Latest Research News on oral cavity: Feb – 2020

Defining the Normal Bacterial Flora of the Oral Cavity

More than 700 bacterial species or phylotypes, of which over 50% have not been cultivated, have been detected in the oral cavity. Our purposes were (i) to utilize culture-independent molecular techniques to extend our knowledge on the breadth of bacterial diversity in the healthy human oral cavity, including not-yet-cultivated bacteria species, and (ii) to determine the site and subject specificity of bacterial colonization. [1]

Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity

A type of squamous carcinoma of the oral cavity, designated as verrucous carcinoma, has been described. This lesion occurs predominantly in aged men, most commonly on the buccal mucosa and lower gingiva. Tobacco chewing may be of etiologic significance. Slowly growing, well differentiated, verrucous in character, and often extensive, this neoplasm tends to invade local structures (mandible, soft tissues, antrum). No distant metastases occurred in the group reported, and local metastases were rare. Local recurrence is common with inadequately treated patients. Radiation is successful in controlling small superficial lesions. For extensive lesions, radical surgery is indicated and often when fixation, or invasion of bone is present, mandibular resection with upper neck dissection is justified. [2]

Saliva – the defender of the oral cavity

It is generally accepted that saliva is of paramount importance for the maintenance of oral health. This is based on the numerous studies reporting subjective and objective functional losses that occur in persons who lack the ability to produce adequate volumes of saliva. These include dry mouth feeling (xerostomia), difficulty with swallowing food, and an increased susceptibility for opportunistic infections.[3]

High Risk HPV Detected in Oral Cavity of Children in a Set Population of Karachi

Aims: The study was designed to determine the frequency of HPV in school going children and also find out cytopathological changes in the oral mucosa resulting from HPV infection.
Study Design: Cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples of oral rinse were collected from 300 healthy school going children (aged 5-18 years) during the period of March 2014 to June 2014 from two school campuses of Karachi (South) Pakistan. .[4]

Crosstalk between Mind and Oral Cavity: An Insight into Pathogenesis, Classification, Presentation and Management of Oral Psychosomatic Disorders

In general, the conviction is that psychological factors are important in the development of all disease. Epidemiological surveys have revealed that there are different ways in which emotional stressful stimuli can act on oral mucosal target sites. Whether their role is in initiation, progression, aggravation or exacerbation of disease or in predisposition or reaction to a disease is still not clear. Based on available evidences, a need for the understanding of oral psychosomatic disturbances is felt. This review summarizes the underlying pathophysiology of bodily changes brought about by stress related psychosomatic mechanism and their role in further development of structural changes seen in association with oral cavity. An effort has also been made to realize the significant.[5]

 

Reference

[1] Aas, J.A., Paster, B.J., Stokes, L.N., Olsen, I. and Dewhirst, F.E., 2005. Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(11), pp.5721-5732.

[2] Ackerman, L.V., 1948. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Surgery23(4), pp.670-678.

[3] Amerongen, A.N. and Veerman, E.C.I., 2002. Saliva–the defender of the oral cavity. Oral diseases8(1), pp.12-22.

[4] Irshad, F., Baig, S., Syed, S. and Lucky, M.H., 2015. High Risk HPV Detected in Oral Cavity of Children in a Set Population of Karachi. International STD Research & Reviews, pp.27-32.

[5] Jain, K., Mehendiratta, M., Kardam, P., Yadav, J. and Jindal, D.G., 2016. Crosstalk between Mind and Oral Cavity: An Insight into Pathogenesis, Classification, Presentation and Management of Oral Psychosomatic Disorders. International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal, pp.1-12.

