Study on Kuwait Environmental Remediation Program (KERP): Remediation Demonstration Strategy

Iraqi troops exploded 798 oil wells in Kuwait’s desert, causing 114 square kilometres of damage. Crude oil gushed from the shattered oil wells, forming lakes that contaminated almost 40 square kilometres of land. Wet and dry oil reservoirs were built in low-lying sections of the desert to limit the spread of oil, and polluted soil piles were built during the cleanup. Contaminated land desert changes soil qualities, harming plants (e.g. biota) and animals, and infiltrating deeper into the soil strata, putting vital groundwater sources at risk. Although certain features contain semi-liquid oil/sludgy material and are referred to as wet oil lakes, most of these oil lakes are made up of dry oil components. The United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC), Kuwait National Focal Point (KNFP), and Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) worked on a project to clean up roughly 26 million cubic metres of oil-contaminated soil. Demonstration remediation technologies are being investigated as viable solutions for generating action plans for reclaiming extremely contaminated land. The purpose of this field demonstration study is to determine whether proven remediation technologies are viable, applicable, and effective in treating oil-contaminated soil. This project will be carried out at a variety of locations within the KOC’s operating oil fields in SEK to address three challenges (i.e. wet, dry oil lakes and oil contaminated piles). A successful demonstration of remediation technology will be a key metric for developing full-scale soil remediation strategy plans in SEK and other relevant places.

Author (s) Details

Dhari Al-Gharabally
Kuwait Oil Company, Soil Remediation Group, P.O.Box 9758, Ahmadi 61008, Ahmadi, Kuwait.

Aisha- Al-Barood
Kuwait Oil Company, Soil Remediation Group, P.O.Box 9758, Ahmadi 61008, Ahmadi, Kuwait.

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Advances in Chemistry and Biomedical Applications of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation Treatments of Titanium Using Monte Carlo Simulations (Stop and Range Ions in Matter)

The surface modification of a titanium alloy via plasma immersion ion implantation was investigated in this study in order to increase its tribological qualities such as hardness and scratch resistance. Furthermore, the thickness of changed layers was investigated using physical simulation utilising SRIM (stopping and range ions in matter). Nanoindentation and XPS investigations of ti6al4v and titanium using nitrogen and hydrogen plasma when immersed in a methane atmosphere revealed improved hardness and scratch resistance due to the microstructures yielded, such as tin, TiO2, and DLC-Ti or tic, from our PIII study of ti6al4v and titanium using nitrogen and hydrogen plasma when immersed in a methane atmosphere.

Author (s) Details

Péricles Lopes Sant’Ana
São Paulo State University – UNESP, Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Sorocaba, Laboratório de Plasmas Tecnológicos, Av. Três de Março 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

José Roberto R. Bortoleto
São Paulo State University – UNESP, Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Sorocaba, Laboratório de Plasmas Tecnológicos, Av. Três de Março 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

Nilson Cristino da Cruz
São Paulo State University – UNESP, Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Sorocaba, Laboratório de Plasmas Tecnológicos, Av. Três de Março 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

Elidiane Cipriano Rangel
São Paulo State University – UNESP, Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Sorocaba, Laboratório de Plasmas Tecnológicos, Av. Três de Março 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

Steven F. Durrant
São Paulo State University – UNESP, Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Sorocaba, Laboratório de Plasmas Tecnológicos, Av. Três de Março 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

Nazir Monteiro dos Santos
São Paulo State University – UNESP, Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Sorocaba, Laboratório de Plasmas Tecnológicos, Av. Três de Março 511, Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

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Bucillamine as An Efficient H Atom Donor Protects High-Molar-Mass Hyaluronan from Oxidative Degradation by Effective Scavenging of Free Radicals

Bucillamine has been shown to preserve high-molecular-mass hyaluronan from degradation caused by a free-radical-generating system containing cupric ions and ascorbate. We adopted a multimodal strategy in this investigation, employing a range of methodologies such as non-isothermal chemiluminometry, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry to characterise the hyaluronan fragments produced.

Bucillamine was found to significantly slow the oxidative degradation of high-molar-mass hyaluronan in our tests. The results, particularly the decrease in chemiluminescence intensity and removal of the differential scanning calorimetry exotherm (at 270oC) for hyaluronan fragments, may indicate the need for more research into the mechanism(s) of action of bucillamine in this process.

