Advanced Processing of Lateritic Ore

Nickel, cobalt, iron, silicon, aluminium, and chromium are among the metal components found in laterite ore, which is one of the mineral resources. It’s found all over the equatorial region and is mostly used as a nickel supply. However, laterite with a high nickel content is the only laterite that can be used. Despite the large deposit, the nickel-free laterite ore has never been exploited properly, and it occasionally has a significant iron component. As high-grade iron ore deposits become scarcer each year, laterite’s high iron concentration makes it an appealing iron resource. The introduction of a series of processes for using high iron content laterite ore as an iron resource. The process begins with comminution and agglomeration, followed by selective reduction of laterite ore using mixed gas, after which the physical and chemical features of laterite ore are described, including dehydration treatment. The nickel is extracted from the reduced laterite ore using a leaching method. The next stage is to use a magnetic separator to collect iron from the leached-laterite residue in the form of magnetite complex, which is then subjected to a reduction process for iron extraction.

Author(s) Details

Hadi Purwanto
International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/APLO/article/view/2097

A Guidebook to Qualitative Inorganic Analysis

The goal of this book on qualitative inorganic analysis is to give students the tools they need to solve an unknown inorganic sample confidently in the time allotted for a practical exam. It emphasises learning the fundamentals of classical chemistry, including the detection of cations and anions as well as the dissolving elements of bringing them into solution. They allow a learner to fine-tune detection techniques based on the sample’s composition while maintaining the logical aspects. The present semi-micro analytical procedures are built on the foundation of dry/preliminary testing for cations and anions, as well as treatment of the Na2CO3 extract and its residue.

Author(s) Detalis

Parag Sinchan Roy
Professor of Chemistry (Retd.) University of North Bengal West Bengal, India.

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Design of Mould Cover Lifting Mechanism for Moving Fume Hood

The design of a mould cover lifting mechanism for a moving fume hood is the subject of this book. The study focuses on a sector that is at the forefront of the alloying business, delivering total alloying solutions to the Iron, Steel, Aluminum, Welding, and other non-ferrous sectors.

Author(s) Details

Pranil V. Sawalakhe
Jain Deemed to be University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Nitin P. Gudadhe
Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management (RCOEM), Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Deepak Kohat
Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management (RCOEM), Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Nirav Babariya
Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management (RCOEM), Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Nitesh Parchand
Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management (RCOEM), Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Sandeep Gupta
Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management (RCOEM), Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

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Functions with Non-decreasing Increments and Popoviciu Type Identities and Inequalities for Sums and Integrals

The subject of functions with non-decreasing increments has gained prominence in many branches of mathematics in recent decades, and due to its relevance, it has attracted the attention of many mathematicians. We’d like to figure out what the relationship(s) are between functions with non-decreasing increments and the arithmetic integral mean, Wright convex functions, convex functions, and arithmetic integral mean. ∇−convex functions, Jensen m−convex functions, m−convex functions, m−∇−convex functions, k−monotonic functions, absolutely monotonic functions, completely monotonic functions, Laplace Transform and exponentially convex functions, by using the finite difference operator as different cases of . We also consider function with nondecreasing increments of third order and obtain the generalizations of the Levinson’s-type inequality and Jensen-Mercer’s-type inequality by using Jensen-Boas inequality. We will deduce some general identities of Popoviciu type for discrete case for sums for function and sequence in two dimensions using higher order ∇ divided difference, positivity of these expressions are characterized for higher order ∇−convex functions. We will also obtain some general identities of Popoviciu type for integral of higher order differentiable function and positivity of these expressions are characterized for higher order ∇−convex and completely monotonic functions. We would discuss some applications in terms of generalized Cauchy-type means and exponential convexity as well. We would get the generalization of discrete identity and inequality of Čebyšev-type and discuss generalization of integral identities and inequalities of Čebyšev-type and Ky Fan-type for higher order ∇−convex functions with two variables. The subject of functions with non-decreasing increments has gained prominence in many branches of mathematics in recent decades, and due to its relevance, it has attracted the attention of many mathematicians. We’d like to figure out what the relationship(s) are between functions with non-decreasing increments and the arithmetic integral mean, Wright convex functions, convex functions, and arithmetic integral mean.

Author(s) Name

Faraz Mehmood
Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Dawood University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/FNIPTIISI/issue/view/17

Recent Research on Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Ethyl Diethylene Glycol by Ce(IV) Catalyzed by Ir(III) in Aqueous Sulphuric Acid Media

Kinetic research on oxidation by cerium(IV) of various types of organic compounds are well known. Ruthenium(III) and iridium(III) have been found to catalyse even at trace amounts among the distinct metal ion catalysis. In sulphuric acid media, the kinetics of iridium(III) catalysed oxidation of ethyl diethylene glycol by ceric sulphate were studied. The outcome suggests kinetics of zero order with respect to cerium(IV) ion and kinetics of first order with regard to ethyl diethylene glycol and iridium(III) chloride. The medium’s dielectric constant shows a positive influence on the rate of reaction. The ionic strength of potassium sulphate has an insignificant effect on the reaction rate, suggesting that the interaction is an ion-dipole form and not an ion form in the rate-determining stage. Temperature elevation boosts the reaction rate. Various parameters for activation were measured and registered. A suitable mechanism has been developed in conformity with the above observation Suggested.

