Iron Deficiency Anemia and Learning Capacity in Children

The prevalence of iron deficiency (IDA), which reduces cognitive performance, work performance and durability, in developing and underdeveloped countries is high. Children represent one of the groups most affected for this disorder, leading to decreased cognitiveness, delayed development of psychomotors, changes in behaviour and physical development. Different studies have addressed the association between the IDA and child development, but on this issue there is no consensus. In this context, this review highlights the results of the principal published studies on this topic in an effort to provide all participants in this discussion with insightful comments.

Author (s) Details

Francisco Plácido Nogueira Arcanjo
Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus Sobral, Ceará, Brazil.

Eliana Pereira Vellozo
Department of Pediatrics, Universidade Federal de São Paulo / Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Maria Aparecida Zanetti Passos
Postgraduate Program in Education and Health in Childhood and Adolescence, Universidade Federal de São Paulo / Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Mikkael Duarte dos Santos
Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus Sobral, Ceará, Brazil and Centro Universitário INTA, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil.

Francisca Júlia dos Santos Sousa
Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus Sobral, Ceará, Brazil.

Cecília Costa Arcanjo
Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus Sobral, Ceará, Brazil.

Maria Sylvia de Souza Vitalle
Postgraduate Program in Education and Health in Childhood and Adolescence, Universidade Federal de São Paulo / Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil and Department of Adolescent Medicine, Universidade Federal de São Paulo / Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Genetic Knowledge among Audiologist Related to Hearing Loss: A Recent Study

Hearing loss is hearing loss that could be caused by tumours, trauma, genetic factors, ageing, etc. In the absence of a positive family history for hearing losses, most of the genetic hearing losses are derived from an auto-recessive pattern. The main purpose and objective of this study are experimental studies on knowledge of genetic hearing loss with 100 participants, 31 of whom responded. 25 questions have been validated and e-mails sent, answers were analysed from all the participants active. The audiologist has had adequate knowledge but insufficient practical skills and the genetics of hearing loss are essential. The findings of this study are consistent with those reported in other geographical locations by audiologists. Knowledge of this enhances self-confidence, improved planning and treatment and a better understanding of audiological genetic disorders.

Author (s) Details

B. Vishnuram
AYJNISHD(RC), Secundrabad, India.

Samathana Prabu
Panimalar Medical College Hospital, India.

P. Samuel Santhosh Kumar
AYJNISHD(RC), Secundrabad, India.

Venusha Oliver
NIEPMD, Andaman & Nicobar, India.

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Disaster Preparedness: Insights from Characteristic Differences between Appalachian and Non-Appalachian Pediatric Emergency Networks

Presentation: Introduction Apart from the lack of emergency department and hospital surgery capabilities during disasters, living in the Appalachian region of the U.S. was associated with poorer paediatric health outcome.

Object: In order to determine whether paediatric health networks in Appalachia are substantially different than those other in the United States that are focused on size, whether inter- or intrinsic networks and, above all, intensity of cooperation – factors affecting pediatry disaster preparedness.

Methods: Data have been collected using a two-stage investigation process. Networks were identified by the first survey. The second survey assessed the capacity and performance of each identified network in disaster preparedness, the level of funding sharing and the intensity and formality of information sharing among network partners. Appalachia or non-Appalachia networks based on the state’s location have been separated into networks. Results: In comparison to non-Appalachian networks, appalachian networks were more likely to be inter-state, but were less likely to share funding between network partners.

Implications: In Appalachia only three out of seventeen identified paediatric networks operated despite the consistent insufficient paediatric capacity and repeat calls of paediatric care providers for collaboration, especially for disaster relief. Appalachia operations have been linked to lower share in funds, although it has been possible for Appalachian networks to achieve the highest stage in network development. Developing new paediatric networks and increasing collaboration among existing networks (i.e. increased fund sharing) can improve network operation, collaboration, preparedness for disasters and outcomes for health in Appalachian states.

Author (s) Details

Lauren A. Wallace
Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, United States.

Andrew C. Rucks
Department of Health Care Organization and Policy/University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.

Peter M. Ginter
Department of Health Care Organization and Policy/University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.

Rongbing Xie
Department of Surgery/University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.

Charles R. Katholi
Department of Biostatistics/University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.

Faustina Bello-Ogunu
Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, United States.

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Refining Bronfenbrenner’s Model to Develop and Promote the Nursing Specialist Role in Saudi Arabia

Nearly one quarter of children are diagnosed with asthma in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and this is the third most common reason for admitted hospitals, representing a major challenge in public health. This article review is a chapter from the PhD thesis that identified Burawoy’s extended case method from the perspective of health workers and patients on the role of the nursing profession during paediatric asthma management. A quality paradigm was considered the best way to understand fully the significance of the asthma management phenomenon of infancy.

