Economic Evaluation of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Production in Bangladesh

The buffalo population was 1.46 million in FY 2014-15, accounting for 3% of all ruminants (small and large) produced in the country, but its socioeconomic significance is significant. As a result, the purpose of this study was to determine the socioeconomic profile of buffalo keepers as well as to evaluate the profitability of buffalo husbandry. To meet the objectives, ten (ten) districts were chosen on the basis of buffalo population density and project implementation areas: Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Moulvibazar, Bhola, Patuakhali, Noakhali, Lakshmipur, Chattogram, Tangail, and Sirajganj. Each district has one (one) Upazila. A total of 500 buffalo farmers (50 from each district) were questioned using a basic random sample methodology. The data was obtained between January and April 2016 and analysed using STATA software tools. The ‘Logit model’ was used with a binary dependent variable in this investigation. According to the study, the majority of farmers were between the ages of 31 and 45 and worked in the agriculture industry as their primary occupation. The majority of farmers had only a primary education and had more than 15 years of experience raising buffalo. The average farm size was found to be 1.05 hectares, with an average family size of 6.17 people. The entire cost of a lactation was projected to be BDT 24,507, with a lactation length of 255 days and an average daily milk production of 2 litres. The greatest milk production return was BDT 27,189, with a BCR of 1.31. (undiscounted). Approximately 64% of farmers had access to artificial insemination (AI), and 70% of farmers vaccinated their buffaloes, with 66 percent having FMD, 24% having BQ, and 20% having HS. Ninety-eight percent of farmers give colostrum to newborn buffalo calves, and nearly all of them conduct D-warming. The biggest buffalo population was recorded in Ramgoti and the lowest in Haluaghat, with an average of 18.91 buffalo per farm.

Author (s) Details

S. Islam
Socioeconomic Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka 1341, Bangladesh.

T. N. Nahar
Biotechnology Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka 1341, Bangladesh.

J. Begum
Socioeconomic Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka 1341, Bangladesh.

G. K. Deb
Biotechnology Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka 1341, Bangladesh.

M. Khatun
Socioeconomic Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka 1341, Bangladesh.

A. Mustafa
Buffalo Development Project, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka 1341, Bangladesh.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/IEAM-V11/article/view/1332

The Management of E-Waste in the Public Sector: The Case of Bahrain

This study was carried out by the researchers in order to assess the Bahrain Public Commission’s preparation for e-waste management. The Bahrain Public Commission is a government agency in charge of the Kingdom of Bahrain’s maritime and environmental preservation. Glass waste, paper waste, and electronics waste are all collected in distinct coloured boxes around Bahrain. In businesses, the same method is followed. The issue is that few people efficiently follow waste management procedures. This could be attributed to a lack of understanding, which has led to proposals for public awareness initiatives, training programmes, and awareness campaigns across the country. Waste Management in Developed Countries (Waste Management in Developed Countries) – Established countries have more efficient and conventional liquid waste management programmes, owing to their more developed industry and better technologies. The Kingdom of Bahrain’s e-waste management system is in its early stages of development, and it requires several steps toward the EMS in industrialised countries, as well as a firm foundation for legislative enforcement. It was suggested that the region develop an e-waste management system, a national framework for the management of e-waste, and start pilot plans on sorting and collection of electronic wastes, including take-back plans and plans for repair, recycling, and refurbishment, as well as provide a strong regulatory environment.

Author (s) Details

Marilou A. Maderazo
Higher College of Technology, Ras Al Khaima, United Arab Emirates.

Aaron Paul M. Pineda
Higher Colleges of Technology, Al Dhafra Campuses, United Arab Emirates.

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An Overview of Economic Crisis in Croatia: Causes and Its Consequences

This study examines the consequences of the inherited political system’s transformation, with a focus on how political parties and state institutions operate, as well as the detrimental impact of the political system’s transformation on the economy. When assessing the reasons of the crisis, it’s important to consider how Croatia differs from the majority of other post-communist countries. This is mostly due to the peculiarities of an inherited socialist system, as well as the circumstances under which the Croatian society’s political and economic revolution began. As the newly formed state strove to maintain its independence and territorial integrity, a process of successive transformations of the socio-political system based on a unique model of self-management of social ownership was carried out. These aspects, according to the author, are crucial to comprehending Croatia’s current economic and social crises, which is exacerbated by the current value system. This system, which dates back to the early 1990s, is a direct outcome of the war and a sloppy transition. The imposed value structure led civilization to disintegrate over time and constituted a barrier to further democratisation. A “distorted” set of ideals, rather than progressing democracy toward the rule of law and justice, paved the path for institutional corruption to flourish. According to the author, the basis of the problem is contradictions that happened during the transition from a one-party system to a democracy based on democratic pluralism and the rule of law. This democratic transition resulted in the formation of a political structure characterised by the domination of one dominant political party and a weak opposition during the last decade of the twentieth century. Another concern addressed by the author is the majority of newly created political parties’ organisational model, which is characterised by a rigid hierarchical structure, with a powerful leader in control of a tiny elitist group of people who produced the political agenda. The politocracy—an established model of political party rule that works in today’s conditions—was shown to be the most effective political change of the society. Also, throughout this period of economic transformation, the growth of plutocracy has paved the way for the practise of ruling in favour of citizens at the expense of the common good, in close partnership with politocracy. According to the author, the most significant requirement for Croatia to emerge from its economic crisis is a shift in its value system, and the prerequisite for this is the implementation of structural changes in all areas of society, most notably the political system reform.

