Strategies to Reduce the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Mobile Sources on the Orizaba Valley, México

The Orizaba Valley is a Mexican region, located at the geographic center of Veracruz State, having
Orizaba City as the main demographic population surrounded by other municipalities, becoming the
fourth metropolitan populated area of Veracruz State. This region has the third position on economic,
historic and cultural relevance at Veracruz State, just after the Veracruz Port and Xalapa City. It was
one of the main places with a vast economic growing during the Viceroyalty of the New Spain, being
an obligatory passing route and resting place between Veracruz Port and Mexico City.
In this project we estimate the magnitude of the Greenhouse Gas emissions coming from mobile
sources at the Orizaba Valley. It includes the urban region of the municipalities of Ixtaczoquitlan,
Orizaba, Río Blanco, Camerino de Mendoza and Nogales. The collected data was processed
according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology and it was possible to
make the following projections: 1) One baseline scenario and 2) Three scenarios under hypothetical
mitigation strategies that promise to achieve a reduction of GHG emission of 30% from the year 2020
to 2050. Beyond this, also there is a significant reduction in fossil fuels consumption due to the
efficient use of energy. All projections were made by using the Long-range Energy Alternatives
Planning system software.
In addition of the achievement on the GHG emissions reduction goal, it is possible to glimpse an
economic recovery, if and only if, the decision makers of the governments decide to participate in the
international trade of carbon market.

Author(s) Details

Joaquín Pinto-Espinoza
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, TecNM/Instituto Tecnológico de Orizaba, México.

Adán Reyes-Pavón
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, TecNM/Instituto Tecnológico de Orizaba, México.

Angélica M. Bello-Ramírez
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, TecNM/Instituto Tecnológico de Orizaba, México.

Marco A. Benítez-Espíndola
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, TecNM/Instituto Tecnológico de Orizaba, México.

Gustavo Alvarado-Kinnell
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, TecNM/Instituto Tecnológico de Orizaba, México.

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The Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Land Use in Port Harcourt: Nigeria

Land is a natural resource which is a scare commodity. It is therefore important to classify land and
Land Use. The city of Port Harcourt has experienced a lot of changes on Land Uses and Land Cover
which has had an impact on the spatial pattern of the city. This study hopes to identify how the varying climatic changes and elements have affected the spatial pattern of Port Harcourt and to ensure that there is sustainable development. The methodology used was Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing which provided a cost effective and accurate alternative to understanding landscape dynamics. Digital change detection techniques based on multi-temporal and multi-spectral remotely sensed data was also used. Objectives of the Study are to examine the spatial pattern of Port Harcourt between the periods of 1984 –2014. To ascertain how climatic factors have affected the spatial pattern in Port Harcourt. To determine the present state of Land Use and Land Cover in Port Harcourt and how it has been affected by climatic elements. The result of the study showed that there have been climatic deviations in rainfall and temperature values and very obvious changes in the spatial pattern of Land Use and Land Cover between 1984 to 2014. The Built – Up area showed an increase from 16.50% in 1984 to 51.38% in 2014. A lot of development has taken place using up most of the Gallery Forest, Vegetation area and the Water Bodies. Development of Built – Up area needs to be controlled so that all of the vegetation is not used up because the city needs some vegetation to allow the city breath.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Augusta Ayotamuno
Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology (IGST), Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, (RSU), Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5080, Nigeria.

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Comprehensive Study on Soil Water and Nitrogen Balance of Maize Using CERES Maize Model in DSSAT

Simulated studies indicated that early sowing i.e 15th April (D1) predicted highest grain yield during all
the years from 1986-2013. Under irrigated conditions increasing levels of N predicted increased grain
and stover yield from N levels up to 90 kg N ha-1. Under irrigated and mulched conditions increased
level of N predicted increase in maize grain and stover yield upto 120 kg N ha-1. Whereas under unirrigated mulched conditions highest grain and stover yield was predicted at 60 kg N ha-1. Maize yield
was also simulated at different sowing dates and in combination with variable spacings and it was
predicted that under irrigated condition closer spacing 40 cm × 20 cm at 15th April sowing recorded
highest grain and stover yield of maize. Under un-irrigated mulched conditions highest grain yield was
predicted at 30th April sowing with spacing 65 cm × 20 cm. Soil water balance under simulation
studies indicated that potential ET was recorded comparatively higher with early sowing date than late
sowing date under both irrigated un-irrigated mulched conditions. Similar trend was recorded with
respect to transpiration under both irrigated and un-irrigated mulched conditions. Simulated soil
evaporation was more in wider spacing than closer spacing. Similar trend was recorded with regard to
simulated run-off. Predicted nitrate content (final) of irrigated soil decreased where under un-irrigated
mulched conditions 15th April (D1) sowing predicted lowest NO3 leaching than later sowing dates.
Under un-irrigated mulched conditions leached nitrate was nominal. Nitrogen denitrification was
comparatively more under un- irrigated mulched conditions than irrigated condition. It is concluded
that DSSAT v 4.5CERES-Maize model is very robust in predicting the growth and yield of maize as
influenced by agrotechniques and could be used in wider perspective.

