The Serendipitous Practice of Neoclassical Economics-Modern Neoclassical Technologies

This book discusses the theory and practise of Multidimensional Osmosis as a cure for a number of social diseases. Through in-depth econometric studies of « Gospel » concepts, I discover that the greatest scientific model that the human mind has ever conceived has thus been applied for the first time in its smallest specifics and far beyond by the Church of JESUS CHRIST of latter-day Saints from its own writings only, without any reference to the works of the founders of the Classical or Neoclassical schools. This experience has taught me many things:

Despite what economists have always claimed, the classical model can be applied in the real world.

The two schools are right, and they combine to form a single, unique school. The one observes the other. The classical paradigm is inherently empirical, and it provides scientific evidence to the Church of JESUS CHRIST of Latter-day Saints’ truthfulness. As a result, there are two potential interpreters or witnesses to the Truth: science and divine revelation.

Any model that differs from the classical model is a scientific apostasy (irrational) that leads to abnormal and suboptimal outcomes, which is the root of all social diseases.

Optimality can be achieved not only mathematically but also in the real world, and since there is only one optimality condition, there is only one multidimensional school, only one Multidimensional Church, that is, a school or Church whose decisions and behaviours are completely revealed, allowing for equilibrium (isotonic state or the real state of all things) in the sense of Pareto.

The present unidimensional school’s mixture of tares and Reality is and has always been the secret to the world’s rout, and is ultimately of diabolical nature, the enemy of all Justice; an equilibrium in the sense of Pareto is a state of the economy in which the welfare of one economic agent cannot be strengthened without degrading the welfare of another economic agent.

The progress of one school (Church) determines the wealth of the other. Because of this, every true scientist is a saint, and every saint is a scientist, these organisations act as social disease care.

The lessons to be learned from this study are practically endless, and they represent a landmark moment for the universe, science, and religions, because no one will be able to rely on pointless scientific and religious debates to escape submitting to Reality in the future, and the facts will become increasingly plentiful, giving God complete authority to judge the world harshly because no one can tell God what to do.

On the one side, we cannot enjoy the advantages of the true Church or science (electricity, automobiles, planes, boats, medicine, etc.) while maintaining that there is no God. A true Church or science that uses various methods to prove the presence of God and speaks in one voice is a wake-up call to the earth’s giant darkness or the end in the ostrich game of a decadent planet.

In caution the authorities against the severe implications that will arise from implementing the PRSP in its current form, in addition to case studies of unidimensional creations (European imperialism, slavery, public policies) and/or an in-depth study of the PRSP. I also present a method and a device for designing and implementing a National Multidimensional Creation Program (PNCM), which is Africa’s only real weapon against poverty.

Is it the devil’s school or the secular school

If divine truths are expressed by tunnel-shaped locks, the devil’s school takes a transverse approach to them rather than manipulating them longitudinally or entirely, resulting in even relative truths where absolute truths are needed. For example, an entrepreneur who is only concerned with the profitability of his investment will adjust his production in response to effective demand, violating two welfare economics theorems: 1) “the equilibrium on a set of perfectly competitive markets is efficient in the sense of Pareto,” and 2) “the equilibrium on a set of perfectly competitive markets is efficient in the sense of Pareto.” If all economic agents have convex preferences, there is always a set of prices such that any efficient allocation in the sense of Pareto is a market equilibrium for adequate initial endowments, which is powerful in revealing the nature of God’s invisible hand and his infinite multidimensional creation, as well as the importance of human virtues such as honesty, charity, gratitude, and multidimensionality. In this case, the entrepreneur’s justice is no more than that of a lion pursuing its prey merely because it is hungry. Since China has a population of over a billion four hundred million people to feed, it will claim democracy first, moral principles second; or because the African continent has 60% of the world’s soil and subsoil wealth, Europe will be unable to manage its predatory instincts; or because Africans are powerful and docile, they are an enormous advantage for American farm profits. How can students know that Keynesianism or Communism is false, etc., without the Holy Spirit and revelation?

School of God or Normative School

The school is as sacred as the Church since knowledge is sacred. The school and the Church were not different at first. “Now everlasting life is that they know you, the one true God, and whom you sent Jesus Christ,” John 17:3 says. However, the dignity of justice is inextricably connected to information. To separate faith or God from knowledge or school is to murder life.

