Designing Bioclimatic Buildings to Minimize Energy Consumption: A Study on the Role of Education

Environmental pollution caused by over-consumption of conventional forms of energy, with the building sector leading the way, is one of the major issues that humanity is dealing with today, resulting in a change in the climate and nature, as well as a threat to the lives of people, animals, and plants. The realization of the need to reduce energy use has resulted in an effort to improve building energy performance through the use of bioclimatic architecture principles. The goal is to provide thermal comfort for building occupants by taking use of the favorable climatic conditions in each location. Its goal is to use renewable, non-depletable energy sources such as the sun and air. It necessitates, in particular, the commitment of solar radiation and protection from cold winds in the winter and the utilisation of cool winds in the summer, as well as protection from the sun’s scorching rays. In this article, we take into account the fact that, in Greece, sustainability has only lately began to concern the country’s populace and administrations. As a result of the Greeks’ disinterest or ignorance in questions of sustainability, the majority of the country’s building stock is unsustainable, overconsuming structures. The goal of this research is to see how Greece can deal with this negative situation in terms of sustainability by proposing ways to educate students, professionals/engineers, and building users about environmental issues while also emphasising the many benefits of bioclimatic planning for the environment and the economy. The rule, not the exception, should be bioclimatic architecture.

 

Author (S) Details

Sofia Giannarou
Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, 193 Pantazidou Street, 68 200, Orestiada, Greece.

Michael Tsatiris
Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, 193 Pantazidou Street, 68 200, Orestiada, Greece.


View Book :- https://stm.bookpi.org/NAER-V8/article/view/4345

The Investigation of the Effects of Banana Maturity on the Drying Kinetics of Thinly-Sliced Saba (Musa balbasiana) Using Hot-Air Dryer

Banana is one of the most widely grown crops in the Philippines, and one of the most popular varieties is Musa balbasiana, sometimes known as Saba. Saba is perishable due to its high moisture content, and drying is one way to extend its shelf life. It must be consumed within a few days of harvesting due to its short shelf life. Saba’s shelf life can be extended by up to six months if dried to a moisture content of 12 percent. The study focuses on the impact of banana ripeness and selects a mathematical model that best fits the drying kinetics of the fruit. The banana samples, both unripe and ripe Saba, were bone-dried in a hot-air tray drier without any pre-treatment. Three experiments were conducted at temperatures of 40°C, 50°C, and 60°C to provide repeatable results. The treated data for both unripe and ripe Saba best suited the Laplace Transform Model out of the three mathematical models utilised in the study. The time per trial was calculated using Lagrange interpolation; for the three trials, unripe Saba dried at 50°C achieved the optimal moisture content in an average time of 87.5574 minutes, while ripe Saba dried at 40°C obtained the same moisture content in an average time of 88.8619 minutes. The discoloration diminished as the temperature rose, demonstrating that browning was enzymatic. When it comes to determining the drying time, the difference in the amount of moisture that can be removed from Saba is a bigger factor than the temperature.

Author(S) Details

Lola Domnina Pestaño
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Santo Tomas, Philippines. and Research Center for the Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Santo Tomas, Philippines.

John Paul Bautista
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Santo Tomas, Philippines.

Reizl Leguiab
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Santo Tomas, Philippines.

Sean Danielle Puri
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Santo Tomas, Philippines.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NAER-V16/article/view/4063

EEG Bases Emotion Detection Using Deep Learning Algorithm

The use of physiological markers to identify human emotion states is a rapidly emerging area of research in human-computer interaction. Gaming Disorder has become a major topic of concern in recent years, piqueing the curiosity of experts who want to learn more about it. The goal of this study is to use electroencephalography to detect the emotional behaviour of people who play online games on a regular basis (EEG). EEG is a prominent method for investigating addictive behaviours that is low cost and has a good temporal resolution. As a result, the EEG will be a good predictor of the subject’s emotional state. The current study uses the SEED-IV data source to build a model for emotion states, and obtained signals are used to investigate gamming addiction behaviour. The VGG pre-trained model is supplied the spectrogram features. On the SEED-IV database, the trained model has a prediction accuracy of 89.54 percent and a testing accuracy of 78.63 percent. The acquired signals are checked against the trained model, yielding a 75 percent accuracy.

