The following topics were reviewed: microbiological engineering (microorganism biochemistry, biomass production, bioconversion); enzymatic engineering (enzymology and biocatalysis, enzyme production, immobilized enzymes, enzymatic reactors); genetic engineering (mutation selection, genetic recombination); quality control of biotechnology products; valorization of agricultural and industrial wastes (methane production).
 Biotechnology. An industrial view
Biotechnological research has witnessed enormous progress, particularly in the last decade. The popular concept of biotechnology is that it is concerned with the production of new wonder drugs, such as interferon. However, another side to the subject is large-scale biotechnology concerned with the biological processes for making many of the everyday bulk production on which society depends. An industrial view of biotechnology is given with examples such as ammonia production, penicillin, single-cell protein, methanol and polyhydroxybutyrate.
 Hyperthermophiles and their possible potential in biotechnology
To develop novel processes in microbial biotechnology organisms with outstanding properties are required. Archaea represent a nearly unexplored third domain (`continent’) of life, which harbours organisms living in extreme environments such as alkaline to acidic hot springs, anaerobic sediments and highly saline environments. From high temperature terrestrial and marine biotopes many extreme heat-loving (hyperthermophilic) Archaea and Bacteria have been isolated, which grow at temperatures between 80 and 113°C. Within the 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic tree of life, hyperthermophiles occupy the deepest phylogenetic branches representing more than 30 genera. In their mode to gain energy, they exhibit a great variety: obligate chemolithoautotrophs utilizing only CO2, hydrogen, and different sulfur compounds are primary producers in hot and anaerobic environments. Organotrophs grow on organic acids, alcohols, sugars, amino acids, or polymers like starch or chitin. This diversity in combination with their unusual heat resistance makes hyperthermophiles appropriate for new biotechnological applications at high temperatures. After cloning the genes into easy cultivable mesophiles, enzymes active at temperatures up to 130°C are produced for food industry, biochemical and molecular research, or chemical industry. In addition, cultures can be applied directly in chemical processes like desulfurication of flue gases and in biohydrometallurgical processes.
 Modern Approaches to Classification of Biotechnology as a Part of NBIC-Technologies for Bioeconomy
Aims: The aim of the article is to systematize and improve existing theoretical approaches to the classification of biotechnology as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy.
Study Design: The reviews were carried out in the period 2005–15 on the basis of studying the world countries biotechnologies development trends as well as on the basis of the research results obtained by World and Ukrainian institutions and universities.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of International Economic Relations and Tourism Business of VN Karazin Kharkiv National University conducted the research between January 2016 and June 2016.
Methodology: Content analysis and bibliographic retrieval have been used as the main methods of research, which allowed making a meaningful analysis of classic papers and works of modern economists-practitioners devoted to the Global and Ukrainian trends in biotechnologies’ scientific research as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy.
Results: The article demonstrates that currently there is no common and unified classification of biotechnology. The authors systematized existing approaches to biotech typology by a wide range of criteria (objects, the level of human impact to biological systems, technologies, colours, and area of application) and proposed to improve them. The authors analyzed the “colour” classification, found its inconsistencies and disadvantages (e.g. separation of “white” biotechnology from “grey” one or expediency of “violet” biotechnology in this classification). With the help of the input-output matrix the authors expanded the scope of relationships between different biotech fields by supplementing new biotech application examples at the intersections of branches, adding extra fields (“brown”, “black”, “gold”, and “violet”) and particular cases of their interactions, namely, they: expanded the scope of application as to biomedicine, explained the role of biomedicine for development of bioterrorism as a feedstock supplier, defined the impact of biopharmaceutics on food industry and bioterrorism by means of concrete examples, considered industrial biotechnology as a platform for biomedicine development and supporting force for such a negative endeavor as bioterrorism, characterized the role of agricultural biotechnology in biopharmaceutics enhancement, added examples of interaction between arid zones and desert biotechnology on the one hand and food industry/ biopharmaceutics on the other hand, identified the area of arid zones and desert biotechnology application, included potential application of scientific results for enhancement of industrial biotechnology. Moreover, the authors developed the hierarchical model that reflects the ties between platform technologies (regenerative technologies, genetic engineering, synthetic biology, etc.), biotechnologies, and bioeconomy as a new type of economy based on biotechnology commercialization.
Conclusion: The authors developed the hierarchical model that reflects the relationships between platform technologies (regenerative technologies, genetic engineering, synthetic biology, etc.), biotechnologies, and bioeconomy as a new type of economy based on biotechnology commercialization. The enhanced version of the input-output matrix “origin – application” is a perspective pattern to be supplemented with the progress of global biotechnology industry, because it includes all the biotech branches that currently are more or less represented in the world. In addition, the model can be transformed and adapted for biotech industry of any country by reducing or splitting of the branches.
 African Cassava: Biotechnology and Molecular Breeding to the Rescue
Cassava is an important African food crop, where it is a staple to about 250 Million people. It is a household name in Nigeria, the world largest producer of the root crop. It is propagated from stem cuttings and well known for its adaptation to wide range of adapho-climatic conditions and including those unfavourable for other crops. However cassava production, exploitation, utilization and acceptance are limited by diseases and pests, cyanogenesis, low protein content and quality, and post-harvest physiological deterioration. The breeding research activities of IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) Ibadan, Nigeria, CIAT (International Centre of Tropical Agriculture) located in Cali, Colombia and National Root Crop Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Nigeria have transformed cassava to double as a food security crop as well as a cash and industrial crop. Of recent, Bio Cassava Plus, an initiative sponsored by Bill and Melinda Gates, has been using experimental biotechnology approaches to address several of the main constraints to African cassava. This review presents the many advantages of cassava to the small-scale farmer and its potentials for industrial applications. It also describes the roles of biotic and abiotic factors hampering the production yield, root quality, nutritional adequacy, marketability and acceptance, and commercial processes. The use of conventional breeding and biotechnology in unravelling the milieu of these constraints is discussed as well.
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 Matyushenko, I., Sviatukha, I. and Grigorova-Berenda, L., 2016. Modern approaches to classification of biotechnology as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy. Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, pp.1-14.
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