Author (s) Details

Bilal Ahmed Lone
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Srinagar, India.

Asma Fayaz

Chandigarh University, India.

Sameera Qayoom
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Srinagar, India.

Zahoor Ahmad Dar
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Srinagar, India.

Sandeep Kumar
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Srinagar, India.

Najmah Andrabi
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Srinagar, India.

Mehreen Manzoor
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Srinagar, India.

Faisal Rasool
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Srinagar, India.

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Influence of Temperature and Humidity on the Physiological Indices of Stress in the Obudu Mountain Landscape Environment, Nigeria: Global Perspectives

Stress can be viewed in terms of the contribution of urbanization, lifestyle changes and the
ameliorating potential of nature related environments. This study explored the influence of
temperature and humidity of the mountain landscape environment on the physiological indices of
individuals. 38 respondents formed a single within-group study sample. Measures of Physiological
indices including blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate as well as ambient environment
conditions were carried out both at the urban and mountain landscape environments. Findings imply
that temperature and humidity are aspects of the mountain landscape environment conditions that
combine to influence human physiological wellbeing. Therefore, Individuals confronted with many
sources of stress from daily engagements in urban environments can obtain short term relief in the
mountain landscape environment.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Henry Ojobo
Department of Architecture, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.

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Decolorization of Biologically Treated Effluents of Waste Molasses and Piggery Wastewater by Fenton Reaction

Waste molasses was diluted to 10%, coagulated with 800 mg/L polyaluminum chloride, and then
treated in an activated sludge sequence batch reactor with a total organic carbon (TOC) loading of 0.2
kg/kg per day. Sodium hypochlorite and 3 mmol of iron sulfate solution were added to the supernatant
in a 1:1 molar ratio. As a result, the treated water had a chromaticity of 14. Biologically treated
livestock wastewater was treated in a continuous Fenton experiment for 6 h using hydrogen peroxide
and iron powder. From an initial color loading of 653, the treated water was significantly decolorized to

Author(s) Details

Hiroyuki Harada
Department of Environmental Science, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Nanatuka-machi 5562, Shobara-shi, 727-0023, Hiroshima, Japan.

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Remediation Rates of Microbes in Polluted Crude Oil Soil

Removal rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Content (TPHC) of a crude oil polluted land was
investigated with field experimental data generated from the Research Farm soil at the Federal
University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The artificially polluted soil using crude oil –
bonny light – with specific gravity of 0.8323 was analyzed. The petroleum contaminant present in the
laboratory soil was 230 mg per kilogram of soil. The other treatment variables used include: Inorganic
fertilizer -FZ (NPK 20:10:10), poultry manure -MP, cow dung -CD and a mixture of the three (ie FZ,
PM & CD) in equal proportion. In addition, natural treatment was allowed to occur as the control
experiment. However, fungi as well as bacteria played an important role in the degradation of
petroleum hydrocarbon. The identified crude oil degrading Fungi are Penicillium notatum, Mucor spp,
Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillum caseicolum with P. notatum and P. caseicolum (penicillum spp) as
the strongest fungi degraders. On the other hand, the identified degrading Bacteria are Pseudomonas
and Bacillus subtilis. These can therefore be isolated and cultured and then employed on
remediation sites either as indigenous or foreign degrading microbes in the engineering of
bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil using the best engineering techniques. The treatment with
mixture of treatment variables proved to be a better option from the results obtained with 82.38 mg/kg
after 9 weeks of remediation followed by fertilizer, 83.13 mg/kg and 86.75 mg/kg for poultry manure.
Cow dung had 105.5 mg/kg and the control had least with 204.50 mg/kg.

Author (s) Details

B. C. Okoro
Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

O. A. Nwadike
Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Nigeria.

J.C. Agunwamba

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

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Assessing the Impact of Seasonality on Cross River Gorilla Nest Construction at Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary, North-West Cameroon: An Advanced Study

The Cross River gorilla, one of the most endangered subspecies of western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) is
endemic to 12 to 14 sites at the Cameroon-Nigeria border, where it is facing enormous threats from
habitat loss, bush meat trade and minor climate changes (seasonal changes). In a strive to reduce the
enormous stressors on this subspecies, this study assesses the impact of seasonality on nest
construction by Cross River gorillas in the Kagwene Gorilla Sanctuary with the objective of evaluating
the impact of seasonal changes on the nest construction. To achieve this goal, the study employed a
hunter guided survey team, as well as guides/trackers of the Wildlife Conservation Society. This team
regularly tracks and searches the forest for gorilla signs using vegetation trails, food prints, dung, and
feeding signs which are subsequently followed onwards to the nesting site. Data were collected from
January to December 2014. A total of 268 fresh gorilla nest sites were observed containing 1813
individual nests. Out of the 1813 nests recorded, 39.6% (N=718) of the nests were on the ground
and 60.4% (N=1095) on trees. The frequency of each nest type varied significantly among months
(P =0.4433). There was a significant effect of season on nest category. Ground categories (bare
earth, herbaceous, woody and mixed) were more common in the dry season (74.9%) than in the wet
season (25.1%). On the other hand, tree nests were more common in the wet season (77.4%) than in
the dry season (22.6%). Mean nest diameter for the two seasons (dry and wet) was 1.1 and 1.3 m,
respectively. The mean nest height was 12.5 m for both seasons. Cross River gorillas showed higher
preferences for tree nests within the height class interval of 11 to 15 m (49.6%). The distribution of
nests across gradient of altitudes did not vary significantly between seasons (P>0.05), and nests were
most common on steep slopes (n=810). Seasonality did not significantly affect the choice of slope
(P>0.05). There was a significant difference in the habitat types (primary forest, light gap, secondary
forest and rock) used for nesting, with primary forest being most preferred. Nest site distribution was
predominant in the northern section of the sanctuary. This study reveals that, both temperature and
rainfall play an important role in nest construction by Cross River gorilla at Kagwene.

