Removal, Separation and Recovery of Fe(III) and Cr Ions from Cr(VI) Plating Wastewater Containing Fe Using Persimmon Tannin Gel and Immobilized Arthrobacter nicotianae Cells

The Cr removal capability of persimmon tannin gel from the aqueous solution of Cr(VI) was first examined. Cr / g-dry persimmon gel 307 and 76 mg were adsorbed as Cr(VI) on the gel and decreased to Cr(III) in the solution , respectively. Cr(VI) was selectively adsorbed using persimmon gel from a solution (pH2) containing 7 kinds of metal ions. On the other hand, the selective adsorption of Cr(III) reduced from Cr(VI) by persimmon tannin gel was similar to that of Cu(II) from a solution ( pH 5) containing 7 kinds of metal ions using Arthrobacter nicotianae cells The removal and separation of Fe(III), Cr(VI) and Cr(III) developed from Cr(VI) by the use of persimmon gel was identified by certain basic characteristics of the removal of these metals and A. In this paper, Nicotianae cells are mentioned.

Author (s) Details

Takehiko Tsuruta
Department of Life and Environmental Science, Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Hachinohe, Japan.

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Organisational Sustainability: A Literature Review

In order to understand different concepts related to organisational sustainability and its development, this study aims to review the current literature on organisational sustainability. The investigator has reviewed more than one hundred and fifty peer-reviewed journal articles relating to organisational sustainability published between 1987 and 2020 to achieve these goals. The literature review results indicated that different concepts of organisational sustainability have existed and that organisational sustainability is in the process of evolution. In addition, this literature review demonstrated the significance at the organisational level of stakeholder participation in decision-making related to sustainability. When implementing sustainability in organisations, the long-term outlook has become a primary consideration; it has, however, also become one of the main sources of concern for corporate leadership in this millennium. The literature also recognises national cultural values and organisational culture as affecting leadership decisions related to organisational sustainability. Therefore, this literature review confirmed that in achieving organisational sustainability, there are no best solutions or strategies, while managers should adopt holistic perspectives and implement creative solutions to resolve sustainability issues unique to their own organisations. It can therefore be inferred that organisational leadership applied from a holistic point of view will promote outstanding results in the establishment of organisational sustainability. Instead of using a simplistic approach, future research should seek to understand organisational sustainability in a context-specific way.

Author (s) Details

Dr (Mrs) E. A. G. Sumanasiri
Department of Commerce, Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.

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Discussing a Case Study of Air Quality Index in Industrial Areas of Bangalore City, India

The ambient air quality survey with respect to SPM, SO2 and NOx was carried out at 12 monitoring stations. For the measurement of the Air Quality Index, pollutant concentrations were used. It is noted that the allowable values are violated by most of the expected pollutants. The high pollution load in the ambient air of the region is primarily responsible for manufacturing activities and transport activities. Furthermore, the present study indicates that public understanding will play an important role in the planning and creation of creative ways of addressing the problems of health, transport and air pollution and the strategic strategy for their implementation.

Author (s) Details

Dr. S. Harinath
School of Civil Engineering, REVA University, Bengaluru, India.

Usha N. Murthy
School of Civil Engineering, REVA University, Bengaluru, India.

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Reporting a Case Study on the Effect of Air Pollution on Human Health in Industrial Areas

Due to urban development and increasing industrialization, air pollution has become a major problem in some Latin American and Caribbean countries in the last few years. In addition to manufacturing activities that are mostly concentrated in cities, the main sources of air pollution are automobile emissions and stationary fuel combustion. In selected industrial areas in and around the city of Bangalore, a survey was carried out to investigate the impact of air pollution on human health. These workers were found to have been directly subjected to pollution for about 8 to 10 hours a day. It is noted that, due to air pollution exposure, the population suffers from respiratory illnesses and other issues. It can be concluded that problems such as eye irritations, skin irritation, and respiratory problems are prevalent in the effects of Suspended Particulate Matter and gaseous matter on human beings who live in that environment for around 10 years.

Author (s) Details

Dr. S. Harinath
School of Civil Engineering, REVA University, Bengaluru, India.

Usha N. Murthy
School of Civil Engineering, REVA University, Bengaluru, India.

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Investigating the Tillage, Desmodium intortum, Fertilizer Rates for Carbon Stock, Soil Quality andGrain Yield in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