Author(S) Details

S. Thejaswini
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, B M S Institute of Technology & Management, India.

N. Ramesh Babu
Department of Computer Science Engineering, Amruta Institute of Engineering & Management Sciences, India.

K. M. Ravikumar
Oxford College of Engineering, India.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NAER-V16/article/view/4062

Study on Seizure Detection from the Features of EEG Signals

A seizure must be identified in order to support an epileptic patient’s diagnosis and treatment. The goal of this study is to use an EEG signal to automatically detect epileptic episodes in a patient. The EEG signal is proven to be more favourable than other biological signals such as PET, MEG, MRI, and fMRI. The EEG signal that was recorded was first preprocessed. The EEG signal’s features were then determined, and the signal was then classed as seizure or normal based on the calculated features. The highest performing characteristics were chosen from a comparison of features such as Mean, PSE (Power Spectral Entropy), variance, and energy. To confirm a robust feature vector, weighted combinations of these characteristics were obtained. We suggest a weighted mixture of variance and energy (in two specific frequency bands) as a composite characteristic in this research. We established a threshold for this composite feature, using which an EEG signal may be categorised as normal or seizure-like. The recommended feature composition provides up to 96.5 percent accuracy.

Author(S) Details

Anita Patil
Department of Electronics and Tele-Communication, Cummins College of Engineering for Women, Pune, India.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NAER-V16/article/view/4061

Study of FPGA Based Vector Control of Induction Motor

To get the desired response of the sensorless Vector controlled Induction Motor (SVC-IM) by the experimental setup, the controller implementation for the creation of PWM signals is crucial. It is now conceivable, thanks to the tremendous growth of the electronic sector, which includes high-speed digital signal processors (DSPs) and microcontrollers. The various SVC-IM algorithms, notably KF, PI, GA, and PSO, were previously implemented using DSP technologies. As a result, it generates issues with time delay and PWM signal execution, among other things, as the system becomes more sophisticated. As a result, a new technique to addressing the issue of execution time is introduced, namely Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processors, which are currently on the market. In addition, the programming is done in VHDL, a high-speed hardware description language.

Author(S) Details

G. Srinivas
GITAM (Deemed to be University Hyderabad), India.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NAER-V16/article/view/4060

Parametric Analysis and Photo Elastic Experiment of Stress Concentration Factor and Its Mitigation in Rectangular Plate with Opposite V- notches Subjected to In-Plane Loading

Various studies look at flat plates with sharp V-notches that are subjected to axial loads. There have been few attempts to reduce the stress concentration factor caused by V-notches. The current study uses an area reduction method to mitigate the stress distribution caused by a V notch under in-plane static loading in rectangular isotropic plates. For subtended angle, 2 of V notch 60,90,120, and 150, the changes of stress concentration factor (SCF) for varied b/A ratios, depth of V-notch to plate width are established. By inserting auxiliary semi circular notches surrounding the V-notch, the stress concentration factor (SCF) around the primary notch has been reduced. The impact of different geometric parameters on stress reduction is also investigated. A perfect size and placement of auxiliary semicircular notches has been found. Finite element analysis and the two-dimensional photo elasticity method were used in this study. The findings are shown graphically and discussed. The reduction in Stress Concentration Factor observed as a result of the placement of semicircular notches in the region is positive.

Author(S) Details

Shubhrata Nagpal
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Bhilai House, G. E. Road, Durg (C.G.), 491001, India.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NAER-V16/article/view/4059

A Theoretical Model for RF Propagation within Rectangular Enclosures Using Waveguide Concepts

In order to completely appreciate the nature of the danger, properly identifying and managing hazards at work can be a lengthy effort that extends into the domain of uncertainty, probability, and prediction models. As a result, corporations cannot be held liable for knowledge gaps in the training of individuals they hire to guarantee a safe and healthy working environment, particularly where hidden hazards exist.

Authorities tasked with establishing RF (radiofrequency) and microwave exposure standards are particularly concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation at frequencies in the SAR (specific absorption rate) area. Despite the lack of solid proof that non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation causes adverse health consequences other than thermal impacts, every effort should be made to ensure that workers and the general public are sufficiently safeguarded against unwanted radiation exposure. Standards, on the other hand, define exposure limits for free space, plane wave propagation, but they fall short of accumulating data on wave intensities following reflection and diffraction off wall surfaces.