LATEST RESEARCH NEWS ON ORAL CANCER : FEB-2020

Oral Cancer and Precancerous Lesions

In the United States, cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx represent approximately three percent of all malignancies in men and two percent of all malignancies in women. The American Cancer Society estimates that 28,900 new cases of oral cancer will be diagnosed in 2002, and nearly 7,400 people will die from this disease. Over 90 percent of these tumors are squamous cell carcinomas, which arise from the oral mucosal lining. [1]

Epidemiology and prevention of oral cancer

Descriptive epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancer over the last four decades is reviewed, with specific focus on Europe. Substantial rises in mortality rates have been observed for younger males, mostly in eastern Europe. The independent role of alcohol and tobacco and their interaction on oral carcinogenesis is discussed, since these factors account for about three quarters of oral cancers in Europe. [2]

Human Papillomavirus and Oral Cancer: The International Agency for Research on Cancer Multicenter Study

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical cancer, appears to be involved in the etiology of cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. To investigate these associations, we conducted a multicenter case-control study of cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx in nine countries. Methods: We recruited 1670 case patients (1415 with cancer of the oral cavity and 255 with cancer of the oropharynx) and 1732 control subjects and obtained an interview, oral exfoliated cells, and blood from all participants and fresh biopsy specimens from case patients. [3]

Role of Tumor Markers in Oral Cancer: An Overview

The oral mucosa represents the first part of the digestive tract and is exposed to various exogenous toxins. Exposure for longer duration can lead to changes that lead to potentially malignant diseases or cancers / Tumors. Eventually these can be diagnosed by routine histopathology, but few of them are difficult to diagnose by this method alone. [4]

Novel Therapy for Oral Cancer – Gene Therapy an Update

Gene therapy provides modern medicine with new perspectives and had great potential as a novel therapeutic modality. Progress in molecular biology, especially molecular medicine is now changing the basics of genetic disease. This technology takes advantage of our understanding of cancer at the molecular level. It has been exploited to develop new strategies for killing cells selectively or arresting their growth. This is new technique, being developed which offers incredible pledge for the upcoming therapeutic modality in oral cancer treatment. The aim of this paper is to review delivery routes, vector design, therapeutic applications and possible obstacles faced by gene therapist. [5]

Reference

[1] Neville, B.W. and Day, T.A., 2002. Oral cancer and precancerous lesions. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians52(4), pp.195-215.

[2] La Vecchia, C., Tavani, A., Franceschi, S., Levi, F., Corrao, G. and Negri, E., 1997. Epidemiology and prevention of oral cancer. Oral oncology33(5), pp.302-312.

[3] Herrero, R., Castellsagué, X., Pawlita, M., Lissowska, J., Kee, F., Balaram, P., Rajkumar, T., Sridhar, H., Rose, B., Pintos, J. and Fernández, L., 2003. Human papillomavirus and oral cancer: the International Agency for Research on Cancer multicenter study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute95(23), pp.1772-1783.

[4] Lavanya, R., Mamatha, B., Waghray, S., Chaitanya, N.C., Reddy, M.P. and Bau, D.G., 2016. Role of Tumor Markers in Oral Cancer: An Overview. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-9.

[5]  Kumar, N.A., Agrawal, A. and Sreedevi, R., 2015. Novel Therapy for Oral Cancer-Gene Therapy an Update. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, pp.1-8.

News Update on Root Caries Research: Sep – 2019

Fluoride, remineralization and root caries

This paper reviews the probable mechanism of caries and also the role of halide within the inhibition or reversal of that method. The initial stages of root dental {caries|tooth decay|decay} ar admire enamel caries, being the acid dissolution of mineral ensuing from acids generated by microorganism metabolism. The fermentation of carbohydrates by oral microorganism as well as mutans streptococci and lactobacilli initiate the basis decay method, removing mineral from among the organic matrix that is primarily composed of scleroprotein. after this demineralization, the organic material will be more countermined by microorganism enzymes. halide inhibits mineral loss throughout the acid dissolution method and enhances remineralization during a similar manner thereto that happens in dental enamel. [1]

Comparison between Er: YAG Laser and Conventional Technique for Root Caries Treatment in vitro

