

Dr. M. L. Bhongade

Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Wardha, Maharashtra 442001,India.

Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal

Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Wardha, Maharashtra 442001,India.

Dr. Aniruddha M. Deshpande

Department of Periodontology and Implantology, CSMSS Dental College and Hospital, Aurangabad, Maharashtra 431136,India.

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Study on the Assessment of Genetic Variability Estimates of Selected Traits in Irish Potato Mutants

Objectives: Knowledge of genetic parameters of traits, such as heritabilities and genetic correlations, is important for an effective potato breeding strategy, hence the need to test genetic variability estimates of yield-related traits in Irish potato mutants Study Design: There was no replication of mutant minitubers at M1V1 generation because each does not maintain the same genetic minituber. The tubers were repeated in alpha lattice design 3 times in the generation of M1V2 and M1V3. Location and Period of Study: Irradiation was conducted at IAEA / FAO Seibersdorf Plant Genetics and Breeding Laboratories (PGBL), Vienna, Austria. The mutant microtubers (consisting of Asante, Mpya and Sherekea) were transported to Eldoret University, Kenya, for establishment between April 2015 and March 2017 following mutation induction. Methodology: A total of 30 tubers were dispatched to irradiate each of the three potatoes. Irradiation of in vitro nodal cuttings (without leaf) followed by in vitro shoot propagation and irradiation of in vitro nodal cuttings (with leaf) followed by direct in vitro micro-tuber development have been produced in two in-vitro radio-sensitivity tests involving different tissues. A total of 570 mutant microtubers (Asante 230, Mpya 160, Sherekea 180) were produced from the three potato varieties after mutation induction and were transported to Kenya to be formed at the University of Eldoret. In the greenhouse, the M1V1 microtubers were created, while the M1V2 and M1V3 mutant generations were planted in the research field at the University of Eldoret. Results: It revealed that in Mpya and Sherekea mutants, the highest positive heritability percentage (H2) estimates were 81.51 percent and 87.7 percent respectively in plant height. Conclusion: High heritability estimates of tuber numbers indicate that induced mutation has been effective in the production of new potato genotypes that will be used in future breeding programmes. The present study indicates that different genetic variability estimates were shown by the potato mutants. It was found that the number of tubers within the mutant populations exhibited high estimates of heritability. The induced mutation succeeded in producing new genotypes of potatoes that could be used in potential breeding programmes.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Emmy Chepkoech

School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, University of Eldoret, P.O.Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya.

Stephen Kimno
School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, University of Eldoret, P.O.Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya.

Miriam G. Kinyua
School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, University of Eldoret, P.O.Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya.

Oliver Kiplagat
School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, University of Eldoret, P.O.Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya.

Julius Ochuodho
School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, University of Eldoret, P.O.Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya.

Leah Boit

School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, University of Eldoret, P.O.Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya.
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Mechanism of Alternative Splicing in Cancer Therapy

Alternative splicing is an essential mechanism by which the rearrangement of exons and introns contributes to the development of multiple proteins from a single gene. It is one of the key drivers of the variety of proteomas. The spliceosome is the macromolecular machinery that mediates the alternative splicing process through a multi-step process involving small nuclear ribonuclear protein (snRNP) sequential binding and release. A complex process that is closely regulated by SR proteins, hnRNPs and many splicing factors is alternative splicing. A variety of illnesses, including cancer, are associated with aberration of alternative splicing patterns. The path of a disease can be altered or precluded by modulating alternative splicing. This review focuses on the function of alternative splicing in the production of cancer, the alteration of cancer splicing factors, small splicing-inhibiting molecules, the targeting of splicing regulators, and the use of oligonucleotides that can be used in cancer therapy as potential therapeutic strategies.

Author(s) Details

Deborah Awoniran
Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State,Nigeria.