Author (s) Details

Kamini Singh
Chemical Kinetics Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Tilakdhari Postgraduate College, Jaunpur-222 002, India.

Ashish Kumar Singh
Chemical Kinetics Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Tilakdhari Postgraduate College, Jaunpur-222 002, India.

Jaya Jaiswal
Chemical Kinetics Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Tilakdhari Postgraduate College, Jaunpur-222 002, India.


Dr. R. A. Singh
Chemical Kinetics Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Tilakdhari Postgraduate College, Jaunpur-222 002, India.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/282

Studies on UV Spectrophotometric Analysis of Drugs Terbinafine Hydrochloride and Clarithromycin

To ensure the availability of safe and efficient drug formulations to customers, quality assurance for the management of pharmaceutical chemicals and formulations is important. For maintaining and ensuring quality, quantitative estimation of the chemical entity of a drug is vital. In the quantitative estimation of the drug in bulk samples and formulations, several distinct problems are faced. The intrusion caused by a variety of sources, such as the deterioration of drug products when stored for a long period of time, the involvement of other drugs in the combination products and the different additives used in the formulations, must be taken into account during the production of the drug assay in the formulations. Uvvisible spectrophotometry combines the advantages of low cost , easy maintenance and simplicity with the advantages of low cost , simple maintenance and simplicity among the different techniques for developing assay methods. The probability, with good accuracy , precision and reliability, of achieving high sensitivity and selectivity. The selectivity and sensitivity of the uv-visible spectrophotometric system depends only on the existence of the chemical reactions involved in the formation of the colour and not on the equipment’s complexity. The expenditure incurred on the determination of the assay in visible spectrophotometric methods depends on the selection of the reagents for the colour production (low cost, readily available). I hereby enclose my research work on estimating terbinafine hydrochloride and clarithromycin with the aid of the UV spectrophotometric method as mentioned below with the above facts. For the assay of two drugs, namely terbinafine hydrochloride and clarithromycin in pure form and formulations, one simple and sensitive technique (UV spectophotometric method) is used. The development of the ion-association complex between TRB or CAM and picric acid is part of this technique. In order to determine the optimum conditions required for the rapid and quantitative formulation of the coloured product with maximum stability and sensitivity, the experiments were carried out by measuring the absorption at λmax 350 nm of a series of solutions, varying one and fixing the other parameters in each case, such as the type, volume and concentration of acid, the organic solvent used for extraction, the ratio of acids, the ratio and the concentration of organic solvent used for extraction, They optimised the vector parameters. The findings were confirmed statistically. The study of regression using the For slope (b), standard deviation (Sb), intercept (a), standard deviation on intercept (Sa), standard estimation error ( Se) and coefficient of correlation ( r) obtained from different concentrations, the minimum square method was used. This section summarises the data obtained for the determination of each drug with different reagents. Via interference experiments with other active and inactive ingredients typically present in pharmaceutical preparations, the selectivity (or specificity) of each proposed method was determined.

Author (s) Details

R. Mrutyunjaya Rao
SRKR Engineering College, Chinna Ammiram, Bhimavaram, India.

C. S. P. Sastry
Foods and Drugs Laboratories, Department of Organic Chemistry Foods, Drugs and Water, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, India.

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Studies on the Characterisation, Phytochemical and Functional Groups Assay of a Tropical Timber (Bombax brevicuspe) Stem

For thermal and physico-chemical processes, the clarification of Bombax brevicuspe wood was analysed. The results obtained were as follows: afterglow time 253.67 sec, flame length 113.33 sec, flame propagation rate 20.3×10-2cm.s-1, ignition time 2.33 sec, thermal conductivity 51.34x102Umoh / cm, electrical conductivity 5.3×10-3Sm-1, ash content 3.4 percent, moisture content 29.97 percent, dry density 22.3×10-2 g.cm-3, water imbibitions (at different time intervals: 30 minutes 46.6 percent 5h, moisture content 3.4 percent, moisture content 29.97 percent, oven dry density 22.3×10-2 g.cm-3, water imbibitions) Phytochemical screening showed the existence of all secondary metabolites studied, except steroids, which showed their therapeutic ability. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Ultraviolet ( UV) spectra indicated that 1,2,3-trisubstituted aromatic compound with attached C = O, O-H and C = N groups may be the active compound The study of chemical components indicated the presence of 43 percent cellulose, 20 percent hemicellulose, 29 percent lignin and other components in their proper proportion. Bombax brevicuspe wood could be used from the findings for different construction purposes, and due to the existence of secondary metabolites, it also presents some medicinal potential.