Then, the review described a new care model as a way to conceptualise the role of the nursing community in general, in order to recognise the importance of multi-level environments as well as the interactions among the levels as key factors influencing Saudi Arabia’s development. The impact of the specialist in clinical nursing improves patient care and promotes care. This article presents a description of multifactor perceptions of nursing professionals in general and asthma nursing specialists in particular, including professional power, politics, cultures and gender roles in this area. This article also discusses the opportunities and potential threats to the future growth of the clinical nursing specialist role.

Author (s) Details

Abeer Alatawi
Child Health Nursing, Department of Nursing, University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

Pam Smith
Department of Nursing Studies, The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Nicola Ring
Child Health Nursing, School of Health & Social Care, Edinburgh Napier University, United Kingdom.

Colin Chandler
Department of Nursing Studies, The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

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Foodborne Botulism, a Real Challenge for Infectious Disease Specialists

Background: If not diagnosed early and adequately treated, botulism is a fatal disease.

Aim: This study aimed to assess the evolutionary and clinical patterns of botulism in foodstuffs.

Materials and methods: Retrospectively analysed data from four cases of botulism.

All positive diagnoses have been supported by the epidemiologic causes, clinical manifestations and specific bioassay results for the identification of Botulinum Neurotoxin.

Results: serum samples for botulinum toxin type B have been tested positive. Three cases, the latter requiring intensive care and mechanical ventilation, but recovery after months of rehabilitation were positive in treatment with versatile antibotulinum serum evolution. Conclusion: The use of inappropriate food can result in botulism/food poisoning.

Author (s) Details

Iosif Marincu
Department of Infectious Diseases, Pneumology and Parasitology, „Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania.

Iulia Vidican
Department of Infectious Diseases, Pneumology and Parasitology, „Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania.

Mirela Turaiche
Department of Infectious Diseases, Pneumology and Parasitology, „Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania.

Livius Tirnea
Department of Infectious Diseases, Pneumology and Parasitology, „Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania.

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A Case Report on Pseudo-Meigs Syndrome

Meigs syndrome is charakterised by hydrothorax and ascites that are resolved after the tumour is removed in the presence of solid benign ovarian tumours. Hydrothorax and pelvic tumour-related ascites other than those identified in Meigs syndrome are defined as pseudo-meigs syndroma. Diagnosed with meigs syndrome are the triad of ovarian fibroma, ascites and pleural outbreaks.

A 45-year-old woman has one year of abdominal distention and pain, and one month of respiration. During the clinical evaluations and investigations, hydrothorax and ascites were found, as well as a huge pelvic tumour palpable abdominally, as well as another vaginally palpable mass. Thoracocentesis and paracentesis of the abdomen were performed for symptomatic relief. There has been an exploratory laparotomy. Total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy have been performed.

The immediate postoperative resolution of hydrothorax and ascites has been verified in pseudo-meigs syndrome.

After a histopathological examination the mass was diagnosed as an ovarian, serious, boundary tumour. The immediate postoperative resolution of hydrothorax and ascites has been verified in pseudo-meigs syndrome.

Author (s) Details

Satyanarayana Reddy Alla
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vinayaka Mission’s Medical College and Hospital, Karaikal, Vinayaka Misson`s Research Foundation (DU), Salem, India.

G. Ambujam
Vinayaka Mission’s Medical College and Hospital, Karaikal, Vinayaka Mission`s Research Foundation (DU), Salem, India.

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Role of Anti-Mullerian Hormone as a Predictor of Ovarian Function in Assisted Reproductive Techniques: An Advance Study

It is important to forecast the ovarian reserve and the performance of the ART cycle in order to prepare treatment schedules, prevent OHSS and advise the couple. The objective of this study is to confirm the exactness of AMH as a predictor of a woman’s potential fertility. The retrospective study uses the same protocols and procedures to assess the efficiency of multiple IVF/ICSI cycles for 100 women in an infertility centre. In 20 persons the level of AMH was high, in 23 females the average was low and in 57 women it was high. A good ovarian response occurred in all women with an AMH; with the exception of one, all women with an AMH were good ovarian; with a low AMH, all women had a poor response. 128 IVF/ICSI cycles on 100 women were carried out, 184 on fresh and cryopreserved embryos were carried out on embryo transfers, 49 female embryos were clinically pregnant. There were 39 clinical pregnancies in 76 ART cycles in 57 women with normal AMH; in 20 women with high AMH, there were 44 embryo transfers, 9 with clinical pregnancy; in 28 ART cycles in 23 women with low AMH, 17 with embryonic transfers, only one became pregnant. in 24 ART cycles, only one of the 23 women was pregnant. AMH can be used as an ovary reaction and hyperstimulation marker for women with PCOS and a protocol of stimulation can be modified to prevent OHSS.