Effective ablation of dental exhausting tissues by suggests that of the erbium-doped:yttrium-aluminum transparent gem (Er:YAG) optical device has been rumored recently, and its application to dental caries removal and cavity preparation has been expected. However, few studies have investigated the potential of the Er:YAG optical device to treat dental caries. within the gift study, the effectiveness of dental caries removal by mistreatment associate Er:YAG optical device in vitro was compared thereupon of typical mechanical treatment. cardinal extracted human teeth with root dental caries were used. 1/2 the dental caries in every tooth was treated with the Er:YAG optical device, and also the different was removed with a traditional bur or was left untreated as an effect. optical device treatment was performed by suggests that of a mix of contact and non-contact irradiation modes with cooling water spray, with a brand new fiber delivery and get in touch with probe system. [2]

Reversal of Primary Root Caries Using Dentifrices Containing 5,000 and 1,100 ppm Fluoride

This study compared the flexibility of 2 salt dentifrices, one containing five,000 ppm halide (Prevident 5000 Plus) and therefore the different one,100 ppm halide (Winterfresh Gel), to reverse primary root tooth decay lesions (PRCLs). a complete of 201 subjects with a minimum of one PRCL every entered the study and were willy-nilly allotted to use one in all the dentifrices. once vi months, 186 subjects were enclosed in applied math analyses. At baseline and once three and vi months, the lesions were clinically assessed Associate in Nursingd their impedance measured victimisation an electrical tooth decay monitor. [3]

UVA-activated riboflavin promotes collagen crosslinking to prevent root caries

Root decay is associate more and more downside in aging societies with severe implications for the final health and eudaimonia of enormous numbers of individuals. Strengthening type-I scleroprotein, a significant organic element of human dentin, has tried effective in preventing root decay. This study sought-after to see whether or not exposure to B followed by UVA irradiation (RF/UVA) might promote extra scleroprotein crosslinking, and therefore improve the acid and catalyst resistance of human dentin beneath simulated oral environments. If so, it might supply potential for treatment of the unmalleable downside of root decay. [4]

Prevalence of Root Caries in South Canara Population

Aim: Aim of this study was to see the prevalence of root tooth decay and associated risk factors among South Canara population.

Place of Study: Department of Conservative medical specialty and dental medicine, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangaluru and rural satellite centres.

Duration of Study: could fifteen 2018- Gregorian calendar month 15 2018 (1 month).

Methodology: 2000 patients were examined for root tooth decay exploitation mouth mirror and someone below sensible lighting facilities, followed by a form to determinethe prevalence of root cariesand associated risks in South Canara Population. [5]

Reference

[1] Featherstone, J.D., 1994. Fluoride, remineralization and root caries. American journal of dentistry, 7(5), pp.271-274. (Web Link)

[2] Aoki, A., Ishikawa, I., Yamada, T., Otsuki, M., Watanabe, H., Tagami, J., Ando, Y. and Yamamoto, H., 1998. Comparison between Er: YAG laser and conventional technique for root caries treatment in vitro. Journal of dental research, 77(6), pp.1404-1414. (Web Link)

[3] Baysan, A., Lynch, E., Ellwood, R., Davies, R., Petersson, L. and Borsboom, P., 2001. Reversal of primary root caries using dentifrices containing 5,000 and 1,100 ppm fluoride. Caries Research, 35(1), pp.41-46. (Web Link)

[4] UVA-activated riboflavin promotes collagen crosslinking to prevent root caries
R. Uemura, J. Miura, T. Ishimoto, K. Yagi, Y. Matsuda, M. Shimizu, T. Nakano & M. Hayashi
Scientific Reportsvolume 9, Article number: 1252 (2019) (Web Link)

[5] Hegde, M., ., M. and Shetty, N. (2018) “Prevalence of Root Caries in South Canara Population”, Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 28(3), (Web Link)