Nigeria ‘s Northern Guinea Savanna soils are continually and intensively cultivated, resulting in deterioration of soil quality, depletion of carbon reserves, increased soil erosion and depletion of soil nutrients. Concerning the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable crop production, the effects of land use change on soil carbon stocks (SOC) are of concern, as there is a need for food sufficiency while preserving the environment. Globally, in the light of international policy agendas on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable crop production, the effects of land use change on soil carbon stocks (SOC) are of concern because there is a dare to provide adequate food for the growing world population while maintaining the environment. “Therefore, this study:” Tillage Inquiry, Desmodium intortum, 1) Maize + Desmodium + Traditional tillage (MC), 2) Maize + Desmodium live-mulch integrated and relayed + Conservation tillage (MDIC), 3) Maize + Desmodium in no-tillage (MDNT), 4) Maize + Desmodium in strip tillage (MDST) were hybrid therapies. The key treatment plots were each divided into sub-plots to accommodate four (4) N rates (60, 80, 100 and 120 kg·ha-1), while the N rate plots were further divided into sub-plots to accommodate three ( 3) P rates (6.6, 13.2, and 26.4 kg·ha-1). Findings support that Desmodium intercrops with treatments for maize (MDIC, MDNT, and MDST) resulted in a rise in organic carbon content in 2013, with MDNT resulting in a slightly higher organic carbon content than other treatments (7.37 g·kg−1 in 2012 and 8.37 g·kg−1 in 2013). Zero tillage practise (MDNT) also sequestered substantially higher stocks of carbon (18.06 t C ha-1), followed by minimal tillage (MDIC) sequestering 15.99 t C ha-1 than the other treatments. Zero tillage practise (MDNT) also sequestered substantially higher stocks of carbon (18.06 t C ha-1), followed by minimal tillage (MDIC) sequestering 15.99 t C ha-1 than the other treatments. MDST was followed by the maximum grain yield of 2.61 tha-1 under MDIC and MDNT and the least under MC. The minimum score of 13 under MDIC and MDNT was provided by the total soil quality assessment score; thus, the best soil quality (SQ1) was attributed to the minimum D tillage. Intercrop and relayed intortum (MDIC) and Zero tillage with D. Care of Intortum (MDNT). Strip of Maize cropped with D. Intortum therapy (MDST) has been graded as SQ2.

Author (s) Details

Professor Odunze Azubuike Chidowe
Department of Soil Science/Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Asholo David Blessing
Department of Soil Science/Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Ogunwole Joshua Olalekan
BOWEN University, Iwo, Ado Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Oyinlola Eunice Yetunde

Department of Soil Science/Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Chinke Nkechi Mary
Department of Soil Science/Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

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Assessment of Trends and Variability of Rainfall for the Shillong City of Meghalaya, India

The purpose of this study is to examine and evaluate the patterns and variability of rainfall in Shillong and its surrounding areas, located in the Meghalaya hills of north-east India, which is geographically a neighbouring region to the wettest sections of the Earth, i.e. Cherrapunji and Mawsynram. Due to its geo-ecological fragility, strategic location vis-à – vis the eastern Himalayan landscape and international borders, its transboundary river basins and its inherent socio-economic instability, the northeast Indian area of India is expected to be highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Using data collected from the IMD station at Shillong, a study of variability and trends in annual , seasonal, monthly and daily rainfall was carried out, trying to highlight whether rainfall in the Shillong region has increased or decreased over the years. The coefficient of rainfall variability is used to compare the area’s present rainfall pattern with its past rainfall patterns. to annual, seasonal, monthly and daily rainfall was carried out, using the data collected from the IMD station at Shillong; thereby attempting to highlight whether rainfall in Shillong area has been increasing or decreasing over the years. Rainfall variability coefficient is utilized to compare the current rainfall trend of the area with its past rainfall trends. The present study also aims to analyse the frequency of occurrence of extreme rainfall events over the region. These studies will help us to establish a correlation between the current rainfall trend and climate change scenario of the study area.

Author (s) Details

Kamal Kumar Tanti
Department of Physics, Assam Energy Institute (a Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Jais, Amethi), Sivasagar, Assam, India.

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Evaluating the Effects of Synthesis Methods on the Catalytic Activity of Platinum and Osmium Supported on Titania for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

Titania (Pt / TiO2, Os / TiO2) catalyst materials assisted by platinum and osmium were synthesised by solid solid (SSI), sol-gel (SGI) and incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, Raman spectroscopy, surface area analysis (BET), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterise the catalysts. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering ex-situ structural tests showed that the anatase phase is preserved in the Titania phase in 10 percent of Pt or Os. The experiment showed that assisted platinum and osmium are active catalysts for maximum oxidation of CO to CO2 at moderate temperature; for both Pt and Os, the SSI method gave the most active catalysts. At temperatures below 100 ° C, Pt catalysts prepared by SSI were active and displayed much greater activity than Osmium catalysts. Trends in pollution from vehicle emissions that contribute to the rise in atmospheric zinc, copper, lead, manganese and cadmium have been recorded. It was decided over a period between 1957 and 2018. A worrying, worrying thing The pattern for almost all heavy metals was observed as the amounts of these metals increased. Over the past decades, exponentially. This poses many questions, because if this pattern is not stopped, it will As some heavy metals have reported values that surpass the WHO guidelines, they may damage the study area. On the boundaries of these metals.

Author (s) Details

Carlos H. Deliz
School of Natural Science and Technology, Universidad del Turabo, P.O.Box 3030, Gurabo, Puerto Rico.

Santander Nieto
School of Natural Science and Technology, Universidad del Turabo, P.O.Box 3030, Gurabo, Puerto Rico.