Prof. Evans Egwim

Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

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Impact of Starch Addition on Properties of Urea Formaldehyde/Starch Copolymer Blends for Application as a Binder in the Coating Industry

In order to formulate a paint binder for emulsion paint formulation, Urea formaldehyde resin was reactively blended with various concentrations (10-70 percent) of cassava starch. Some physical properties and the emission of formaldehyde from the blended resin have been investigated. Initially, viscosity decreased before a gradual increase was noted with an increase in the concentration of starch. With cassava starch content in the blend, refractive index and elongation at break increased initially but gradually decreased. As the inclusion of starch increased, gel time, density, melting point, moisture absorption and formaldehyde emission decreased. The interaction between the two separate polymers indicates that the optimum loading inclusion was 50 percent starch. The benefits of this new device include low brittleness, low emission of formaldehyde and water reduction characteristics. Therefore, it is possible to suggest a polymer blend as a binder for the coating industry. These findings present the modified methylol urea of cassava starch as a resin with relatively very low moisture uptake and formaldehyde emission against the conventional hard and brittle resin. The increase in elongation at break and decrease in density is also a good value to the coating industry. This work has therefore shown that biodegradable starch films could be used, in particular in the formulation of emulsion paints, to manufacture copolymer composite binders for the coating industry.

Author(s) Details

B. J. Dimas

Department of Science Education, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria.

Prof. S. A. Osemeahon

Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.

F. G. Fadawa

Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria.

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Studying the Effects of Moringa oleifera Linn Seed Administration on Sperm Production Rate and Gonadal Sperm Reserve in Rabbits

The effects of oral administration of Moringa seed on the development rate of sperm and the gonadal sperm reserve in rabbits have been investigated in the current research. Two treatment groups receiving Moringa oleifera seed powder in drinking water (250 mg / L) were randomly allocated to 7-month-old mixed-breed male rabbits. The gonadal sperm reserve, the daily production of sperm, the sperm production per gramme test and the testicular measurements (weight, volume and density) were compared between the two groups after four weeks. The reserve of Gonadal sperm was measured using a haemocytometer. Using an improved Neubauer chamber, the number of spermatozoa was determined. Daily sperm production (DSP) was determined by dividing the time divider of the gonadal sperm reserve by 3.66, corresponding to the time in the days of the seminiferous epithelial cycle. By dividing the DSP by the weight of the testicular parenchyma, the daily sperm output per gramme test (DSPG) was determined. The findings suggest a substantially greater gonadal sperm reserve and regular sperm output for the control group (4.37±.18 to 3.27±.32 and 1.20±.06 to 0.77±.09) relative to the treatment group. However, the mean daily sperm production values per gramme tested were identical for both groups (0.53±.03 and 0.47±.20). For the control group, testicular weight (2.20±.06 to 1.43±.12) and volume (2.20±.15 to 1.73±.07) were significantly higher compared with therapy (P=0.05). For both groups (1.01±.05 to 0.82±.07), the tissue density was comparable.

Author(s) Details

S. I. Musa-Azara
Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Lafia, Nigeria.

M. Jibrin|
Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Lafia, Nigeria.

M. M. Ari
Animal Science Department Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.

D. I. Hassan
Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Lafia, Nigeria.

D. M. Ogah
Animal Science Department Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.

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A Comparative Study of in vivo Plant and in vitro Callus Extracts of Coccinia indica (W. and A)

An attempt was made in the present study to evaluate the phytochemical, antimicrobial , antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of leaf extracts of Coccinia indica (W. and A) using four solvents and to compare them with callous extracts. The leaf explants of C. were initiated by Callus. Indica with 90 % efficiency using BAP (1 mg / l) + NAA (0.2 mg / l) supplemented with MS medium. Successive C method of extraction. Indica was found to be an effective extraction method, and methanol was found to be the most suitable solvent for the extraction of phytochemicals and macromolecules responsible for inhibition of antimicrobials, antioxidants and alpha-amylase. Analysis by GC-MS of C. Indica has confirmed the presence of bioactive compounds (e.g. 9-octadecanoic acid, 2-octadecycloxy ethyl ester (100%) in successive methanolic callus extract) in all extracts where the presence of different important functional groups of the identified bioactive compounds has been confirmed by FTIR analysis. Successive extract of methanol from the callus of C. Indica was found to be a potent antimicrobial agent with drug efflux pump inhibitor properties against 5 strains of bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC700603), Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 25933) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (clinical isolate) and 3 strains of fungi, Candida albicans (IFM 40009), Candida tropicalis (IFM 55058) and Candida kruginosa (clinical isolate) Successive extract of methanol from the callus of C. Indica has been found to be an powerful antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitor, showing that it is a potent anti-diabetic agent with an IC50 concentration of 82.5μg / ml. One of the strong evidence for this plant to be used as a phytopharmaceutical agent by conventional practitioners is this research.