News Update on Oral Cavity Research: Sep – 2019

Defining the Normal Bacterial Flora of the Oral Cavity

More than 700 microorganism species or phylotypes, of that over five hundredth haven’t been cultivated, are detected within the mouth. Our functions were (i) to utilize culture-independent molecular techniques to increase our information on the breadth of microorganism diversity within the healthy human mouth, as well as not-yet-cultivated species, and (ii) to see the location and subject specificity of microorganism formation. 9 sites from 5 clinically healthy subjects were analyzed. Sites enclosed tongue dorsum, lateral sides of tongue, buccal epithelial tissue, surface, palate, supragingival plaque of tooth surfaces, subgingival plaque, jaw anterior vestibule, and tonsils. [1]

Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity

A type of squamous malignant neoplastic disease of the oral fissure, selected as verrucous malignant neoplastic disease, has been delineated . This lesion happens preponderantly in aged men, most typically on the buccal membrane and lower gum. Tobacco change of state is also of etiologic significance. Slowly growing, well differentiated, verrucous in character, and sometimes intensive, this growth tends to invade native structures (mandible, soft tissues, antrum). No distant metastases occurred within the cluster according, and native metastases were rare. native repeat is common with inadequately treated patients. Radiation is successful  in dominant little superficial lesions. For intensive lesions, radical surgery is indicated and sometimes once fixation, or invasion of bone is gift, inframaxillary surgical process with higher neck dissection is even. [2]

Drug Delivery via the Mucous Membranes of the Oral Cavity

The delivery of medicine via the secretion membranes lining the mouth (i.e., articulator and buccal), considerately of each general delivery and native medical care, is reviewed during this paper. The structure and composition of the mucosae at totally different sites within the mouth, factors poignant tissue layer porousness, penetration sweetening, choice of acceptable experimental systems for learning tissue layer porousness, and formulation factors relevant to the planning of systems for oral tissue layer delivery area unit mentioned. articulator delivery provides speedy absorption and sensible bioavailability for a few little permeants, though this web site isn’t compatible to sustained-delivery systems. [3]

Are the view of Helicobacter pylori colonized in the oral cavity an illusion?

Urea breath take a look at (UBT), as a number one most popular non-invasive diagnostic technology, however might not be ready to discover oral H. pylori. With negative results of UBT, the patient might have Associate in Nursing oral infection. On the idea of the very fact of success, obliteration rate might increase by twenty first within the ninety fifth Cl vary when the elimination of oral H. pylori, the author believes oral H. pylori will exist and also the rima oris is that the second settled web {site} aside its primary site of the abdomen. H. pylori migrated out of Africa together with its human host circa 60 000 years ago; they’re not lives in abdomen solely. [4]

Fibrolipoma of Oral Cavity- A Case Study

Lipomas ar benign soft tissue mesenchymal neoplasms of the mouth. Among its histologic variants, fibrolipoma may be a rare entity and is comprised of growth fat cells embedded in dense albuminoid. Although, fibrolipomas could occur at numerous sites within the mouth, its etiology is obscure. The importance of differentiating Associate in Nursing intraoral fibrolipoma from a mucocele, nonmalignant tumor and organic phenomenon nonmalignant tumor is mentioned through a case study of fibrolipoma within the buccal fissure with review of literature. Here we tend to gift a case study on fibrolipoma within the left buccal tissue layer. [5]

Reference

[1] Aas, J.A., Paster, B.J., Stokes, L.N., Olsen, I. and Dewhirst, F.E., 2005. Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(11), pp.5721-5732. (Web Link)

[2] Ackerman, L.V., 1948. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Surgery, 23(4), pp.670-678. (Web Link)

[3] Harris, D. and Robinson, J.R., 1992. Drug delivery via the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 81(1), pp.1-10. (Web Link)

[4] Are the view of Helicobacter pylori colonized in the oral cavity an illusion?
J K C Yee
Experimental & Molecular Medicine volume49, pagee397 (2017) (Web Link)

[5] Sathvikalakshmi, B., Reddy, C. U., Kirthika, R., Chandrashekar, L. and Sudarshan, R. (2017) “Fibrolipoma of Oral Cavity- A Case Study”, Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 9(1), (Web Link)