The online presence of Low German, a minority language spoken in northern Germany, as well as several other European regional and minority languages, is investigated in this paper. This article, in particular, presents the findings of a study that looked into how well or poorly these languages are represented in the popular online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The article contends that minorities and regional languages are not only underrepresented online for a variety of historical, linguistic, sociological, and demographic reasons, but that the overall architecture of the World Wide Web and its most visited websites is such that smaller languages have little chance of establishing a meaningful online presence.
Author (s) Details
Wake Forest University, North Carolina, United States.
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Interaction, particularly dialogic interaction in EMI classes, is regarded as critical for understanding the content and developing language skills. Although the value of dialogic interaction is widely recognized, studies focusing on interaction in tertiary level EMI classes are uncommon in Sri Lanka, and even more so in Asia. Furthermore, there is no mechanism in place to identify lecture delivery in terms of interactivity in EMI classrooms that are contextually focused on Asian EMI classes, where most lecture deliveries are assumed to be monologic. As a result, the purpose of this research is to create a framework for identifying dialogic interaction in English-medium science lectures in a small faculty at a Sri Lankan university. English-medium instruction was introduced in Sri Lanka, as in other countries where English is used as a second language, with the goal of developing students’ language proficiency through content delivery. It is claimed that, among other things, the lecture delivery style influences students’ language development in English-medium classes. This study creates a framework by analyzing the lectures delivered at the faculty in a way that is contextually appropriate for the lecture delivery style in Asian countries. The data was gathered from transcribed recordings of 12 hours of lectures given by four lecturers. The interactional episodes in the lectures served as the foundation for creating the analytical framework. This framework, which contextually refines and extends the MICASE corpus interactivity rating, was specifically designed to categorize lecture discourse along a monologic-interactive/dialogic continuum. This study also suggests how this framework could be used to analyze lecture delivery from the perspective of a practitioner. Within the scope of this study, it is explained how this framework was designed with interactional episodes in mind. It is hoped that the proposed framework will make a tangible contribution to higher education teaching and learning, particularly to the concept of developing language through dialogic lecture delivery at the tertiary level. Content classes for ESL
Author (S) Details
A. M. M. Navaz
Department of English Language Teaching, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka, Oluvil, Sri Lanka.
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Translation is a difficult and fascinating task. Idioms are language’s crystallization. Idiom translation is a difficult task because language and cultural differences mean that not all English idioms have equivalents in Chinese idioms. According to research, the six translation tactics for translating English idioms into Chinese are literal translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, compensating translation, and integrated approach. It is believed that the translator’s cultural awareness and creativity determine a reasonable choice and the quality of interpretation. This paper aims to propose the integrated translation approach, one indispensable and essential tactic to Chinese translation of English idioms from a cultural perspective based on Nida’s dynamic equivalence, in the hope of shedding some light on future research in this field.
Author (s) Details
Dr. Linli Chen
School of Cultural Tourism and International Exchange, Yunnan Open University, 113 Xuefu Road, Kunming 650223, China.
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The purpose of this study was to discover methods for encouraging collaboration between the industry and the physical education academy. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants from the business and academic worlds. The Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Communications (MCTIC) Innovation Portal and the representativeness of Brazil’s GDP were used to select the research subjects, with preference given to enterprises ranked among the top fifty in terms of value. The analysis of the interviews revealed four significant categories: mandatory society, addictive state, decontextualized formation, and synergy. The most important strategy, according to respondents, is to listen to the people and combine the efforts of all institutions to deliver what society expects. In practice, however, there is a more traditional behavior. This behavior reflects a mindset that disregards societal expectations in favor of a tactical rather than strategic approach.
Author (s) Details
Charles Figueiredo Motta
Department of Physical Activity Sciences, Salgado de Oliveira University, Brazil.
Carlos Alberto Figueiredo da Silva
Department of Physical Activity Sciences, Salgado de Oliveira University, Brazil and Augusto Motta University Center, Brazil.
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The Hansard proceedings record and transcribe spoken political discourse in the UK Houses of Parliament. This transcription and representation method captures the oral debates on Prime Minister’s questions during the weekly parliamentary sessions. This paper examines three areas of representation to determine how accurately spoken discourse is recorded. These areas are: lexical and grammatical fidelity, performance characteristics, and audience interruptions. The paper also considers how House speakers quote from Hansard and how close these quotes are to the originals. The findings indicate that Hansard is a fairly robust method for However, modern transcription and digital methods could be used to supplement the system’s representation of spoken political discourse. We contend that a more representational system based on a multitool approach should be used.
Author (s) Details
Dr. V. Michael Cribb
School of Humanities, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Coventry University, United Kingdom.
Library and Writing Services, CU Coventry, United Kingdom.
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Teachers’ job satisfaction and creativity in the teaching process are critical to the global growth of educational systems. Workplace satisfaction and creativity are critical in the lives of teachers because they are the driving forces behind the vitalization of the teaching and learning environment. The purpose of this study was to look into the effect of job satisfaction on teachers’ creativity in using secondary materials among EFL teachers in English institutes. To that end, 50 EFL teachers from Rasht’s “Adib,” “Alborz,” and “Rouyesh No” English Institutes were chosen. They were chosen based on their work experience and availability. Their English teaching experience ranged from five to twenty years. They ranged in age from 20 to 50 years. They were asked to complete a questionnaire created by the researchers. It was a questionnaire with 20 items divided into two parts. The first section of the questionnaire inquired about teachers’ job satisfaction, while the second section inquired about their creative use of secondary materials in the classroom. The findings suggested that teachers have different perspectives on job satisfaction, and teachers who are satisfied with their jobs are more creative in their use of supplementary materials. Furthermore, job satisfaction fosters creativity in the use of material in EFL classrooms. Furthermore, if teachers are happy with their jobs, they will develop and maintain a high level of performance, making the learning process more efficient and effective.