Author (s) Details

Karmen Skube
State Administration, Karlovac, Croatia.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/IEAM-V11/article/view/1330

International Competition Enhance Capacity Utilisation: The Evidence from Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam

Using firm-level data from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, this research investigates the relationship between capacity utilisation and international market rivalry, exploring for the prospect of efficient businesses self-selecting rather than learning-by-exporting to enter foreign markets. Capacity utilisation has evolved as a justification for these fleeting productivity gains. According to both linear and quadratic models calculated on an uneven variance of exporting and non-exporting companies, the influence of foreign market rivalry on capacity utilisation follows a curvilinear relationship with a diminishing marginal point as a limitation for further expansion. The non-exporting group’s greater capacity utilisation rate not only demonstrates a strong domestic business orientation of enterprises in general, but it also suggests that exporter SMEs in these nations have chosen the learning-by-exporting entrance approach. The impact of firm and industry physiognomies on capacity utilisation is investigated further in the article, which discovers that wage productivity, competition, company size, and legal structure all have linearly positive and capacity-based effects. The findings continuously stress the relevance of abilities, competitiveness, and institutional performance in encouraging the development of SMEs.

Author (s) Details

Rita R. Pidani
Newcastle Business School, Faculty of Business and Law, The University of Newcastle, Singapore.

Amir Mahmood
Newcastle Business School, Faculty of Business and Law, The University of Newcastle, Singapore.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/IEAM-V11/article/view/1329

Promoting Public Participation in Environmental Protection and Flood Risk Management in Ho Chi Minh City – Vietnam

Flooding in cities is becoming a more serious problem. It has been a common occurrence in many towns and cities around the world in recent years. Flooding in Ho Chi Minh City’s metropolitan regions offers major issues, not only because it affects a huge number of people and properties, but also because it directly impedes the city’s economic progress. Despite a massive technological effort to upgrade the city’s drainage system, which is necessary by the city’s unprecedented growth as well as the issues of climate change and ground subsidence, flooding will continue. The human factor appears to be a significant influence in the flooding problem and flood-reduction initiatives. The focus of this study was on the issue of improper waste disposal, which causes drainage systems to become clogged. An interactive survey was done in roughly 820 households in flood-prone areas as part of a well-planned campaign. The poll focused on public waste disposal awareness and behaviour among flood-affected families. People who have a good awareness of the causes of floods and a sense of environmental conservation can help reduce floods. Community awareness, management, and sanctioning solutions, in addition to technological solutions, are required.

Author (s) Details

Pham Thi Anh
Institute for Environmental and Transport Studies, Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport, Vietnam.

Nguyen Thi Bao Ngoc
Institute for Environmental and Transport Studies, Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport, Vietnam.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/IEAM-V11/article/view/1328

Planning and Management of Nomadic Herders and Farmers Conflicts: A Panacea to Food Security Threat in Oke-Ogun Region of Oyo State

Food’s importance to human life qualifies it as a Sustainable Development Goal. Farmers in the Oke-Ogun district of Oyo state have been subjected to a series of attacks by nomadic herdsmen. This poses a threat to food security in the region, which is regarded as the state’s “food basket.” It is critical to examine the following factors in order to prevent and manage conflicts between nomadic herders and farmers: the region’s food supply; the level/nature of attacks; the steps taken to prevent or/and control the conflicts; and the impact of nomadic herders’ attacks on farmers and food security. To understand the reason of confrontations between the two parties, this study used the frustration-aggression theory. Primary and secondary data were used; primary data came from questionnaires, oral interviews, and observation; secondary data came from journals, textbooks, newspapers, and online organisational publications; and the sampling method was multi-staged random sampling. The majority (75.43 percent) of the food in this region was self-produced, according to the findings. Because of the fear of being assaulted, a substantial number of farmers (78.0 percent) can no longer farm away from the main towns and backyards of their communities. Animal tracks should be incorporated in rural land uses; zoning of distinct rural land uses; advocacy planning is also advocated; and barriers such as bamboo/other tree fences or digging ditches around farms should be encouraged, according to the chapter’s conclusion.

