Characterization of Mesophilic Biodigestion of Cow Dung and Mango Peel in Relation to Bioenergy Batch Study

The purpose of this study was to determine the anaerobic biodegradability potential of mango processing solid waste as well as its methane potential (measured as methane yield) using different mass ratios of mango peel and cow dung. Fruit and vegetable wastes are highly biodegradable wastes that could be used to generate biogas through a biological process. At 8% TS and a ratio of 1:10, a maximum methane yield of 3.581 m3 CH4 / Kg VS degraded was obtained. The inclusion of cow Dung accelerated biogas production and increased methane productivity. The reductions in volatile solids ranged from 96 to 98 percent across the entire BMP test. The specific gas production for mango peel was higher for the 1:10 ratio at 8% TS (5.3926 m3 biogas / Kg VS added and 5.5093 m3 biogas / Kg VS des) than for the 1:2 ratio at 4% TS (2.3422 m3 biogas / Kg VS added and 2.4535 m3 biogas / Kg VS des). As a result, when compared to other values, the mango peel’s specific gas production, The codigestion with cow dung for the 1:10 at 8% TS was greater. This result was compared to the ability of MP and cow dung to digest anaerobically on their own. The organic waste from mango peels is composed of easily biodegradable organic materials, which contributed to a higher biogas yield.

Author (s) Details

Dr. S. Anhuradha
Department of Chemical Engineering, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Application of a Deterministic Distributed Hydrological Model for Estimating Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Côte d’Ivoire UsingRCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 Scenarios: Case of the Aghien Lagoon

The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of climate change on the quantitative availability of the Aghien lagoon, which is located in the northwestern district of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. In the first step, the semi-distributed SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tools)-based physical model [1] was calibrated and validated at the monthly time step in the Mé watershed, where flow rate data are available, from 1960 to 1981. SWAT was then used on the ungauged watershed of the Aghien lagoon, which poses significant challenges for the Abidjan population’s drinking water supply. In a subsequent step, the delta method was used to correct the gross outputs (precipitation, temperatures) of six climate models from the CORDEX-Africa project under the “Representative Concentration Pathways” (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) scenarios. These corrected outputs were used as input to the SWAT model to project the impact of climate change on the flow of the Aghien lagoon for the time periods 2040 (2035-2056), 2060 (2057-2078), and 2080. (2079-2100). The projections made on these various Over the period 1960-1981, horizons were compared to simulated flow. The results show that the annual flow of the Aghien lagoon has decreased significantly when compared to the reference period (1960- 1981). Under the medium assumption (RCP 4.5), the models predict an average decrease in annual discharge of nearly 10%. The average annual discharge should fall by more than 17% under the pessimistic hypothesis (RCP 8.5). In both RCP scenarios, monthly flows in August and September would increase by more than 80%, while monthly flows in October and November would increase by more than 20%.

Author (s) Details

Wa Kouakou Charles N’Dri
Laboratory of Sciences and Techniques of Water and Environment, Felix Houphouet-Boigny University of Cocody-Abidjan,Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and HSM, University of Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France.

Séverin Pistre
HSM, University of Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France.

Jean Patrice Jourda
Laboratory of Sciences and Techniques of Water and Environment, Felix Houphouet-Boigny University of Cocody-Abidjan, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Kan Jean Kouamé
Laboratory of Sciences and Techniques of Water and Environment, Felix Houphouet-Boigny University of Cocody-Abidjan, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Presence of Strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus Detected in Drinking Water in Lalo, Benin: Assessment of Their Sensitivity to Commonly-Used Antibiotics

Benin has a high coverage rate of improved water sources. However, the vast majority of the population does not have access to safe drinking water at home. In the absence of a home piping system, the population devises methods to ensure that drinking water is available at home. As a result, water is extracted from its source, transported, and stored. This strategy is not without consequences because it favors microbiological contamination of the water. Unfortunately, the majority of antibiotics are resistant to bacteria that indicate fecal contamination. In terms of drinking water, fecal contamination indicator bacteria such as E. coli and enterococci are now antibiotic resistant; as a result, several infections can no longer be effectively treated. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics against the germs responsible for microbiological contamination of drinking water in the district of Ahomadégbé, municipality of Lalo, Benin. Antibiotic efficacy was tested on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from thirty-five (35) drinking water samples. In Escherichia coli strains, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, gentamicin, imipenem, and pristinamycin showed complete sensitivity. Isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains, on the other hand, were Cephalosporin resistant. Cyclins and Macrolides are resistant to Pristinamycin (Streptogramins). Most common antibiotics are not effective against strains of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. To reduce the risk of infection in populations and to limit the spread of microbial resistance to antibiotics that can still act on these strains, it is critical to educate people about good hygiene practices, which are the most effective ways to reduce the risk of infection.