Author (s) Details

Katarína Valachová
Centre of Experimental Medicine, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84104 Bratislava, Slovakia.

Jozef Rychlý
Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84541 Bratislava, Slovakia.

Ivica Janigová
Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84541 Bratislava, Slovakia.

Katarína Csomorová
Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84541 Bratislava, Slovakia.

Ivo Juránek
Centre of Experimental Medicine, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84104 Bratislava, Slovakia.

Ladislav Šoltés
Centre of Experimental Medicine, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84104 Bratislava, Slovakia.

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Chaperone-like Activity and Quaternary Structure Dynamics of HSPB5 in Crowded Milieu

Small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) are ATP-independent molecular chaperones that engage with partially unfolded proteins to avoid abnormal aggregation, demonstrating chaperone-like activity in the process. The chaperone-like activity of sHSPs is influenced by the dynamics of the quaternary structure. The link between the dynamic structure of sHSPs and their chaperone-like activity, on the other hand, is still poorly understood. Temperature, ions, a target protein, crowding, and other variables all affect the structure and activity of sHSPs. The effect of crowding on sHSP activity has received the least attention. In this study, the chaperone-like activity of HSPB5 was quantified using dynamic light scattering using two test systems: heat-induced aggregation of muscle glycogen phosphorylase b (Phb) at 48°C and dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of -lactalbumin at 37°C. The oligomeric state of HSPB5 and target proteins was monitored by analytical ultracentrifugation. The role of suboligomeric variants of HSPB5 in anti-aggregation is explored. Using Phb as a target protein, the effect of crowding on HSPB5 anti-aggregation activity was investigated. Under crowded settings, the duration of the nucleation stage was observed to decrease in tandem with an increase in the relative rate of aggregation of Phb in the presence of HSPB5. The activity of sHSPs may be sensitively modulated by crowding. Biopolymers (proteins) that can vary the level of excluded volume in cells by reversibly modifying the state of association/dissociation or accepting an expanded or compact state of the quaternary structure can also do so.

Author (s) Details

Natalia A. Chebotareva
Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Centre “Fundamentals of Biotechnology” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

Svetlana G. Roman
Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Centre “Fundamentals of Biotechnology” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

Vera A. Borzova
Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Centre “Fundamentals of Biotechnology” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

Tatiana B. Eronina
Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Centre “Fundamentals of Biotechnology” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

Valeriya V. Mikhaylova
Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Centre “Fundamentals of Biotechnology” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

Boris I. Kurganov
Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Centre “Fundamentals of Biotechnology” of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

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Determination of Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Sciatic Nerve Recovery Associated with Upregulation of Regulatory T Cells

Peripheral nerve injuries are distinct from central nervous system (CNS) injuries, which often affect end-target organs and can result in denervation and function loss. For functional nerve healing, it’s critical to speed up peripheral nerve regeneration. The direct upregulation and release of neurotrophic factors by human Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSC) promotes sciatic nerve repair and regeneration, according to a prior study. The immunomodulatory role of hWJ-MSC in sciatic nerve healing, on the other hand, is unknown. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the effects of hWJ-MSC on innate immunity, as represented by macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells, as well as adaptive immunity, as represented by CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, and regulatory T cells (Tregs). On POD7, 15, 21, and 35, a significantly higher level of Tregs was found in blood, lymph nodes (LNs), and nerve-infiltrating cells. In the LNs and nerves of hWJ-MSC-treated mice, anti-inflammatory cytokines such IL-4 and IL-10 were dramatically elevated. Treg depletion reversed hWJ-beneficial MSC’s effects on sciatic nerve healing. Treg treatment, on the other hand, aided functional recovery of the five-toe spread and gait stance. TGF- and IL-35, two anti-inflammatory cytokines, were found abundant in hWJ-MSC. This study found that hWJ-MSC induce Treg formation to alter the balance between pro- and anti-inflammation by secreting larger quantities of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the damaged sciatic nerve.

Author (s) Details

Aline Yen Ling Wang
Center for Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan.