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Effect of Rotifer Community to Microhabitat Structure Changes Caused by Summer- Concentrated Rainfall in a Shallow Reservoir, South Korea

Empirical studies suggest that the diversity and abundance of macrophytes determine the structural heterogeneity of the microhabitat of the aquatic ecosystem. Excessive accumulation of free-floating macrophytes on the surface of the water will, however, reduce the biomass of submerged macrophytes, leading to a relatively simplified structure of the ecosystem. We hypothesised that heavy summer rainfall disrupts the growth of free-floating macrophytes covering most of the water surface of the Jangcheok Reservoir, contributing to a more complex structure of the ecosystem by enabling a more diverse macrophytic population to evolve. Long-term (2008-2017) monitoring data (rainfall, macrophytes, and rotifers) were split into two groups: rainy and dry years, referring to years with annual rainfall higher and lower than the overall annual average. We found that rotifers’ summer densities dropped sharply in the Rainy Years, but steadily increased in the Dry Years. Which we have attributed to habitat changes associated with the development of differential macrophytes. By creating large areas of open water and thus a more complex autumnal microhabitat structure, moderate disruption of the water surface caused by high summer rainfall may encourage the growth of submerged macrophytes, resulting in seasonal variations in rotifer group structures and populations. In addition, a highly complex micro-habitat structure limits the foraging behaviour of fish preying on rotifers (i.e., Lepomis macrochirus). On the basis of these results, we propose that summer-concentrated rainfall plays an important role in promoting the diversity of rotifers in terms of density and organisms. We conclude that summer rainfall plays an important role in promoting rotifer diversity based on the findings of this analysis. While rotifer density is negatively affected by summer rainfall, we have found positive effects in terms of species diversity. We propose the diversity of high autumn rotifer species in the Rainy Years

Author (s) Details

Jong-Yun Choi
National Institute of Ecology, Seo-Cheon Gun, Chungcheongnam Province 325-813, South Korea.

Seong-Ki Kim

National Institute of Ecology, Seo-Cheon Gun, Chungcheongnam Province 325-813, South Korea.

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Assessing the Characterization of Climate Variability: Case of Watershed Medjerda (North East of Algeria)

The global community has been pushed by several recent large-scale climate events to take an interest in climate change and its effects on water supplies. Among them, we can cite the droughts that have affected the Maghreb countries , particularly since the 1970s in Algeria. This study takes advantage of some statistical methods to interpret the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation for a period of 19 to 38 years at 16 rainfall stations located in the Medjerda (North East of Algeria) watershed. In the span of 1980 and 1990, there was an observed break when evaluating such sequence. Accordingly , the results of the mapping of the interannual rainfall indices calculated per decade over the period 1971-2007 show that the 80th and 90th decades appear to be a deficit across the basin. For the period (2001-2007), a trend towards a return of precipitation is thus noted. On the monthly scale, after years of failure for the winter months and spring, precipitation increased dramatically, Along with the The March Exception. An extraordinary concentration of rainfall in the month of August is observed. At the The study of daily rainfall fractions on a daily basis indicates a pattern in the rise in the average After years of failure, the average annual rainfall is greater than 20 mm. The Medjerda basin is also considered to have a Reduced precipitation and temperature rise over a period from (1913-1938) to (1969-1969) It’s 2007).

Author (s) Details

Dr. Wacila Khoualdia
Laboratoire de Gestion, Maintenance et Réhabilitation des Equipements et des Infrastructures Urbaines Université Mohamed

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Reporting a Case Study on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modelling to Estimate Fluvial Bank Erosion

Models of river bank erosion are an important prerequisite for understanding the creation of river meanders and for estimating the possible loss of land and the potential risk to infrastructure in the floodplain. While bank erosion models considering large-scale mass collapse have been established, the contribution of fluvial erosion (the particle-by-particle erosion mechanism due to the shear action of the river flow) to bank retreat has not received as much attention. In theory, these rates of fluvial bank erosion can be quantified using formulations of excess shear stress, but it has proven difficult in practise to estimate the parameters involved. In this research, a series of three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics ( CFD) simulations were performed at Bridport in southern England for a meander loop on the River Asker (200 m long) in order to elucidate the overall flow structures and in particular to provide estimates of the fluid shear stress applied to the riverbanks. The models for the CFD, Discharge flow varies. At maximum bank, the velocity levels and simulated shear stresses inside the separation zones of the inner bank are shown to be higher than those observed under low flow conditions, and these elevated shear stresses may be necessary to extract accumulated sediments into the main downstream flow. Spread and combine regions of higher bed / bank shear stress, while recirculation regions and areas of relatively small bed / bank shear stress decrease in magnitude. Compared to those simulated at low flow, the degree of velocity and shear stresses over the areas of inner bank separation was found to be greater at high flow, and may be sufficient to prevent sediment movement into the main downstream flow. These modelled flow patterns have implications for the dynamics of sediments, bank erosion and migration of meanders in the range studied.

Author (s) Details

Emmanouil Spyropoulos
Saudi Aramco, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Professor Stephen E. Darby
School of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.


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