Author (s) Details

Roch Christian Johnson
Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development (CIFRED), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

Gratien Boni
Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development (CIFRED), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

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Analysis of Microbiological Quality of Drinking Water in Lalo Commune, Benin (West Africa)

Although drinking water is widely available in Benin, its quality poses a public health concern. Several artesian wells can be found in the district of Ahomadégbé in the commune of Lalo. Unfortunately, anthropogenic factors have a negative impact on the quality of drinking water in this area. The purpose of this study is to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in the Ahomadégbé district and to reevaluate household water treatment methods used by the local population. To achieve these objectives Thirty-five water samples were collected at water collection points, along the water transportation system, and from water storage facilities, and microbiological parameters were measured. The qualitative nature of the research allowed for in-depth discussions with key interlocutors about endogenous techniques for treating water at home. The results analysis revealed a high level of microbiological pollution of drinking water in this district, particularly during the water transportation and storage stages, where microbiological pollution exceeds World Health Organization standards. Locals are familiar with a variety of household water treatment methods. However, due to their ineffective application, they continue to be less effective. Aside from improving the quality of the drinking water resource, it is critical to implement interventions relating to water treatment methods in local households.

Author (s) Details

Roch Christian Johnson

Laboratory of Hygiene, Sanitation, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development, University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Cotonou, Benin.

Gratien Boni
Laboratory of Hygiene, Sanitation, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development, University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Cotonou, Benin.

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Behaviors, Knowledge and Practices of the Population of Ahomadégbé’s District (Municipality of Lalo) in Benin in Connection of Home Water Treatment Methods

Water is an essential resource for life. Access to improved water sources for households in Benin’s district of Ahomadégbé is not a problem because a large portion of the population has access to water. People, on the other hand, consume low-quality water as a result of microbiological contamination during transportation and storage. The goal of this study is to examine the behavior, Knowledge and practices of households relating to drinking water treatment methods in the district of Ahomadégbé, with the goal of proposing appropriate measures to improve drinking water quality. The questionnaire was used to approach 377 residents individually as part of this research, and 82 participants were organized into eight focus groups to understand the population’s behavior, knowledge, and practices. According to the findings, more than 65 percent of the borough’s population is aware of a specific process for treating water at home. However, they are limited in their use of these various water treatment methods, with only 6.1 percent of the population using at least one home water treatment method, even if this is not always appropriated. Alum (KAl(SO4)212 H2O, chemical decantation method), filtration on tissues, and boiling disinfection were the water treatment methods used by residents. Other methods of water treatment at home, such as the use of oil and cresol, are used by the populace, but they are ineffective. The general public is aware of water contamination during transportation and storage. However, the majority of residents polled do not treat their water before drinking it, and those who do use ineffective methods. As a result, households must be educated on effective and appropriate water treatment methods for their well-being.

Author (s) Details

Roch Christian Johnson

Laboratory of Hygiene, Sanitation, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development (CIFRED), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Cotonou, Benin.

Gratien Boni
Laboratory of Hygiene, Sanitation, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development (CIFRED), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Cotonou, Benin.