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Studies on Anti-Inflammatory and General Glucocorticoid Physiology in Skeletal Muscles Affected by Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An approach towards Exploration of Steroid-Sparing Agents

The activation of proinflammatory and metabolic biological pathways in skeletal muscle cells is a hallmark of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The dystrophin-associated protein complex, a large transmembrane protein complex that acts as a shock absorber during muscle contraction, a receiver and transducer of cellular signals, and a scaffold for signalling proteins, is destabilised in the absence of dystrophin, a protein that provides a link between the extracellular matrix and the myocyte cytoskeleton. The majority of these pathways are inhibited by synthetic glucocorticoids. Hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, weight gain, growth retardation, skin thinning, cushingoid look, and tissue-specific glucocorticoid resistance are all side effects of glucocorticoids. As a result, reducing the glucocorticoid dosage for DMD patients may be advantageous. When looking for compounds that can accomplish similar pathway stabilisation in DMD, a deeper understanding of the primary cellular pathways that are stabilised following synthetic glucocorticoid administration is required. This review gives a quick rundown of the primary anti-inflammatory pathways as well as the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids in DMD-affected skeletal muscle. The known medicines that can stabilise these pathways and could be used as steroid-sparing medicines in combination with glucocorticoid therapy are outlined. This could open up new avenues for research in DMD animal models and/or human trials, potentially resulting in lower glucocorticoid dose regimens for DMD patients.

Author (s) Details

Sandrine Herbelet
Department of Head and Skin, Division of Neurology, Ghent University and Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Arthur Rodenbach
Department of Head and Skin, Division of Neurology, Ghent University and Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Boel De Paepe
Department of Head and Skin, Division of Neurology, Ghent University and Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium and Neuromuscular Reference Center, Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Jan L. De Bleecker
Department of Head and Skin, Division of Neurology, Ghent University and Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium and Neuromuscular Reference Center, Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

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Determination of Telmisartan and Hydrochlorothiazide Using HPTLC in Human Plasma: Development and Validation of Bioanalytical Method

A simple, sensitive, quick, and cost-effective thin layer chromatographic technique was used to determine the concentrations of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma using paracetamol as an internal reference. A combination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and telmisartan (TEL) is more successful than either medicine alone in the treatment of hypertension.

The plasma sample was collected using a methanol-acetonitrile (3.0:0.1, v/v) mixture. Concentrations of 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 ng/spot were employed for the hydrochlorothiazide and telmisartan calibration curves, respectively. Telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively, showed 75.98 percent and 81.91 percent recovery. Chloroform: methanol: toluene (8:2:4 v/v/v) makes up the mobile phase. At a wavelength of 278 nm, densitometric analysis was performed. The Rf values for hydrochlorothiazide, paracetamol, and telmisartan, respectively, were 0.28 0.05, 0.50 0.05, and 0.66 0.05. The stability of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in plasma was validated in three freeze-thaw cycles (20 C), on bench for 24 hours, and post preparative for 48 hours. A recovery study was used to statistically validate the recommended method for identifying telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma. The method is less expensive and faster than previously disclosed approaches. In the future, we may be able to use this technique for bioequivalence research.

Author (s) Details

Ambadas R. Rote
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, MGV’s Pharmacy College, Pune University, Nashik, India.

Poonam R. Sonavane
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, MGV’s Pharmacy College, Pune University, Nashik, India.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/CACB-V7/article/view/1189

Study on the Characteristics of α-Chymotrypsin Folding Intermediates by Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC)

The study of protein folding intermediates is crucial for understanding the folding mechanism of denatured proteins and enhancing protein folding efficiency. A new methodology to define the intermediate of urea-denatured -chymotrypsin (-Chy) was established in this study by using some of the linear parameters of the stoichiometric displacement theory of retention of solute (SDT-R) of hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). As urea concentration (Curea) fluctuates, the contact surface region (Z, S), affinity (logI), and character of interaction force (j) of the -Chy to the stationary phase of HIC (STHIC) between the intermediate (M) and native (N) states were shown to be considerably different. With modifications in Curea, a linear relationship between logI and Z was discovered only for its N state, not for its M state, implying that the interaction force between -Chy in N state and the STHIC is non-selective in N state but selective in M state. In addition, the magnitude of both logI and Z measured in the M state is only a fifth of that in the N state. To discriminate between proteins in the N and M states, all three parameters were used. This finding could be used to distinguish any non-functional protein with a correct three- or four-dimensional molecular structure from their stable M state of any kind of protein, and/or other proteins, in proteome research, protein separation, and a thorough understanding of the intrinsic rule of protein folding in molecular biology.

