Influence of Geothermal Environment on the Corrosion Fatigue Behaviour of Standard Duplex Stainless Steel X2CrNiMoN22-5-3

High alloyed steels’ lifetime expectancy may be drastically reduced in geothermal environments due to corrosion fatigue. Using a specially built corrosion chamber, the corrosion fatigue (CF) of duplex stainless steel X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 was examined in the Northern German Basin electrolyte at 369 K. Despite the fact that the failure mechanism is unaffected by surface roughness (low scatter ranges technical surface: TN=1:1.35, polished surface: TN=1.1.95), the life expectancy in a simply alternating axial cyclic load to failure was clearly related to surface finish and applied stress amplitude. Specimens with technical surfaces persisted longer (cycles to f) when evaluated at high stress amplitudes (>275 MPa). specimens with polished surfaces (cycles to failure: P50 percent at Sa 300 MPa=1.5×105) than specimens with polished surfaces (cycles to failure: P50 percent at Sa 300 MPa=5×105). When a protective potential was applied, the CF life range increased significantly from 4.7 x 105 (free corrosion potential) to 107 cycles (potential range from USHE = –450 to –900 mV). Horizontal grain attack within corrosion pit cavities, many fatigue cracks, and preferred austenitic phase degeneration were shown by microstructural investigation of the CF damage. Pitting initiates fracture growth at low stress amplitudes, whereas the production of micro cracks causes crack propagation and failure at large stress amplitudes.
 
Author (s) Details

Marcus Wolf

HTW University of Applied Sciences Berlin, 12459 Berlin, Germany and BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany.

Anja Pfennig
HTW University of Applied Sciences Berlin, 12459 Berlin, Germany.

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Drying Process Habanero Chili Using a HybridSolar-Fluidized Bed Dryer in Yucatán, México: Feasibility Analysis

Solar energy was employed to speed up the drying of Habanero peppers. The drying of habanero chilies is a key seasonal product for Mexican growers, but it is both costly and energy-intensive. A feasibility study was conducted to assess the market trend and the best drying conditions for redesigning the Habanero chilli drying process utilising a hybrid solar-electric energy system. The new drying process will be divided into two stages: (a) An open solar dryer was used; (b) a prototype fluidized bed dryer was retrofitted with a low-temperature solar collector for air heating. Habanero chilli was dehydrated from 90% moisture to 5% moisture in 10.3 hours, yielding a high-quality product ready for commercialization. A 50 percent reduction in average drying time was accomplished, as well as a percent reduction in energy consumption in the fluidized bed drier, with an energy savings of 0.52 kg of natural gas per kg of fresh Habanero chilli. To grow the market for Habanero chillies, an innovative sustainable efficient drying technology was developed, which will save % on energy when compared to traditional equipment.
 
Author (s) Details

Elizabeth Cortés Rodríguez

Create, Innovate, Develop, SA de CV, 97204, Yucatán, México.

Isaac Pilatowsky Figueroa
Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, CIICAP, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, México.

Claudia A. Ruiz Mercado
School of Chemical Engineering, University of Yucatán, Yucatán 97203, México.

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Masonry Wall Numerical Simulation Using the Concrete Damage Plasticity Model

The purpose of this study is to look into how the FE (Finite Element) tool may be used to analyse brick walls. Masonry is composed of highly nonlinear materials with varying properties depending on their application. Experimenting on a full-scale masonry wall model is difficult. Its importance in the development of low-rise structures is also overlooked. As if the beam and column were correctly contained and bonded to the wall. It boosts the seismic performance of low-rise structures. The term “energy” refers to the amount of Cracking dissipates the heat, just as it does in low-rise buildings. The rigidity of a building is increased and it can withstand extra weight when a masonry wall is cast monolithically (like restricted masonry) with the column. In this study, the FE tool is used to perform a numerical nonlinear analysis of a wall panel (ABAQUS). The results are compared to prior investigations by other researchers using a Damage Plasticity Model for Concrete (CDP), with the conclusion that the results are good.
 
Author (s) Details

Mr. Suraj D. Bhosale

Civil Engineering Department, Sardar Vallbhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India.

Atul K. Desai
Civil Engineering Department, Sardar Vallbhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India.