Consider what King Solomon says in Proverb 8 about intelligence. Isn’t it true that wisdom screams? Isn’t it true that knowledge speaks up? It is at the top of the ridges near the lane, at the crossroads, that it establishes itself…. Listen up, because I have a lot to tell, and my mouth is about to open to teach you the truth. Since my lips hate lies and my mouth proclaims the reality. Any word that comes out of my mouth is right. They are all clear to the wise and upright to those who have discovered knowledge; there is nothing wrong or devious about them.

My directions are better than silver, and science is better than the most expensive gold; wisdom is better than pearls. I, wisdom, have discernment as my abode and possess the science of reflection; the fear of the Lord is hatred of evil; arrogance and pride, the evil way, the perverse mouth, that’s what I despise; advice and success are mine; I am the intelligence and the strength; kings reign and princes decree what is right; through me govern.

This verse, as well as the rest of the Bible, lays out what should be taught in schools and universities, and there is nothing more important than knowledge or wisdom.

“Every moving creature will live wherever the river flows, and there will be a large number of fish; for where this water comes, the waters will become clean, and all will live wherever the torrent reaches,” Ezekiel 47:9. What kind of water is Ezekiel referring to? whoever drinks of this water will thirst again; but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst, and the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water that will spring up into eternal life; Jn 4: 6-15.

However, the apostle James already shared more about the learning process in verse 2. “My brethren, consider the numerous trials to which you may be subjected as a source of utter joy, recognising that the test of your faith produces patience, but patience must do its work completely in order for you to be perfect and fulfilled, without lacking something,” he said.

It is difficult to receive the Holy Spirit without faith. The Holy Spirit will now teach you all, according to John 14:26.

Our model’s key finding is that a greater willingness to absorb “Gospel” and “Love” leads to a greater use of “Priesthood authority” and an increase in the level of its technology, which in turn leads to a greater use of “Priesthood authority” and yield per successful priesthood holder to decide a high level of power in the priesthood in the long run. The development of “Gospel” and “Love” will have to continue forever, making the millennium unlikely to arrive. The millennium is made possible by decreasing returns on authority, keys, and control in the priesthood as a feature of technological production, whose claims are set by preordination or predestination before the world’s foundation.

The presence of the West, the F.M.I., and the World Bank in Africa resembles a squaring of the circle. On the one hand, colonialism seems to have turned the entire continent into a wreck by diverting it, like a river, from its natural cultural bed, where all public efforts will fail, and on the other hand, the recovery of ancient Egypt appears to be at odds with the objective of poverty reduction. Poverty reduction strategies, not just in terms of increased government spending or crowding out social investments in favour of more productive investments, raise deficits and drive national economies away from full employment almost forever.

In reality, all studies show that structural adjustment policies (PAS, PASR, FASR, or PRSP) fail to restore the main equilibrium (isotonic state or real state of all things) in question, exacerbate poverty on the one hand, and slow economic growth in Africa due to the shock of liberalism and global economic interdependencies on the other.

The book demonstrates that only the Multidimensional School, the Multidimensional Church, and even the Neoclassical School can restore the basic conditions for optimal creation by multidimensional creation. The PNCM is a promising new model focused on micro-project selection and replication as well as multidimensional development projects.

In any case, the IMF had made its official position clear by announcing the seven criteria that will be used to validate the PRSPs and distinguish them from the 1980s’ Structural Adjustment Policies (SAP). Participatory strategy and national ownership of the PRSP; PRGFs focused on PRSPs; fiscal target flexibility; pro-poor and pro-creation budgets; simplified conditionality; and PRS impact analyses on poverty are some of them. If one of these conditions, especially the first three, is not met, the PRSP would simply be a P.A.S whose shortcomings are still fresh in the minds of the public. Only endogenous processes resulting from beneficiary recognition can cause lasting quantitative and qualitative improvements, as opposed to the fundamental requirement that the PRSP come from the country’s driving forces. The lack of a precise cultural and strategic context, as well as the absence of the short term, which should be the top priority considering its possible effect on the poorest communities, is the major weakness of unidimensional creations. The origins of African nations’ resources are therefore authentic and endogenous tactics, with foreign assistance serving as a complement. The multidimensional creation approach and device presented here allow for a complete revision and fair repair of the unidimensional creations of colonialism, slavery, and public policies in order to return the African continent to its cultural bed for its endogenous and authentic growth.