Author(s) Details

Dr. J. Anbumalarmathi
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai 600 086, India.

Dr. S. Aruna Sharmili
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai 600 086, India.

V. Jayalakshmi
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai 600 086, India.

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A Systematic Review on the Effect of Moroccan Plants against Phytopathogenic Microorganisms

In Morocco, as in other countries, plant diseases caused by microorganisms are a major problem affecting many agricultural crops, causing damage to the yield potential each year. Medicinal plants are among the richest bio-resources of drugs currently used for biological control to cope with this burden. Sixty five Moroccan plants with antimicrobial properties are cited in this review. The activities described here show that many potential plants should be subjected to further field application studies to evaluate their potential use as bio-pesticides.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ilham Zahir
Department of Biology, Poly-Disciplinary Faculty, Polyvalent Laboratory in Research and Development, Sultan Moulay SlimaneUniversity, Beni Mellal, Morocco.

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An Experimental Design of L-Asparaginase Excreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Poincianella pyramidalis Rhizosphere

The L-Asparaginase enzyme (E.C. 3.5.1.1) present in humans, bacteria, fungi , plants and animals, is essential for the normal progress of the cell cycle. L-asparaginase is important for the treatment of Hodgkin’s and leukaemia diseases. The genus Pseudomonas, which has the capacity to produce L-asparaginase type I and/or II, is among the bacteria that produce this enzyme. The aim of this study was to better understand the optimization and partial characterization parameters of lasparaginase secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the Poincianella pyramidalis rhizosphere, a representative of the Brazilian Caatinga biome. A central experimental design compound (23) with four central points and variables pH values (4, 7 and 10), temperature (30 °, 40 ° and 10 °) was performed in the current study to optimise the production of L-asparaginase complex  (50 ° C) and L-asparagine concentrations (0.2 percent, 0.5 percent and 0.8 percent). Statistica software, version 7.0 (StatSoft Co., USA), enzymatic characterization at different pH values, temperatures, ions, substrates, and finally bacterial identification at morphological and molecular levels were evaluated later in the statistical analysis of the variables and variance (ANOVA) of the results. The results of the optimization of L-asparaginase activity assays were 0.8 percent, pH 4 and 30 ° C in the concentration of L-asparagine, with activity values of 0.5604 U / mL to 0.0632 mg protein / mL; the optimum pH of the enzyme was 7, 7, and 7, respectively. With the best 30 ° C activity. In different substrates such as Lglutamine, sodium nitrate (NaNO3), mercury chloride (HgCl2), magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and urea, L-Asparagine has shown a better effect. With regard to the identification of bacteria, rod-shaped bacteria with flagella and species level were designated as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of the characterised lasparaginase isolated from P. aeruginosa therefore revealed important data for the biotechnology industry, thus showing the feasibility and reliability of the study carried out.

Author(s) Details

 

Iasmim Lucas da Silva
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências (CB), Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE, Avenida Arthur de Sá, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife, 50740-520, PE, Brazil.

Wellma de Oliveira da Silva
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências (CB), Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE, Avenida Arthur de Sá, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife, 50740-520, PE, Brazil.

Leonor Alves de Oliveira da Silva
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências (CB), Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE, Avenida Arthur de Sá, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife, 50740-520, PE, Brazil and Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Campus I, João Pessoa, 58051-900, PB, Brazil.

Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho
Departamento de Bioquímica, CB, UFPE, Avenida Moraes Rego, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife, 50670-420, PE, Brazil.

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