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Quality of Drinking Water in Benin (West Africa): Analysis of the Potential Use of the “Songhaï” Ceramic Filter

Benin’s public health issues stem from a variety of sources. Domestic water plays an important role in households, but it is contaminated by biological and physicochemical pollutants. Household water purification devices, such as ceramic filters, can be used as a solution. “Filtre Songha” is a ceramic filter that is simple and easy to use and is sold in Benin. The purpose of this research is to examine the use of the “Filtre Songha” in the treatment of domestic water in a periurban area of Porto-Novo (Benin). A collective well and a pond in Porto-5th Novo’s district were used to collect samples. Before and after filtration, physicochemical and bacteriological parameters were measured. The results showed that the use of filters resulted in a 97.5 percent reduction in total coliform in well water and a 99.05 percent reduction in water from the lagoon. In both cases, the reduction in Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci is 100 percent. Given the device’s dependability and accessibility as a result of its lifetime use, this device can be recommended to households for drinking water, particularly for children under the age of five, who are the most vulnerable to water-borne diseases. At the conclusion of this study, it is discovered that using the “Filtre Songha” allows for a significant improvement in the microbiological properties of water. Later research is required to improve the filtration speed of the “Filtre Song-ha.” More research is needed to improve the filtration time of this device.

Author (s) Details

Roch Christian Johnson
Laboratory of Hygiene, Sanitation, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development, University of Abomey-Calavi (CIFRED-UAC), Cotonou, Benin.

Gratien Boni
Laboratory of Hygiene, Sanitation, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development, University of Abomey-Calavi (CIFRED-UAC), Cotonou, Benin.

Cyriaque Degbey
Regional Institute of Public Health, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.

Karel Togbe
Laboratory of Hygiene, Sanitation, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development, University of Abomey-Calavi (CIFRED-UAC), Cotonou, Benin.

Hermione Amoukpo
Laboratory of Hygiene, Sanitation, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development, University of Abomey-Calavi (CIFRED-UAC), Cotonou, Benin.

Michel Boko
Laboratory of Hygiene, Sanitation, Toxicology and Environmental Health, Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for the Sustainable Development, University of Abomey-Calavi (CIFRED-UAC), Cotonou, Benin.

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The Population Dynamics of the Luangwa (Zambia) Common Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) during the Period 1952 – 2015

The population size of hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus 1758) in Zambia’s Luangwa valley was previously assessed for the period 1976-2008 and repeated 2009-2015, and it was discovered to have reached and maintained a carrying capacity K of 6000 individuals over a 165 km river stretch. The riverbank count method, as used in previous studies, was used in this study, which spanned the years 2009 to 2015. In 1976, a 165-kilometer stretch of land was set aside for intensive population monitoring using the same survey methods. The results of this monitoring revealed that the population experienced high densities of up to 42 hippopotami/km between 1976 and 2008. The method entailed counting individuals and locating hippopotamus schools using GPS. During the period 2009-2015, the population oscillated in irregular cycles above and below K of 6000, remaining within the carrying capacity band of 3000 people are involved. The highest population size was 7,862 hippopotami with a density of 48/km in 2015, and the lowest population size was 4501 hippopotami with a density of 27/km in 1978. Between 1976 and 2008, and 2009 and 2015, the population fluctuated between 5000 and 8000 people, indicating that the population had reached its asymptote. Plot of population size from 1976 to 2015 using a population model that was a hybrid of less accurate regulation and a stable limit cycle. Environmental resistance was blamed for the slowing of population growth at K and the oscillations. More research is needed to determine the impact of climate change on population size and density fluctuations in order to determine whether K will rise or fall.

Author (s) Details

Chansa Chomba

School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mulungushi University, Kabwe, Zambia

Twakundine Simpamba
Department of Research, Chinzombo Research Centre, Mfuwe, Zambia.

Vincent Nyirenda
Department of Research, Planning, Information and Veterinary Services, Chilanga, Zambia.

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Game Ranching: A Proven Sustainable Land Use Option and Economic Incentive for Biodiversity Conservation in Zambia