CREATION Of MORE THAN ONE DIMENSION

In summary, a National Multidimensional Creation Program is a structured and complex collection of processes that work together to achieve society’s economic, social, and environmental goals through engagement, study, dialogue, capacity building, creation, and investment. The PNCM starts with a diagnostic study that evaluates the multidimensional development issue, establishes the condition, and establishes priorities. The Program is formulated after agreement on the PNCM’s vision and priority goals has been achieved. The PNCM aims to establish effective management structures in the regions of various countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with the goal of developing multidimensional creation microprojects (appropriate, financially autonomous, profitable from a multidimensional creation standpoint, multidimensional and reproducible) through an exchange of experiences and mobilisation of local resources.

Project partners who follow the approach are usually the ones who fund such a project. The UNDP, as a supporter of the multidimensional development strategy, is a main collaborator in all of the countries where the Program operates. If the diagnostic analysis favours the PNCM and a significant number of development partners sign a framework agreement between the government and the UN system’s coordination, the UNDP-government cooperation agreement (the CPPAP) should be based on the Program and its implementation.

This has never happened before in the world. The most complete framework for realising the liberal model organised by an animation structure appears to be multidimensional formation. Reproduction of multidimensional creation-type micro-projects achieves in record time what the populations themselves would have entailed in PNCM in the long run, assuming they had the requisite knowledge, capacity, and understanding. There are no stakes higher than what multidimensional development seeks to achieve: sustainable multidimensional creation would address poverty in the most concrete and long-term way possible. This approach comes from the people themselves, and it seeks to help them grow their own ingenuity so that they can become self-sufficient.

True, multidimensional formation cannot solve all of a country’s development problems in all directions, but it can be used in conjunction with other ongoing processes at the local, regional, national, and international levels, especially in the medium term. This is the case for the development of economic and social infrastructure, for example. Then other logics, decision-making procedures, funding and execution modalities, and structures come into play.

But what kind of connections can we make between PRSP and multidimensional creation?

PNCM AND PRSP

Since multidimensional development is such a valuable tool in the fight against poverty and achieving the SDGs in general, it’s vital that the two strategies work together to create effective bridges. The benefits of multidimensional development are universally accepted and have no flaws. It’s a short- to medium-term initiative that has immediate, meaningful, and long-term poverty reduction impacts. As a result, the government must first validate and implement multidimensional formation. Then, a seminar should be held to create a proper articulation between multidimensional development and the PRSP. Following this process, an institutional structure for multidimensional development will be created. In any case, one of the strategies must deepen to include the other, and the validation seminar will decide the best institutional structure for implementing the two strategies, which are meant to complement and enrich each other. Some African countries have been LICUS countries since 2004, with the most visible manifestation being the launch of the Emergency Poverty Reduction Program (PURP). It is past time to review this programme and view it as a new paradigm for accepting multidimensional development.

Author(s) Details

Kcodgoh L. Edgeweblime
Department of Economics, Michael Archangel Institute of Technology – American Institute of Africa, Immeuble Lavandier, 329, Av. de la Chance, Togo.

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The Impact of Consumer Purchase Behaviour toward Risk Perception on Internet Shopping

Nowadays, online shopping is a common practise because customers feel comfortable purchasing things from their home or workplace. When the peak season comes, one of the key reasons for the excitement of customer shopping is that they do not have to wait in long lines at the physical store to purchase goods and services because customers can buy products directly from online facilities. Past scholars have defined what customers consider to be risks with the advent of technology, which is their key concern in the decision-making process when shopping through internet shopping as well as in online shopping. Purchasing actions in Malaysia for purchasing goods and services. There were a total of 138 valid responses collected from the survey. Convenience sampling methods in this study have been modified for young consumers. Instruments for data collection are questionnaires that use delivery methods that are self-administered. To analyse the results, the Structural Equation Model Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) version 3.0 was used. The Partial Least Square results have confirmed the model’s fitness in the studied population. Similarly, path analysis results showed that the expectations of practical risk by customers have impacted their internet shopping intentions in the purchase of goods and services.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Shah Iskandar Fahmie Ramlee
Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