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The Development of Software SOLEEC for Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Designing

SOLEEC, a numerical method for designing PTC, is described in this study (parabolic trough collector). The SOLEEC software is split into two parts. The first provides for the measurement of solar resources for a specific area on Earth, and it can be done for a single day of the year, average values for a single month, or monthly averages over the year. When the user selects the Average Values Across the Year option, annual charts such as solar constant, Earth declination, insolation hours, and sunrise and sunset hours are generated. The user can get five distinct designs based on options one and two in the second step, which is the PTC collector designing and assessment. Options three and four, on the other hand, were created to calculate the thermal evaluation for an operational collector for twelve solar radiation values (year) or simply one average value (monthly), respectively. The software is applied for a PTC collector design in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the results suggest that the location has a good solar resource to be exploited as thermal energy, with a maximum value of 585.52 Wm2 in November. In function of the mat, the programme gives the user with thermal metrics such as heat uptake, heat losses, thermal efficiency, and the minimum mass flow to meet the required temperature.
 
Author (s) Details

Dr. Ernesto Enciso-Contreras

Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Tecnológico Av, 55210, Ecatepec de Morelos, Estado de México, México.

Dr. Juan Gabriel Barbosa-Saldaña
SEPI ESIME Zacatenco Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Politécnico Av, 07738, Gustavo A. Madero, Ciudad de México, México.

Dr. José Alfredo Jiménez-Bernal
SEPI ESIME Zacatenco Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Politécnico Av, 07738, Gustavo A. Madero, Ciudad de México, México.

Dra. Claudia del Carmen Gutiérrez-Torres

SEPI ESIME Zacatenco Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Politécnico Av, 07738, Gustavo A. Madero, Ciudad de México, México.

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Experimental Investigation of Characterization of Isotropic Magnetorheological Elastomers

The magnetorheological elastomer is a new form of smart material (MRE). Its dynamic mechanical performances can be controlled by controlling an applied magnetic field. MRE is commonly utilised in semi-active vibration absorbers as a stiffness – adjustable spring. For a perfect vibration control effect, MRE must have a low dynamic damping. This study shows how to make isotropic MREs at room temperature and pressure using a unique method. In the absence of a magnetic field, a variety of MR elastomer samples were created using Sylard’s184 silicone elastomer with un-annealed electrolytic iron power 500 mesh and 15-micron size. Their dynamic properties have been studied, including fractional change in resonance frequency and fractional change in. The effects of iron particles and the applied magnetic field were investigated. This study should also be relevant in the development and preparation of novel MR elastomers.
 
Author (s) Details

Dr. S. R. Kumbhar
Department of Automobile Engineering, Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Rajaramnagar, Maharashtra, India.

Prof. Dr. Subhasis Maji
School of Engineering & Technology (SOET), IGNOU, New Delhi- 110068, India.

Prof. Dr. Bimlesh Kumar
Government Polytechnic, Purnea, and Govt. Poly. Araria, Bihar, India.

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Study on Environmental Impact of Noise Generation Due to Op

In recent years, India has seen a significant increase in wind energy power output. During the power generating process, the functioning of a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) generates two forms of noise: mechanical noise and air cut noise. Noise is defined as any unwelcome sound. Noise pollution by any industry or individual is subject to government regulations. The major goal of this work is to expose the range and impact of noise, as well as its impact on surrounding houses, using a case study technique for a wind farm in India’s southern region. The study collects data on noise levels within and around WTGs and assesses their impact during the day and night. Tamil Nadu is a state in India. To put any wind turbine generator near residences, the study uses both actual (on-site data) and theoretical or standard noise level data stipulated by the Government of India. It also examines critical aspects such as measurement time and distance to assess the effect of noise when comparing multiple WTG ratings at varying distances from them. As a result, it can be concluded that there is no noise pollution to the surrounding society during the day and night operation of WTG ratings of 0.85MW or 2 MW at various locations, and that they are environmentally friendly with noise levels within the acceptable level / zone prescribed by the Government author.
 
Author (s) Details

Dr. D. G. Rajakumar
GM Institute of Technology, NBA Chief Coordinator, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.B.Road, Davangere-577006, India.