Author (s) Details
Department of English Language Teaching, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran.
Dr. Majid Pourmohammadi
Department of English Language, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.
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Every society is heavily reliant on its culture. Cultural groups have different ways of thinking, feeling, and acting. In terms of culture, Europeans have always considered themselves to be superior to others. They’ve used their self-proclaimed cultural superiority to oppress people from other cultures. Because of their culture and race, Native Americans have been exploited and marginalized by colonial powers. European invaders used a variety of discursive channels to disseminate false information and preconceived notions about Indians and their culture. Their covert political goal was to make indigenous people feel inadequate about their own culture and way of life, so they would adapt to European customs and accept colonial rule as a benevolent civilizing gesture. Native writers are increasingly attempting to reclaim their culture, reestablish its role in society, and deconstruct European-imposed misconceptions. They chose literature as a weapon against the invaders because they understand the power of writing to influence people. Leslie Marmon Silko is one such Native American woman writer who uses the influence of various literary genres such as novel and poetry to uphold Native Americans’ voices and deconstruct the false notions created by white settlers about native culture and society. In her novel Gardens in the Dunes, Silko attempts to resist the various colonial discursive agents who seek to exploit and oppress Native Americans culturally, politically, and economically. Discourses played a significant role in the spread of such negative stereotypes about Native American culture and traditions.
Author (s) Details
Dr. U. Parvathy
Department of English, T. K. Madhava Memorial College, Nangiarkulangara, Alappuzha, Kerala, India.
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The purpose of this research is to highlight the evaluative strategies associated with Biblical modes of speech and thought presentation. An eclectic pragma-stylistic analysis model is developed to test the validity of the hypotheses that the narrator almost always internally and/or externally evaluates the targeted modes of discourse, and that the reportive modes of speech and thought are evaluative in comparison to the quotative modes. The study concluded that different modes of speech and thought are used to construct narrative genres. These modes combine to form two types of interconnected discourse: quotative and reportive. Direct speech, free direct speech, direct thought, and free direct thought are the four modes that contribute to the occurrence of quotative discourse. When one of the reportive modes, such as indirect speech, free indirect speech, narrative report of speech act, narrator’s representation of voice, indirect thought, free indirect thought, narrative report of thought act, and internal narration, is used, reportive discourse occurs. The quotative and reportive modes are frequently evaluated by the Biblical narrator when used in the targeted Biblical discourse. This type of evaluation involves additional meanings and influences the reader’s interpretation of the represented speeches or thoughts. In comparison to quotative modes, Biblical reportive modes are frequently evaluative. Internal, external, and interactional evaluative strategies of the Biblical narrator all contribute to the occurrence of Biblical evaluative discourse of speech and thought presentation. It has been determined that different modes of speech and thought are used in the construction of narrative genres.
Author (S) Details
Prof. Dr. Riyadh T. K. Al-Ameedi
College of Education for Human Science, University of Babylon, Iraq.
Dr. Sadiq M. K. Al Shamiri
College of Education for Human Science, University of Babylon, Iraq
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Bilingualism has become mandatory as a result of international travel, mass media, immigration, and the global economy. Baker  contends that bilinguals exist in all countries, social classes, and age groups. Bilingualism can make learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) more difficult. Indonesia. The study looked into students’ perspectives on bilingual English teaching materials for educational technology. The students’ experience will be used to improve the future education program. The findings indicate that most students had a strong outlook on using bilingual materials in their English courses and felt that the materials were suitable and easily understood.
Author (s) Details
Dr. Andi Asrifan
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidenreng Rappang, Indonesia.
Universitas Al Asyariah Mandar, Indonesia.
Mohammed Galal Mohammed
Qatar Ministry of Education and Higher Education , Qatar.
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In literature and speech, humour is the quality of being amusing or comic. Because it is considered a common element of human interaction, it is sometimes used to enhance utterances to make them more comfortable. As a result, many scholars from various fields of knowledge, such as linguistics, psychology, and sociology, have paid close attention to it. Many linguists have attempted to define humor, as well as to demonstrate its functions and the factors that enable the humor act to be adequate and interesting. As a result, many theories and approaches have emerged. formulated in order to study humor from various perspectives, including Kant’s (1790) incongruity theory and Morreall’s relief theory . Furthermore, non-observance of Grice’s conversational maxims  can be used to generate humor. As such, the current study aims to pragmatically analyze humor as a strategic means by which participants achieve their goals in interpersonal interaction, particularly in TV talk shows. Piers Morgan Show and Oprah Winfrey Show It also seeks to investigate how participants shift the topic of interaction when attempting to avoid a specific topic by using a humorous style. The study concluded that many factors influence humor in TV talk shows, including the personality of the host and his/her interviewees, the topic of interaction, and the manner in which a character deals with a specific topic.
Author (s) Details
Nawal Fadhil Abbas
College of Education for Women, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
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