Author (s) Details

Kayode Kunle Oyediran
Department of Urban & Regional Planning, College of Environmental Studies, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin-Kebbi, Nigeria.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/IEAM-V11/article/view/1327

Investigating the Effects of Perceived Value and Trust on Customer Loyalty towards Foreign Banks in Sabah, Malaysia

Malaysia’s banking system has been liberalised, attracting a number of foreign banks to create branches in the nation, placing the local banking industry under pressure. Foreign banks including as Standard Chartered, HSBC, OCBC, and Bangkok Bank have been operating in the country for decades, despite severe limitations. In this highly competitive scene, newer banks such as Al-Rajhi Bank and Kuwait Finance House have entered. In Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, this study looked at the characteristics that influence client loyalty in foreign banks. Previous study has demonstrated that customer loyalty is a key factor in determining a bank’s competitive advantage. In this study, researchers looked at customer loyalty to foreign banks in Malaysia and saw if characteristics like perceived value and trust influenced loyalty. 239 foreign bank clients in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, completed a self-administered survey questionnaire to provide the data. According to the data, customer loyalty is above average, with a mean of 4.86 (on a seven-point Likert scale), and perceived value and confidence both have positive and significant impact on customer loyalty. The study’s implications are examined, as well as suggestions for future research.

Author (s) Details

Haslinda Hasan
Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

Teo Poh Kiong
Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

Raja Azimah Ainuddin
Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/IEAM-V11/article/view/1326

E-Banking System Benefits and Issues

E-banking has become a critical component of the banking industry’s future growth. Electronic banking, often known as online banking, is a service offered by many banks that allows customers to conduct all types of banking transactions over the internet, largely through the use of information technology and communication. E-banking is particularly important in many industrialised countries because it is the most cost-effective way of providing banking services. It also made it easier to shift money around the country and across borders. It is a borderless entity that allows consumers to bank whenever, wherever, and however they want. E-banking is one of the most successful on-line enterprises, saving customers and businesses time and money. It can be accessed from any computer, PDA, or mobile device with an internet connection. It also allows customers to make financial transactions through the institution’s website, such as a virtual bank, a retail bank, or a credit union. Despite the many advantages of E-Banking, there are a few elements that influence its use. This research paper will provide an overview of e-banking, including its definition, functions, types, benefits, and drawbacks. In a nutshell, e-banking is banking that can be done at any time and from any location.

Author (s) Details

Hajera Fatima Khan
Accounting Department, College of Business Administration, University of Hail, Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/IEAM-V11/article/view/1325

An Exploration of Factors that Discourage South African University Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention

In South Africa, unemployment is a well-documented socioeconomic issue. This problem is exacerbated among the country’s youth. Most young people attend postsecondary institutions in the hopes of finding work, only to be confronted with the harsh realities of high youth unemployment once their degrees are completed. This leaves grads with two options: start a business or remain unemployed while looking for work. This socioeconomic dilemma is not exclusive to South Africa; it affects a large number of emerging countries. As a result, experts have begun to investigate what factors may be deterring young people from starting their own businesses as a means of combating high unemployment rates. Despite the fact that entrepreneurship is widely regarded as a springboard for youth economic engagement, they face numerous roadblocks on their entrepreneurial journey.

The current study’s goal was to find out what variables hinder young people from starting businesses at a South African institution. The study used a quantitative research technique, with data collected from 247 individuals via structured questionnaires and analysed using factor analysis. After analysis, it was discovered that a lack of business management skills, risk and economic difficulties, financial challenges, a lack of a support system, an uncertain future and difficulty in finding partners, bureaucracy and crime, as well as a lack of relevant information were the factors deterring prospective young entrepreneurs from engaging in entrepreneurial activities at this university.

Author (s) Details

Veritas Kiyven Nsahlai
Durban University of Technology, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Luther-King Junior Zogli
Durban University of Technology, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Emmanuel Lawa
Durban University of Technology, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Bongani Innocent Dlamini
Durban University of Technology, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/IEAM-V11/article/view/1324

A Detailed Study on Heritage Tourism in South Tamil Nadu, India

Heritage tourism is providing travellers with the opportunity to learn about and enjoy the uniqueness of natural and cultural aspects. Heritage tourism is a relatively new phenomena in the field of cultural tourism, although its roots may be traced all the way back to the dawn of human history. Heritage tourism destinations are notable for their cultural heritage, environment, accessibility, and facilities. There is a significant gap in the demographics of domestic tourists and the features of historic tourism destinations. Domestic tourists’ intentions to return are influenced by cultural heritage, traditional values, nature and environment, and facilities. Heritage tourism destinations should organise cultural events and provide traditional hospitality to increase the likelihood of domestic tourists returning. Furthermore, places must be well-maintained and provide leisure opportunities.

Author (s) Details

Rehmath Jahan
College of Business Administration for Girls, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/IEAM-V11/article/view/1323