M. C. Mallikarjune Gowda
Gamesa Wind Turbine Pvt. Ltd, Vice President, HSE, Siemens Gamesa Renewable Power Pvt Ltd, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

S. U. Suresh Babu
GM Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.B.Road, Davangere-577006, India.

G. K. Mounesh
GM Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.B.Road, Davangere-577006, India.

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Pollutant Absorber Design by Using Condensation System to Minimize Air Pollutant Emissions from Industrial Estates

Depending on the type of fuel utilised and the height of the stack employed, the concentration and distance of pollutants produced by industry vary. The bigger the capacity of the fuel used, the higher the concentration of pollutants released by the industry. In addition, the taller the stack, the further the pollutants are released. Stack modification was done to reduce the concentration and distance of discharged pollutants. A pollution absorber was created using a condensation system and coconut shell charcoal in this investigation. To keep the quality of coconut shell charcoal as a pollutant absorber, It is necessary to employ a condensation system. Research and development approaches were used with the Design for Production (DFP) methodology to attain these goals. To steer the product development process, the DFP approach takes a multilevel systems approach to manufacturing processes. Minimizing emissions occurs in three stages: when pollutants enter the stack, inside the stack, and when pollutants exit the stack. The simulation results demonstrate that the emission concentration is obtained with the same fuel capacity and stack height, with the first absorption decreasing by 22% and the second absorption decreasing by 63%. Because the temperature is still high at that point, only a modest percentage decrease in initial absorption occurs.

Author (s) Details

Prof. Dr. Yayat Ruhiat
Department of Physiscs, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Serang, Indonesia.

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Using Electromagnetics to Map Lateral Fluid Variations in Carbonates in SE Asia

When the underlying strata have a high seismic velocity, such as basalt, salt, and carbonates, hydrocarbon exploration might be problematic. Carbonates make up a large portion of the world’s reservoirs. As a result, lateral mapping of the reservoir is difficult, and developing carbonate reservoirs is costly. To better image the fluid, we propose using the controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach. Magnetotellurics, a passive approach, is widely utilised in Southeast Asia [1], but they are less sensitive to deep subsurface resistivity fluctuations than CSEM. In the 1980s, pioneering work with CSEM was done in Australia and Europe [2], where it was utilised to map resistive reservoirs and carbonates. Since then, equipment and modelling methodologies have vastly improved, and the problem has been tackled in a more cost-effective manner, resulting in a large reduction in exploration costs. We were able to remove near-surface abnormalities and reveal the deep reservoir target and its lateral variations utilising a new differential measurement methodology and a 3-dimensional (3D) anisotropic model derived from well logs and 3D modelling. As a result, we have a cost-effective answer for many carbonate exploration and production issues.

Author (s) Details

K. Strack
KMS Technologies, Houston, Texas, USA.

S. Davydycheva
KMS Technologies, Houston, Texas, USA.

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Weldability Studies of Novel Chromium Free Electrodes with Austenitic Grade Stainless Steels

Because of their strong corrosion resistance and good mechanical qualities, stainless steels are commonly used materials. Welding of stainless steel, on the other hand, produces hexavalent chromium vapours, which are hazardous to welders and operators in the welding area. A unique filler material has been created to minimise these hexavalent vapours, as suggested by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The primary goal of this chapter is to explore the development of chromium-free filler materials for welding austenitic stainless steel grades and to study the weldments’ mechanical and corrosion resistance. This case study contains filler material development as well as microstructure. characterisation, analysis of the effect of welding factors such as current, gas flow rate, and root gap on weldment qualities such as ultimate tensile strength, impact strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance, and Taguchi and Response Surface Methodology optimization of welding parameters (RSM). For an optimal current value of 130A, 11.79litres/min gas flow rate, and 2.33mm root gap, the weldments showed a maximum tensile strength of 324 MPa, a maximum hardness of 209VHN, and a minimum corrosion rate of 1.575e-004mils/year.

Author (s) Details

Koushik Kosanam

Department of Manufacturing Systems Engineering and Management, California State University, Northridge, US.

Dr. J. R. Nataraj
Department of Mechanical, RV College of Engineering, india.

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Recent Study on Speed Control for DC Encoder Motor and Path Optimization in an Automated Guided Vehicle

The automated guided vehicle (AGV) has a wide range of applications in the automotive and logistics industries. To ensure plant stability, the AGV should run at a constant speed. The AGV uses a DC encoder motor driven by a Fuzzy controller and a PID controller to maintain consistent speed. A fuzzy controller and a PID controller are used to achieve the system’s response. The steady-state inaccuracy and overshoot of the system are reduced by the fuzzy logic controller. The best path is chosen using the Dijkstra algorithm. This algorithm determines the shortest path between the source and destination nodes.

Author (s) Details

Madhuri Chavan
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, MESCE, Kuttippuram, India.

Dr. G. Maya
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, MESCE, Kuttippuram, India.

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