Author (s) Details

Dr. I. P. Udeozo
Department of Chemistry, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Dr. C. M. Ejikeme
Department of Chemical Science, Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Prof. A. N. Eboatu
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

H. I. Kelle
Chemistry Unit, National Open University of Nigeria, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/282

Studies on the Characterisation of Poly blend Nanofilms of Cellulose Acetate and Poly Styrene

With a broad variety of applications in medicine, electronics and energy production, etc., nanotechnology has the ability to produce many new materials and devices. The process of blending is used for the development of new polymeric materials. It is used in industrial, biochemical and biomedical applications because cellulose acetate is cellulosic, non-toxic , non-allergic, biocompatible , biodegradable, hydrophilic, soft , smooth, transparent, highly flexible , highly chemical resistant, thermoplastic moulding material. SEM and mechanical analysis of cellulose acetate and polystyrene nano films have been studied in the present investigation, in accordance with the change in polymer composition over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. At low temperatures and at higher strain rates in nano crystalline materials, super plasticity has been observed. Mechanical properties have been studied in cellulose acetate and polystyrene nano films. Nano phase morphology SEM has been researching membranes. SEM experiments were also carried out to estimate the distribution of the support polymer’s pore size. Nano structured ceramics bind with bone cells easily and have been applied as materials for implants. The present study indicates that SEM and Mechanical Analysis will study the compatibility of polymer blends. It is obvious that there is a distinct phase separation in the membranes of Poly styrene-Cellulose acetate compositions of 50:50. Poly styrene-Cellulose acetate blends display maximum stress and tensile strength values at higher cellulose acetate concentrations.

Author (s) Details

Dr. S. Srilalitha
Professor of Chemistry & Head of R&D Department of Humanities & Sciences ACE Engineering College, Ankushapur, Hyderabad-501 301, India and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur-515 001, India.

K. N. Jayaveera
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur-515 001, India.

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Critical Research on Enhancement of the Inhibitor Efficiency of 4-Phenyl-1,2-dithiol-3-thione on Corrosion of Mild Steel for 20% Sulphuric Acid

Substituted 4-phenyl-1,2-dithiol-3-thione (PDTT), synthesised and tested as a mild steel corrosion inhibitor in the presence of oxygen by the technique of potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 20% H2SO4 at 25oC. Also at low concentrations, this organic compound prevents acidic corrosion. The results obtained indicate that this sulphur compound is and is in good agreement with good inhibitors. Polarization curves suggest that 4-phenyl-1,2-dithiol-3-thione is a cathodic inhibitor and has been studied to model the corrosion inhibition mechanism via an effective analogous circuit model in order to minimise the corrosion current obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. 4-phenyl-1,2-dithiol-3-thione adsorption on the steel surface in a 20 percent H2SO4 solution complies with Langmuir’s isotherm with a very high negative adsorption free energy value.

Author (s) Details

M. Dakmouche
Laboratoire de Valorisation et Promotion des Ressources Sahariennes, Université Kasdi Merbah de Ouargla, 30000 Ouargla, Algeria.

M. Saidi
Laboratoire de Valorisation et Promotion des Ressources Sahariennes, Université Kasdi Merbah de Ouargla, 30000 Ouargla, Algeria.

M. Hadjadj
Laboratoire de Valorisation et Promotion des Ressources Sahariennes, Université Kasdi Merbah de Ouargla, 30000 Ouargla, Algeria.

M. Yousfi
Laboratoire des Sciences Fondamentales, Université de Laghouat, 03000 Laghouat, Algeria.

Z. Rahmani
Laboratoire de Valorisation et Promotion des Ressources Sahariennes, Université Kasdi Merbah de Ouargla, 30000 Ouargla, Algeria.

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The Use of Spectrophotometric and Thermodynamic Methods for the Determination of Glibenclamide

For the assay of glibenclamide, a spectrophotometric and thermodynamic method is defined. The technique involves a glibenclamide charge transfer complexion reaction with 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-Dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) to form a very intense coloured charge transfer complex with a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. Under tailored experimental conditions, the resulting coloured product was analysed at 474 nm. Beer-Lambert ‘s law was obeyed over the 20-100 μg / ml concentration range. The apparent absorptivity of the molar was measured and 0.99 ⁇ 103 L.mol- 1 cm-1 was found. The corresponding sensitivity of Sandell, detection limits, and quantification were stated. The thermodynamic parameters have been defined as well. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of glibenclamide in pure and commercial forms with strong average recovery of 98.24 percent. The student t-test and f-test were used for statistical comparison at a 95 percent confidence level.

Author (s) Details

Nwanisobi Gloria
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Ukoha Pius
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

View Book :- https://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/282