Author (s) Details

Alla Satanarayana Reddy
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vinayaka Mission’s Medical College & Hospital, Karaikal, Vinayaka Mission`s Research Foundation (DU), Salem, India.

Arunagiri Ramasamy
Vinayaka Mission’s Medical College & Hospital, Karaikal, Vinayaka Mission`s Research Foundation (DU), Salem, India.

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Study on the Effect of Different Application Techniques on Nanohybrid Composite Restorations Clinical Success

Dental composites have long been used as a restaurant. They are, however, limited. The impact on the clinical performance of Class I resin composite resin restructuring was assessed by these studies. This study was carried out in a total of 40 patients with split mouth design. In every patient, two composite resin restoration fillings were filled by placement technique (either bulk or incremental packing). Group (A): Tetric EvoCeram bulk-fill resin packaged and Group (B) packed: Tetric EvoCeram composite resin incrementally packaged. Teeth restorations have been assessed for every indication of failure in accordance with the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) modified criteria on one, one week, 3 months, and 6 months. The results showed no significant retention, marginal integrity, surface stain, gingival bleeding, and secondary caries differences at the various follow-up periods and there were significant colour, surface texture, and postoperative sensitivity differences. This study shows excellent clinical performance for the nanohybrid composite resins for six months.

Author (s) Details

Rasha Al-Sheikhq
Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

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How Ischemic Heart Diseases Mortality Depends on Solar Corpuscular Radiation: A Case from Bulgaria

Ischemic heart disease claims the lives of 20% of Bulgarians. A study was done to learn more about if and to what extent ischemia disease mortality in Bulgaria is linked to external factors, particularly corpuscular sun radiation. Materials and Methods: The Bulgarian National Statistical Institute provided data on ischemic heart disease mortality. The NOAA website provided data on solar corpuscular radiation. The data was processed using correlation and regression analysis.

Results: The annual figure I20 to I25, according to the International Classification of Disease 10th Revision, forms a high statistically significant correlation of the protons with energy above 1 MeV and alpha parts with energy between 4 to 10 MeV on the one hand, as well as the mortality of both males and females with ischemic disorders in bulgaria. The highest correlation coefficient was the dependence of female ischemic heart disease on the alpha particle flux: 0.939, a statistical significance level of 0,001. In Bulgaria the mortality from ischemic disease is negatively linked to the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field in Bulgaria (for male mortality, the correlation coefficient is -0.888, the level of statistical significance 0.001). In Bulgaria, on the one hand, the average number of annual sunflakes, and x-ray radiation (0.1 – 0.8nm) of the geostationary orbit, on the other hand, is not statistically significantly correlated. In the case of Galactic cosmic radiation and death from ischemic heart disease in Bulgaria, no statistically significant correlation exists. Examples are provided for a date interval correlated with intensive proton flow and ischemic mortality.

Discussion: Results show that an unknown phenomenon exists – a causal link between mortality from ischemic cardiovascular diseases in both Bulgaria and solar corpuscular radiation fluxes. This phenomenon contributes about 6 to 10 percent to Bulgaria’s mortality risk from ischemical heart disease. In other small, mid-latitude countries, this phenomenon can also be seen. The phenomenon appears during the day, particularly if the sun is at its climax, especially during the warm part of the year, when more people are outside without buildings being protected.

Author (s) Details

Nikolay Takuchev
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Physics, Trakia University, Bulgaria.

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A Brief Review on Chronobiology and Chronotherapy of Hypertension

Hypertension affects more than 90% of all patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States, and it is a major risk factor for end-organ injury, CVD, and mortality. Chronobiology, chronopharmacology, and chronotherapy in the management of hypertension have only been studied for a few decades. According to research conducted in the previous decade, our behaviour, such as what we eat, and the time of day, have an impact on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, the potential of the night: day ratio of systolic BP to predict the risk of cardiovascular events is more accurate than office BP calculated only once. The evidence clearly reveals that nocturnal blood pressure is the type of blood pressure that is most consistently connected with cardiovascular risk prediction and allows for more frequent safety monitoring. The circadian rhythm is crucial for blood pressure regulation. As a result, the use of chronopharmacotherapy is required for a circadian condition like hypertension. Different drugs, on the other hand, have been investigated for their chronopharmacology and possible chronotherapy. This page discusses the chronobiology of hypertension, as well as the chronopharmacology and chronotherapy of the many medicines used to treat it. Researchers are likely to produce more creative chronopharmaceutical formulations for the control or treatment of hypertension now that they are aware of the risk factors connected with this illness problem.

Author (s) Details

K. Latha
G.Pulla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Mehidipatnam, Hyderabad 500 028, India.

M. U. Uhumwangho
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Nigeria.

S. A. Sunil
University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, India.

M. V. Srikanth
University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, India.

K. V. Ramana Murthy
University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, India.

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