Author (s) Details

Congyu Ke
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi,’an 710065, China.

Wei Tuo
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi,’an 710065, China.

Wujuan Sun
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi,’an 710065, China.

Jianjun Li
Institute of Modern Separation Science, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Modern Separation Science, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 710069 Xi’an, P.R. China.

Zhenling Liu
Xinxiang Medical College, Xinxiang, 453003, Henan Province, P.R. China.

Xindu Geng
Institute of Modern Separation Science, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Modern Separation Science, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 710069 Xi’an, P.R. China.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/CACB-V7/article/view/1188

Influence of the Pre-Treatment and Post-Treatment Operations on the Surface Chemistry and Corrosion Behavior of Cerium-Based Conversion Coatings on Aluminum

We studied the corrosion-protective properties of Cerium oxide coatings chemically deposited in green Ce solution conversion on technically pure aluminium (Al 1050) that were then immersed in phosphate solutions. The effect of: the kind of pretreatment of the l substrate; the conversion treatment of the l substrate in е-containing or P-containing solutions; and the sequential conversion treatment of the l substrate in е-containing and -containing solutions was studied in a comparative study. The results show that pre-treatment of the aluminium substrate and extra phosphate treatment of the Ce-oxide conversion coating placed on Al 1050 have a significant impact on corrosion resistance. The phosphate treatments change the chemical composition, chemical state of the components, structure, and morphology of Ce-oxide coatings produced on Al substrates, according to our findings. Al and Ce phosphates and oxides are generated, forming an efficient barrier to Chloride ion transport towards the metal surface and increasing Al 1050’s corrosion resistance (Rp) against general and pitting corrosion. During protracted corrosion experiments, we discovered a significant rise in Rp for one of the model systems (Al(NaOH)/ CCOC(Ce+Cu)/PhL(NH4H2PO4), which was linked to the production of weakly soluble surface corrosion products.

Author (s) Details

R. Andreeva
Institute of Physical Chemistry ”Acad. R. Kaischew“ – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Acad.G.Bonchev str., Bl. 11, Bulgaria.

E. Stoyanova
Institute of Physical Chemistry ”Acad. R. Kaischew“ – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Acad.G.Bonchev str., Bl. 11, Bulgaria.

A. Tsanev
Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Acad.G.Bonchev str., Bl. 11, Bulgaria.

D. Stoychev
Institute of Physical Chemistry ”Acad. R. Kaischew“ – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Acad.G.Bonchev str., Bl. 11, Bulgaria.

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The Greatest Error in Biological Sciences, Started in 1930 and Continuing Up to Now, Generating Numerous Profound Misunderstandings in Almost All Fields of Biology

Is a cell a complex coacervate with distribution coefficients and adsorption coefficients as the primary physical–chemical characteristics, allowing for low-entropy bioenergetics based on coherence, as Schrödinger proposed in 1944? Is it possible that a cell contains ordinary water in solution with tiny solutes like K+, separated by a membrane containing ion-pumps that must constantly combat passive leaks? The latter viewpoint is known as “membrane-(pump)-theory” (MPT), which is still widely accepted in modern physiology and cell biology but contradicts numerous recent findings on intrinsically disordered proteins, membrane-less organelles, living systems’ (quantum) coherence, and a slew of other key findings. It is not often known that during the 1960s and 1970s, Ling totally falsified MPT and produced an adsorption and coherence-based coacervate model for the live cell, complete with a set of experimentally confirmed new equations. All of the fundamental aspects of his so-called “association-induction-hypothesis” (AIH) have been proven in the lab. The goal of this paper is to show that the AIH is a good guide for interpreting many current physiological, physical-chemical, and physical data of live cells and sub-cellular systems, particularly those on coherent behaviour, that are incompatible with MPT. It will be demonstrated why we urgently require Ling’s new bio-energetics and must reject MPT.

Author(s) Details

Laurent Jaeken
Department of Applied Engineering, Karel de Grote University College, Antwerp University Association, Antwerp, Belgium.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/CACB-V5/article/view/1095