Author (s) Details

Nkwatoh Athanasius Fuashi
Department of Environmental Science, University of Buea, Cameroon.

Akenji Lesly Nji
Wildlife Conservation Society, Takamanda-Mone Landscape Project, Cameroon.

Melle Maurice Ekane
Department of Environmental Science, University of Buea, Cameroon.

Andrew Fowler
Wildlife Conservation Society, Takamanda-Mone Landscape Project, Cameroon.

Romanus Ikfuingei
World Wide Fund for Nature, Mount Cameroon National Park, Cameroon.

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Air Entrainment Vortex Occurrence at Intakes

Water depths in intake structures that are high, increased vortex occurrences. The study showed
decay response function of pumps affect vortex occurrences. Relationship between response function
and time duration of air-entraining vortex occurrence was established. Relationship showed an
increased head loss if air-entraining vortex duration increased. Representation showed pump
response function will peak and fall at specific change in flow rates.

Author(s) Details

B. C. Okoro
Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

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A Geoelectrical Investigation of Groundwater Potentials in Dorowa and Its Environs, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria: Recent Study

A geoelectrical investigation for potable groundwater potentials in Dorowa and its environs, Plateau
State, North Central Nigeria has been carried out. The area is part of Jos-Bukuru Younger Granite
Complex and is underlain by seven main rock types namely: Vom Microgranite (Vm), Rayfield Gona
Biotite Granite (RGB), Ngell Biotite Granite (NGB), Vom Hornblende Biotite Granite (VHB), Shen
Hornblende – Fayalite Granite (SHF), Porphyritic Biotite Granite (PBG) and Jos Biotite Granite (JBG).
Interpretation of field structures and GIS data reveal lineaments trending NW-SE and NE-SW. Vertical
electrical soundings conducted within Ngell biotite granite reveals that the area is underlain by three
geoelectric layers. The top layer is mainly made up of laterite at depth between 0 – 5 m with resistivity
values ranging from 79 – 202 Ωm, the second layer is made up of weathered granite at depth
between 3 – 16 m with resistivity between 46 – 396 Ωm and the third layer is made up of slightly
weathered to fresh granite at depths greater than 4 m with resistivity greater than 113 Ωm. The zones
of medium groundwater potential vary from 15 -16 m. Weathering depth in areas of fair water
potentials varies from 13 m – 14 m with the best water potentials on VES 10 and VES 6. Zones of low
groundwater potentials cover most part of the study area at depth less than 12 m.

Author(s) Details

M. O. Lekdukun
Department of Earth Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria.

F. A. Akpah
Department of Earth Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria.

F. X. O. Ugodulunwa
Department of Geology and Mining, University of Jos, Nigeria.

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Global Warming, Carbon Dioxide, and Sea Level Predictions Based on Paleoclimatology

Climate articles and publications continue to erroneously suggest a one and a half (1.5°C) to two
degrees (2°C) Celsius as an achievable global limit to climate change [1]. A comprehensive review
has found that observationally informed projections of climate science underlying climate change offer
a different outlook of five to six-degree (5-6°C) increase as “most accurate” with regard to present
trends, climate history and models, yielding the most likely outcome for 2100 [2]. A significant
causative triad from 1950 to the present has been identified: The tripling (3x) of world population; the
quadrupling (4x) of carbon emissions; and the quintupling (5x) of energy consumption. This paper
presents a quantitative, linear global temperature link to carbon dioxide levels, which has a short
temporal feedback loop. The Vostok ice core temperature and CO2 values for the past 420,000 years,
with sea level estimates have produced “Hansen’s Graph” [3]. Analysis results in an equation for
global average temperature change and an indebted sea level rise, from any CO2 change. The best

performing climate change models and observational analysis project more warming than the

averagemodel often relied upon [4]. World atmosphere, temperature, and sea level trends for 2100

andbeyond are examined. A CO2 experimental analysis proves its dramatic heat-entrapment versus

air which relates to the global atmospheric system. Policy-relevant climate adaptation, including carbon

capture, positive individual action, zero and negative emissions are reviewed, including Hansen (1988) projections.

Author(s) Details

Thomas F. Valone,
Integrity Research Institute, Beltsville Maryland, USA.

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