Up until the end of 2012/early 2013, the ten provinces of Zambia were surveyed to determine the number and size of game ranches located in these areas. There are three types of game ranches: 1) 500 hectares as a game ranch proper, 2) 50 – 500 hectares as a game farm, and 3) 50 hectares as an ornamental. For the period 1980-2012, a total of 200 game ranches housing large mammals ranging in size from common duiker to eland were recorded, with a growth rate of 6 per year. The number of ornamental 98 (49%) ranches was the highest; large game ranches were 75 (38%) and game farms were the lowest (27%). (14 percent ). Thirty-seven large mammal species were identified, with the impala topping the list with 21,000 individuals (34 percent ). It was discovered that, with the exception of Luapula, none of the ten provinces had any game ranches, despite being largely rural with low population densities. The provinces with the most were Lusaka and Kabwe. 71 percent (36 percent), Southern 59 percent (30 percent), Central 31 percent (16 percent), Copperbelt 19 percent (10 percent), Eastern and Northwestern 9 percent (4.5 percent each), and Muchinga was the least with 2 percent (1 percent ). The rapid increase in the number of ornamental categories is primarily due to the increased development of tourist lodging facilities and high-end residential properties. This expansion provides an opportunity to convert abandoned farmlands that are no longer useful for agriculture due to loss of fertility and other factors to game ranching schemes. a variety of other types of land degradation Likewise, parcels of land with natural ecological constraints should be considered for such schemes. Because human population density in Zambia is still low (17/km2 in 2012), the game ranching sector has the potential to grow. To achieve good growth rates in each province, technical information and services should be made available. Ranching could improve carbon sequestration, which is important in reducing carbon emissions and other greenhouse gases.

Author (s) Details

Chansa Chomba

School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Disaster Management Training Centre, Mulungushi University, Kabwe, Zambia.

Chimbola Obias
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Mulungushi University, Kabwe, Zambia.

Vincent Nyirenda
School of Natural Resources, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia.

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A Detailed Study: Does the Luangwa Hippo Population Size and Density Distribution Vary between Upper and Lower Study Blocks? What Are the Management Implications of Such Distribution Pattern?

The distribution of the common hippopotamus was studied along a 165-kilometer stretch of the Luangwa River in eastern Zambia. Population growth and decline cause oscillations that have persisted for the last 40 years (1976-2015). The research area was divided into upper (A-D) and lower (E-H) study blocks. Between 1976 and 2015, population data revealed a significant difference in the pattern of density distribution between upper and lower study blocks. Upper blocks had a higher density of 41/km than lower blocks, which had a density of 29/km. The length of the study blocks and mortality were discounted because density was used to determine the distribution pattern and mortality was applied to both river segments and was insignificant. These findings suggest that higher hippopotamus density was associated with higher primary production in each study block as influenced by river geomorphologic features such as river bends and confluences. The current study also discovered that hippopotamus pasture was primarily limited to the alluvial belt, which contained vast grasslands in some places, such as the Nsefu Plains in the upper river segment. Additional research is needed to look into other factors that may have interacted with food (above ground grass biomass) and river meander features to separate upper and lower blocks.

Author (s) Details

Chansa Chomba

School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Disaster Management Training Centre, Mulungushi University, Kabwe, Zambia.

Twakundine Simpamba
Department of Research, Zambia Wildlife Authority, Chilanga, Zambia.

George Kampamba
Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia.

Vincent Nyirenda
Department of Research, Zambia Wildlife Authority, Chilanga, Zambia.

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An Advanced Study on the Impact of Varying Degrees of Underground Accidental Explosions on Underground Pipes by Simulation

The detonation of solid, liquid, or gas explosive materials stored beneath the ground surface causes underground accidental explosions. Underground explosions can occur in both sand and undrained clay, with varying degrees of impact on underground structures. The effects of varying degrees of underground accidental explosions on underground pipes were studied using the ABAQUS numerical code in this study. Pipes buried at various depths below the ground surface in loose sand, dense sand, and undrained clay were modeled. Several researchers’ discoveries about material properties were used. Materials for pipes and soil were restricted to linear, elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic properties. Displacement, pressure, mises, stress, and strain were measured at the crown, invert, and spring-line of vertically and horizontally buried underground pipes. The findings revealed that, regardless of the ground media, displacement increases linearly as the loading wave velocity increases, whereas clay soil (i.e. undrained clay) is problematic. Even though the results vary widely due to dilations and compressions caused by the transient stress pulse of the compression wave, the observed parameters increase as the loading wave velocity increases. This research has shown that higher loading wave velocity results in higher displacement, which in turn results in higher induced moment and stress when multiplied by the corresponding distances. As a result, accidental explosion resistant evaluation of underground installations such as pipes is required in order to have an optimal design of underground structures such as pipes that can withstand the effects of underground accidental explosions.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Akinola Johnson Olarewaju
Civil Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria.

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