Nik Alif Amri Nik Hashim
Faculty of Hospitality, Tourism and Wellness, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

Zaimatul Awang
Faculty of Hospitality, Tourism and Wellness, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

Fadhilahanim Aryani Abdullah
Faculty of Hospitality, Tourism and Wellness, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia

Siti Rohana Mohamad
Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

Siti Afiqah Zainuddin
Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

Dr. Tahirah Abdullah
Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia.

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Cropping Pattern in Karimnagar District of Telangana – An Economic Analysis

The cropping pattern is a complicated idea because it varies over time and space. It can be defined as the percentage of area under multiple crops at a time point. It also shows in a specific land area the time and spatial arrangement or series of crops and/or fallows. The evaluation of the shift in cropping patterns in several regions is crucial in order to provide a better understanding of the method of agricultural production. This research was carried out to look at the dynamics of cropping trends in the Telangana district of Karimnagar. The requisite information was obtained from the Economics and Statistics Directorate of the Government of Telangana from 1966-67 to 2016-17. And with the aid of the Markov chain, it was analysed by a wise decade and analysed for five cycles during the last decade. The key findings of the study showed that every group of crops did not maintain its area in Karimnagar, but over the quantity, the acreage of the crops continuously changed from one set of crops to another set. The area of cereals was found to be more stable, while the loss of area from cereals to commercial crops such as cotton and turmeric etc. suggested that the region’s cropping pattern is heading towards diversification in the northern zone of Telangana. Within the variety of crops, there is a broader scope for deciding to place agriculture on the pedestal of Sustainable development, which has to be considered in analytical and extension programmes.

Author (s) Details

D. A. Rajini Devi
RARS, PJTSAU, Jagtial, 505327, Telangana, India.

R. Uma Reddy
RARS, PJTSAU, Jagtial, 505327, Telangana, India.

B. Madavi
RARS, PJTSAU, Jagtial, 505327, Telangana, India.

P. Ravi
RARS, PJTSAU, Jagtial, 505327, Telangana, India.

P. Sadvi
RARS, PJTSAU, Jagtial, 505327, Telangana, India.

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A Critical Empirical Analysis of Causal Linkage between Agricultural Output and Real GDP: Evidence from Nigeria

The agricultural sector is pivotal in alleviating poverty, generating employment and providing food. In agriculture, the lingering search for global growth and development could be fulfilled or forfeited. The performance of the sector in recent times leaves much to be desired as its share of aggregate production fluctuated as output grew. Using annualised time series data spanning 1981 to 2018, this study empirically examined the causal relation between the production of the agricultural sector and economic growth in Nigeria. The Granger causality test, vector autoregression, and impulse response and variance decomposition econometric tools have been used to analyse data. The empirical findings suggest that farming In a unidirectional manner, sector production. At the same time, a study of the impulse response suggested that economic growth does not respond quickly to agricultural innovations. The results of our study did not support the Kuznets theorised predictions of agriculture-led development (1968). The policy implications of such research will be profound, especially in the current state of the economy, where resource allocation needs to be optimised for sectors which have the potential to drive growth in other sectors.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Ikechukwu Kelikume
Lagos Business School, K.M 22 Lekki-Aja Expressway, Lagos Island, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Stanley Emife Nwani
Depatment of Economics, School of Management and Social Sciences, Pan-Atlantic University, Nigeria.