This review looks at a theoretical model for possible energy build-up owing to RF propagation in restricted areas with bigger dimensions and a waveguide design. Silos, tanks, pipes, air-conditioning ducts, tunnels, and operator cabins on board boats are examples of confined spaces. Rf waves reflect off the walls in these confined spaces and mix constructively or destructively with incident waves, resulting in reinforcement or cancellation, respectively. When there is reinforcement, the wave’s intensity for a given distance may exceed the exposure limit for that distance from the source, exposing the worker to higher intensities than the recognised limit and posing a health and safety risk. Waveguide theory and physics concepts have been offered as the building blocks for the model construction in this approach.

Author(S) Details

Ricardo Rodriguez
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago

Winston G. Lewis
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NAER-V16/article/view/4058

Study on Design and Analysis of Ga2O3 Power MOSFETs with Source-field-plated

This work looks at the design and simulation of Ga2O3 power MOSFETs with source-field plating, as well as the breakdown voltage, interface oxide charges, and their relationship to the threshold voltage. A threshold voltage of -50 V is calculated for the device structure considered. This number is equivalent to reported experimental results with a similar device shape and physical parameters, where a simulation assumes an interface oxide charge density of 5 x1013 /cm2. When a channel doping density of 1.5 x 1016 cm-3 is utilised, simulation results show a breakdown voltage of 600 V and a Ron resistance of 40 mm for Ga2O3 n-MOSFETs. These findings are consistent with other researchers’ measurements of electric field breakdown and Ron resistance.

Author(S) Details

H. Fardi
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Colorado, USA.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NAER-V16/article/view/4057

Development of Stilling Basin Model at Zero Depth of Pipe Outlet to Basin Floor: An Advanced Research

The analysis of a new Stilling Basin Model for non-circular pipe outlets with the outlet at zero depth from the basin bottom is presented in this chapter. After testing twenty-four models with various appurtenances such as impact walls, intermediate sills, and end sills, evolution was carried out. The Stilling Basin Model was put to the test for a non-circular pipe exit with a Froude number of 3.85. All models were tested using the identical bed materials, with the tail water depth remaining the same as the typical depth and the test length remaining the same at 45 minutes for all models. Scour parameters were measured after a forty-minute test run, and model performance was assessed by computing the Scouring index. For each test run, the Scour indexes following the end sill were estimated. After testing, it was discovered that a newly developed stilling basin model with appurtenances of a rectangular intermediate sill with a cross section of 0.5 d width and 1 d height, an impact wall with dimensions of 1 d x 2.2 d, and a triangular end sill with a cross section of 1 d width and 1 d height at a basin length of 6.4 d performed better than other tested models with zero depth of pipe outlet from basin floor. In comparison to the USBR VI stilling basin model, the new created Stilling Basin Model is 49 percent more efficient, and the stilling basin length is lowered by 23 percent. Thus, when compared to the USBR VI Stilling Basin Model at zero depth of pipe outlet, this model emerges as the best Stilling Basin Model among all other examined models since it is efficient and affordable.

Author(S) Details

H. L. Tiwari
Civil Engineering Department, MANIT, Bhopal, India.

M. S. Hora
Civil Engineering Department, MANIT, Bhopal, India

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NAER-V16/article/view/4056

Investigating the Adjustment of Punching Process of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) and Polycarbonate/ Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PC/ABS) Cable Ducts using High-speed Video Recordings

Punching the side recesses is one of the procedures in the manufacturing of cable ducts. This approach has already been used to successfully treat polyvinyl chloride (PVC). On the other hand, punching flame-retardant polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC/ABS) cable ducts is difficult. The production of burrs and films has increased. Both diminish the ultimate product’s quality, necessitating an additional deburring operation. This study seeks to visualise and adjust burr and film making using high-speed recordings and a transparent tool. This indicates the first burr as well as the formation of a film. Then, if needed, optimization steps can be established. Analyzing the existing burr and film is false because the returning punch affects them. The present punching techniques for PVC and PC/ABS were examined in order to create optimization procedures. As a result, the process stages in question were given snapshots from the high-speed recordings. This showed when and why film development began, as well as the fact that PVC and PC/ABS shatter in different ways.

Author(S) Details

Sebastian F. Noller
University of Applied Science (HTW) Berlin, Faculty 2: Technology and Life, 12459 Berlin, Germany.

Roland Heiler
University of Applied Science (HTW) Berlin, Faculty 2: Technology and Life, 12459 Berlin, Germany.

Anja Pfennig
University of Applied Science (HTW) Berlin, Faculty 2: Technology and Life, 12459 Berlin, Germany.

View Book:- https://stm.bookpi.org/NAER-V16/article/view/4055