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Study on Time Series Modeling and Forecasting Inflation: Evidence from Nigeria

Effective prediction of general price level trends has been a major concern of entrepreneurs and monetary authorities in Nigeria over the past decades. The results allow monetary authorities to prepare effectively and the profit drive on the part of entrepreneurs and investors continues. This research uses a univariate model developed by Box and Jenkins in the form of the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model and a multivariate time series model to forecast inflation for Nigeria in the form of the Vector Autoregressive model. Changes in the monthly use of this paper For the period 2003 to 2012, the consumer price index collected from the National Bureau of Statistics and the Central Bank of Nigeria forecast movements in the general price level. The best forecasting model for predicting inflation in Nigeria is defined on the basis of various diagnostic and evaluation parameters. The results would enable policymakers and businesses to monitor the output and stability of key macroeconomic indicators using the inflation forecast. For the month of 2012:10, the study expected core inflation using VAR to be 11.06 percent. A major drawback of this study is that the VAR method and the ARIMA method based on two major forecasting methods and ignored the use of neural network analysis. Furthermore, as an indicator of inflation, only core inflation was used. Subsequent inflation forecasting studies in Nigeria should aim to predict inflation through a broader variety of inflation steps.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Ikechukwu Kelikume
Lagos Business School, K.M 22 Lekki-Aja Expressway, Lagos Island, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Adedoyin Salami
Lagos Business School, K.M 22 Lekki-Aja Expressway, Lagos Island, Lagos State, Nigeria.

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Emphasizing the Exchange Rate Volatility and Firm Performance in Nigeria: A Dynamic Panel Regression Approach

In management science, firm success has played a central role. By analysing cross-sectional data for the most successful 20 companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange, this study examined the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on the company’s results in Nigeria. The study developed three dynamic panel models that account for company heterogeneity and expanded recent research by enabling foreign investors and companies to base their investment decisions on the volatility of exchange rates between the Nigerian Naira and their currencies in their home countries. The tool used in the analysis is the dynamic panel data approach that applies the dynamic panel Arrelano-Bond-data Generalized system of moments (GMM) estimators for data and Arellano-Bover. The rate of return on assets (RRA), asset turnover ratio (ATR), and portfolio operation & resilience (PAR) variable are the variables used in the study to proxy firm efficiency. While RRA is obtained by simply dividing the company’s income by the company’s total assets, ATR and PAR variables are obtained by dividing the company’s sales revenue by the industry’s assets and dividing the percentage change in sales by the percentage change in the GDP of the gross domestic product. The volatility vector of the exchange rate is simply obtained by taking the square of the average modified relative change in The official rate of trade. The result of the estimation for the paned data There is no major difference between the dynamic panel approach of Arrelano-Bond and the generalised system of moments (GMM) estimators of Arellano-Bover. The outcome of the three estimates showed that the volatility of the exchange rate had a major negative impact on the rate of return on assets, the asset turn ratio and the operation & resilience of the portfolio, thus showing that the volatility of the exchange rate had a significant negative effect on the performance of the business in Nigeria between 2004 and 2013. For investors and financial market participants, some policy implications may be taken from this study. Since all businesses are not uniformly prone to volatility in exchange rates, danger Possibilities for diversification  across sectors are recommended.  Overall, the study indicates that the higher the volatility of the exchange rate in an economy,
the less efficient the economy would be for companies and, therefore, the lower the operating
output of companies.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Ikechukwu Kelikume
Lagos Business School, K.M 22 Lekki-Aja Expressway, Lagos Island, Lagos State, Nigeria.

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An Estimation and Assessment of Inflation Threshold for Nigeria 1970-2008

The debate among scholars on inflation and economic growth has taken a long way in the empirical literature, with the issues coming to life in the twenty-first century following the growing movement of monetary authorities to perfect inflation targeting in developed and emerging economies. This paper uses the threshold model developed by Khan and Senhadji (2001) to estimate inflation threshold levels for Nigeria, motivated by the trend of most developing countries and emerging countries towards inflation targeting and the concern that high inflation levels are detrimental to economic growth. The research utilises data from annual time series distributed over two periods between 1970-2008 and 1980- 2008 to assess the inflation threshold for Nigeria and to determine if the threshold amount has substantially changed over the two years. In the sample period 1970-2008, we defined an inflation threshold of 8 percent for Nigeria using a nonlinear inflation-growth model control variable such as growth in the ratio of large money supply to GDP (GLM2/GDP) and growth in terms of trade (GLTOT). We expect an inflation threshold of 7 percent for the period 1980-2008, even if the significance test fails. This result is important for the formulation of monetary policy, given that, over the past decades, the Central Bank of Nigeria has been targeting single-digit inflation without necessarily targeting the optimum point at which inflation becomes unfriendly to growth.

Author (s) Details

Doyin Salami
Lagos Business School, K.M 22 Lekki-Aja Expressway, Lagos Island, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Dr. Ikechukwu Kelikume
Lagos Business School, K.M 22 Lekki-Aja Expressway, Lagos Island, Lagos State, Nigeria.

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Reporting a Case of an Innovative Marketing Model Based on AIDA from E-bank Campus-marketing by China Construction Bank

In mature marketing, the general understanding of AIDA is that most businesses will specifically concentrate on the value proposition of a product or service and enable consumers to go to each level of AIDA layers, eventually to increase the total number of final steps, i.e. to increase the number of real purchase acts. To some extent, however, the usefulness of such a simple model tends to be extremely inadequate. In considering the marketing features of Chinese universities and ebank service features offered by China Construction Bank, this paper has implemented a new marketing model based on AIDA theory that introduces a new value proposition (new value proposition seeks to concentrate on new value proposition Innovation in realistic teaching and development of job skills) to speed up AIDA’s marketing activities in the university market, and to extend its scale of impact in the university market through social network transmission, value recognition and action identification. The effect of AIDA as the starting value proposition (the convenience of individual bank services) further helps to expand AIDA in wider consumer segments. Ideally, AIDA will become a franchise community. The finding of this paper illustrates a new model of dramatically improved marketing performance of China Construction Bank e-bank services on the university market, and also develops a new perspective on marketing of e-bank services. Undertakings. Huge success was achieved with the implementation of this model. According to our preliminary figures, the number of participants in three consecutive year events is growing, involving about 200,000 students, and about 150,000 have become direct e-bank customers at the CCB. There are more than 30 million people affected, either college students or internet users.

Author (s) Details

Li Jiangyu
Business School, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Yu Haibo
Beijing Rep Office, Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada, Beijing, China.

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Investigating If Inflation is always and Everywhere a Monetary Phenomenon? The Case of Nigeria

This research modified our earlier version of an empirical investigation of the validity of the claim of monetarists that inflation is a monetary phenomenon always and everywhere. In our previous 2013 publication, we used the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) modelling to analyse quarterly time series data from 1970 to 2011, concluding that inflation was a monetary phenomenon not always and everywhere. However, the ARDL results in both the short-run and long-run show that the growth of large money supply is the most important variable that amplifies the general price level after the resizing of data to cover 59 years between 1961 and 2019. We have been led by this finding to Relax our little ones  An earlier stance that rejected the view of inflation-money supply relationships of the monetarists. Our Fresh Results  It has contributed to the fact that inflation is a monetary phenomenon at all times and everywhere. We, therefore,  Slow growth in the big supply of money as a strategic monetary policy panacea to the threat  Of Nigeria’s inflation.

Author (s) Details

Salami Doyin
Lagos Business School, K.M 22 Lekki-Aja Expressway, Lagos Island, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Kelikume Ikechukwu
Lagos Business School, K.M 22 Lekki-Aja Expressway, Lagos Island, Lagos State, Nigeria.

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Optimal Inventory Policy and Optimal Price Discount on Backorders under Ramp Type Demand Environment

The demand rate is believed to be constant in classical inventory models. In fact, in the inventory system, time plays an important role. In the case of the demand rate of the ramp form, the demand rises to a certain limit over time and then gradually stabilises and becomes constant. In this paper, an inventory model is studied with the demand rate of the ramp form, where holding costs are expressed as a time function that increases linearly. The research involves certain characteristics that are likely to be correlated with certain forms of merchandise, such as seasonal fruit and vegetable inventory, newly introduced fashion pieces, electronic devices, etc. The inventory manager proposes a price if the stock on hand is zero. Discount for clients who are prepared to backorder their demand. The optimal ordering procedure and ordering policy  The optimal discount offered for each backorder is calculated by decreasing the total price in a backorder  Interval of replenishment. It is observed through numerical analysis that it is for low backorder costs,  The warehouse manager will benefit from giving customers a high backorder discount.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Sujan Chandra
Department of Statistics, Bethune College, Kolkata, India.

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